Homicides have been one of the most causes of decease in the United States, when compared to other causes of mortality. Homicide is when one homo being causes the decease of another human being through the act of killing. The thing about homicides is that it is non merely the victim affected by the offense, but everyone else environing the victim and wrongdoer. Harmonizing to Lester ( 2002 ) , there was a diminution in the figure of homicides that resulted with one victim, while there was an addition in the figure of homicides with two victims. Lester’s determination was based off of informations collected from two decennaries, from 1976 to 1996 ( 2002 ) .

Adverse Consequences

When a homicide is committed, it impacts the whole society, non merely the victim. The victim’s household, the offender’s household, and the community environing the incident are all affected by the offense in one manner or another. Sharkey, Tirado-Strayer, Papachristos, and Raver ( 2012 ) conducted a survey on the effects local force have on children’s attending and impulse control. Harmonizing to Sharkey et Al ( 2012 ) , sing force as a kid can do high degrees of emphasis, which will so do negative effects in their academic public presentation, show of emotions, and how they socially interact with the society around them. The survey showed that homicides had a strong consequence on student’s attending and unprompted control ( Sharkey et al. , 2012 ) . Sharkey et Al ( 2012 ) found that the children’s attending and impulse control declined more and more as a homicide occurred closer to their place.

Harmonizing to Asaro ( 2001 ) as stated by Redmond ( 1989 ) there are at least 10 relations, non including important others, which are left behind to mourn the loss of a homicide victim. The 1s left behind are considered as co-victims of the homicide ( Asaro, 2001 ) . Asaro ( 2001 ) says that victim’s households do non merely have to cover with the sudden loss of their loved one, but with the other issues that result from that loss. The homicide subsisters, the household members and important others of the victim ( s ) , frequently face fiscal barriers and unemployment as they are invariably go toing tribunal proceedings ( Asaro, 2001 ) . Medical measures for seeking to handle and salvage the life of the homicide victim will fall on the homicide subsisters, who are besides enduring from the loss of the victim’s income, if the victim financially supported those subsisters ( Asaro, 2001 ) .

In add-on to covering with the loss and fiscal issues that may originate as a consequence, homicide subsisters besides go through a ton of emotions. Asaro ( 2001 ) states that many household members go through a phase of faulting themselves for the victim’s decease. They besides stress over all the inside informations refering the slaying and some frequently feel the desire for retaliation ( Asaro, 2001 ) . Homicide subsisters can experience re-victimized as they go through the legal proceedings of the tribunal and trade with the invasion of the media ( Asaro, 2001 ) . The media makes it difficult for household members to acquire off from the incident, as the victim’s image and inside informations of the slaying are frequently found in newspapers, societal media sites, and on the intelligence ( Asaro, 2001 ) . Family members besides have to cover with cases where the victim’s liquidator is non found guilty, or supplication deals for less clip than what the household feel they deserve ( Asaro, 2001 ) . Harmonizing to Asaro ( 2001 ) , homicide subsisters are at hazard of developing posttraumatic emphasis upset ( PTSD ) and comorbidity. McDevitt-Murphy, Neimeyer, Burke, and Williams ( 2012 ) besides found a nexus between homicide subsisters developing instances of PTSD and comorbidity. McDevitt-Murphy ( 2012 ) found that out of 54 of their participants, 10 screened positive for PTSD and depression.

Estimates of the extent of the job

Harmonizing to the Federal Bureau of Investigation ( FBI ) ( 2014 ) , there were a little more than 14 thousand slayings in the state in 2013. Out of 100,000 people, there were about 5 slayings ( FBI, 2014 ) . 44 per centum of the reported slayings occurred in the South ( FBI, 2014 ) . While the FBI ( 2014 ) suggests that the per centum of slayings for 2013 decreased from the 2012 estimation, the statistics does non include the sum of co-victims from those slayings. As I stated above, harmonizing to Asaro ( 2001 ) and as stated by Redmond ( 1989 ) there are at least 10 relations, non including important others, which are left behind to mourn the loss of a homicide victim.

Limitation/Weaknesses of the estimations of the job

While the survey conducted by Sharkey et Al ( 2012 ) , showed the effects of homicides and how they negatively affect kids, the survey besides contained many restrictions. Restrictions included the little sample size of the population studied ( lone pupils at certain schools ) , the country in which the survey was done, and the types of effects the survey measured. Sharkey et Al ( 2012 ) suggests that the biggest restriction of the survey is the fact that it did non mensurate the long term effects of homicides on kids, merely the short-run 1s as the kids were tested merely a few yearss after the homicide occurred. Another restriction is that certain kids were tested a few yearss after the homicide occurred, which others may hold been tested a hebdomad after the incident. The inside informations of the homicide were non included in the survey and that could hold played a factor because some could hold been worse than others, such as there being more than one victim. The consequences of this survey could non be used to do generalisations of the manner homicides affect kids all over the U.S or people in general.

Harmonizing to Wadsworth and Roberts ( 2008 ) , The Uniform Crime Report ( UCR ) suffers from a big sum of losing informations. This occurs from dark figures of offenses, which are offenses that go unreported ( Wadsworth & A ; Roberts, 2008 ) . Wadsworth and Roberts ( 2008 ) suggests that the UCR does non include informations on homicides that are unsolved, as they must be solved to include them into the monthly FBI information aggregation. Law enforcement bureaus are asked to direct informations to the FBI for the intent of the UCR, but because they are non required to make so, many bureaus fail to direct in their informations ( FBI, 2014 ) .

Mentions

Asaro, M. R. ( 2001 ) . Working With Adult Homicide Survivors, Part I: Impact and Sequelae of Murder.Positions In Psychiatric Care,37( 3 ) , 95-101.

Lester, D. ( 2002 ) . Tendencies in mass slaying.Psychological Reports,90( 3, Pt2 ) , 1122. doi:10.2466/PR0.90.4.1122-1122

McDevitt-Murphy, M. E. , Neimeyer, R. A. , Burke, L. A. , Williams, J. L. , & A ; Lawson, K. ( 2012 ) . The toll of traumatic loss in African Americans bereaved by homicide.Psychological Injury: Theory, Research, Practice, And Policy,4( 3 ) , 303-311. doi:10.1037/a0024911

Redmond, L.M. ( 1989 ) .Surviving: When person you love was murdered. clearwater, FL: Psychological Consultation and Educational Services, Inc

Sharkey, P. T. , Tirado-Strayer, N. , Papachristos, A. V. , & A ; Raver, C. C. ( 2012 ) . The Effect of Local Violence on Children ‘s Attention and Impulse Control.American Journal Of Public Health,102( 12 ) , 2287-2293. doi:10.2105/AJPH.2012.300789

U.S. Department of Justice, Federal Bureau of Investigation. ( 2014 ) . Crime in the United States:Expanded homicide informations. Retrieved from: hypertext transfer protocol: //www.fbi.gov/about-us/cjis/ucr/crime-in-the-u.s/2013/crime-in-the-u.s.-2013/violent-crime/murder-topic-page/murdermain_final

WADSWORTH, T. , & A ; ROBERTS, J. M. ( 2008 ) . WHEN MISSING DATA ARE NOT MISSING: A New Approach TO EVALUATING SUPPLEMENTAL HOMICIDE REPORT IMPUTATION STRATEGIES.Criminology,46( 4 ) , 841-870. doi:10.1111/j.1745-9125.2008.00129.x