Foreign direct investing plays an of import function in Indias economic growing. It curbs inflationary force per unit areas. FDI in retailing leads non merely to a greater assortment of merchandises for sale and increased consumer pick, but besides penetrate deep into the backwoods of Indian economic activity and make much to better the state ‘s “ shunned sectors. FDI in the retail sector can spread out markets by cut downing dealing and transmutation costs of concern through acceptance of advanced supply concatenation and benefit consumers, and providers ( husbandmans ) . This besides can ensue in net additions in employment at the aggregative degree. This paper discusses the reforms in FDI in retail sector both in individual and multiple trade names.

Key words-FDI, Retail, Single Brand, Multiple Brand


Liberalization of trade policies during the last one and half decennary has led India to go an investing friendly state. Foreign direct investing ( FDI ) in this state assumed critical importance in the context of this liberalisation. However, in the initial phase of liberalisation, FDI was centred on the urban fabrication sectors because of its civic substructure, labour handiness, flexible revenue enhancement mechanism etc. The retail industry in India is the 2nd largest employer with an estimated 35 million people engaged by the industry. There has been opening of Indian economic system to foreign organisation for foreign direct investing through organized retail.

The Union Government made a major policy proclamation allowing Foreign Direct Investment ( FDI ) in its retail sector. The moneymaking Indian retail market, presently dominated by domestic participants will now be unfastened to investing from foreign participants, who have been eyeing the burgeoning Indian retail sector for some clip now.

Under the new policy, the authorities has announced FDI of 51 per cent for the multi-brand retail merchants that are interested in puting up operations in India. At the same clip, the authorities besides allowed 100 per cent FDI in single-brand retail.

FDI Policy in India

FDI Policy Framework in India There has been a sea alteration in IndiaaˆYs attack to foreign investing from the early 1990s when it began structural economic reforms embracing about all the sectors of the economic system.

Pre-Liberalisation Time period

Historically, India had followed an highly cautious and selective attack while explicating FDI policy in position of the laterality of “ import-substitution scheme ” of industrialization. With the aim of going “ autonomous ” , there was a double nature of policy purpose – FDI through foreign coaction was welcomed in the countries of high engineering and high precedences to construct national capableness and discouraged in low engineering countries to protect and foster domestic industries. The regulative model was consolidated through the passage of Foreign Exchange Regulation Act ( FERA ) , 1973 wherein foreign equity keeping in a joint venture was allowed merely up to 40 per cent. Subsequently, assorted freedoms were extended to foreign companies engaged in export oriented concerns and high engineering and high precedence countries including leting equity retentions of over 40 per cent. Furthermore, pulling from successes of other state experiences in Asia, Government non merely established particular economic zones ( SEZs ) but besides designed broad policy and provided inducements for advancing FDI in these zones with a position to advance exports. As India continued to be extremely protective, these steps did non add well to export fight. Recognizing these restrictions, partial liberalization in the trade and investing policy was introduced in the eightiess with the aim of heightening export fight, modernization and selling of exports through Trans-national Corporations ( TNCs ) . The proclamations of Industrial Policy ( 1980 and 1982 ) and Technology Policy ( 1983 ) provided for a broad attitude towards foreign investings in footings of alterations in policy waies. The policy was characterised by de-licensing of some of the industrial regulations and publicity of Indian fabrication exports every bit good as underscoring on modernization of industries through liberalised imports of capital goods and engineering. This was supported by trade liberalization steps in the signifier of duty decrease and shifting of big figure of points from import licensing to Open General Licensing ( OGL ) .

Post-Liberalisation Time period

A major displacement occurred when India embarked upon economic liberalization and reforms plan in 1991 taking to raise its growing potency and incorporating with the universe economic system. Industrial policy reforms bit by bit removed limitations on investing undertakings and concern enlargement on the one manus and allowed increased entree to foreign engineering and support on the other. A series of steps that were directed towards liberalising foreign investing included: ( I ) debut of double path of blessing of FDI – RBI ‘s automatic path and Government ‘s blessing ( SIA/FIPB ) path, ( two ) automatic permission for engineering understandings in high precedence industries and remotion of limitation of FDI in low engineering countries every bit good as liberalization of engineering imports, ( three ) permission to Non-resident Indians ( NRIs ) and Abroad Corporate Bodies ( OCBs ) to put up to 100 per cent in high precedences sectors, ( four ) hiking in the foreign equity engagement bounds to 51 per cent for bing companies and liberalization of the usage of foreign aˆzbrands nameaˆY and ( V ) subscribing the Convention of Multilateral Investment Guarantee Agency ( MIGA ) for protection of foreign investings. These attempts were boosted by the passage of Foreign Exchange Management Act ( FEMA ) , 1999 [ that replaced the Foreign Exchange Regulation Act ( FERA ) , 1973 ] which was less rigorous. This along with the consecutive fiscal sector reforms paved manner for greater capital history liberalization in India. Investment proposals falling under the automatic path and affairs related to FEMA are dealt with by RBI, while the Government grips investing through blessing path and issues that relate to FDI policy per se through its three establishments, viz. , the Foreign Investment Promotion Board ( FIPB ) , the Secretariat for Industrial Assistance ( SIA ) and the Foreign Investment Implementation Authority ( FIIA ) .

FDI as defined in Dictionary of Economics ( Graham Bannock ) is investing in a foreign state through the acquisition of a local company or the constitution at that place of an operation on a new ( Greenfield ) site. To set in simple words, FDI refers to capital influxs from abroad that is invested in or to heighten the production capacity of the economic system. Foreign Investment in India is governed by the FDI policy announced by the Government of India and the proviso of the Foreign Exchange Management Act ( FEMA ) 1999. The Reserve Bank of India ( RBI ) in this respect had issued a presentment, which contains the Foreign Exchange Management ( Transfer or issue of security by a individual resident outside India ) Regulations, 2000. This presentment has been amended from clip to clip. The Ministry of Commerce and Industry, Government of India is the nodal bureau for motoring and reexamining the FDI policy on continued footing and alterations in sectoral policy/ sectoral equity cap. The FDI policy is notified through Press Notes by the Secretariat for Industrial Assistance ( SIA ) , Department of Industrial Policy and Promotion ( DIPP ) . The foreign investors are free to put in India, except few sectors/activities, where anterior blessing from the RBI or Foreign Investment Promotion Board ( FIPB ) would be required work in India

FDI in Retail Sector in India

FDI in Single trade name retail

While the precise significance of single-brand retail has non been clearly defined in any Indian authorities handbill or presentment, single-brand retail by and large refers to the merchandising of goods under a individual trade name name.. FDI in ‘Single trade name ‘ retail implies that a retail shop with foreign investing can merely sell one trade name. For illustration, if Adidas were to obtain permission to retail its flagship trade name in India, those retail mercantile establishments could merely sell merchandises under the Adidas trade name and non the Reebok trade name, for which separate permission is required. If granted permission, Adidas could sell merchandises under the Reebok trade name in separate mercantile establishments.

FDI in Multi-Brand Retail

In multiband a individual retail merchant come up with the figure of new trade names in the market to capture the market. FDI in Multi Brand retail implies that a retail shop with a foreign investing can sell multiple trade names under one roof.

Entry Options For Foreign Players prior to FDI Policy

Although prior to Jan 24, 2006, FDI was non authorised in retailing, most general participants had been runing in the state. Some of entryway paths used by them have been discussed in amount as below: –

1. Franchise Agreements

It is an easy path to come in the Indian market. In franchising and committee agents ‘ services, FDI ( unless otherwise prohibited ) is allowed with the blessing of the Reserve Bank of India ( RBI ) under the Foreign Exchange Management Act. This is a most usual manner for entryway of speedy nutrient bondage opposite a universe. Apart from speedy nutrient bondage indistinguishable to Pizza Hut, participants such as Lacoste, Mango, Nike every bit good as Marks every bit good as Spencer, have entered Indian market place by this path.

2. Cash And Carry Wholesale Trading

100 % FDI is allowed in sweeping trading which involves edifice of a big distribution substructure to help local makers. [ 7 ] The jobber deals merely with smaller retail merchants and non Consumers. Metro AG of Germany was the first important planetary participant to come in India through this path.

3. Strategic Licensing Agreements

Some foreign trade names give sole licenses and distribution rights to Indian companies. Through these rights, Indian companies can either sell it through their ain shops, or enter into shop-in-shop agreements or administer the trade names to franchisees. Mango, the Spanish dress trade name has entered India through this path with an understanding with Piramyd, Mumbai, SPAR entered into a similar understanding with Radhakrishna Foodlands Pvt. Ltd

4. Fabrication and Wholly Owned Subsidiaries.

The foreign trade names such as Nike, Reebok, Adidas, etc. that have wholly-owned subordinates in fabrication are treated as Indian companies and are, hence, allowed to make retail. These companies have been authorised to sell merchandises to Indian consumers by franchising, internal distributers, existing Indian retail merchants, ain mercantile establishments, etc. For case, Nike entered through an sole licensing understanding with Sierra Enterprises but now has a entirely owned subordinate, Nike India Private Limited.

FDI policy -over the old ages

1991: Liberalization-Indian economic system opened FDI up to 51 % allowed under the automatic path in choice precedence sector

1997: FDI in hard currency and carry ( sweeping ) with 100 per cent rights allowed under the authorities blessing

2006: i. FDI in hard currency and carry ( sweeping ) brought under the automatic path

two. Up to 51 per cent investing in a individual trade name retail mercantile establishment permitted, capable

to press note 3 ( 2006 series )

2011: 100 % FDI in Single- trade name retail permitted

2012: 51 % FDI in Multi-brand retail is permitted

Condition for 100 per cent FDI in Single-brand

Up to 100 per cent FDI is allowable in single-brand retail, capable to the Foreign Investment Promotion Board ( FIPB ) countenances and conditions mentioned in Press Note 3 [ 8 ] . These conditions stipulate that:

Merely single-brand merchandises are sold ( i.e. sale of multi-brand goods is non allowed, even if produced by the same maker )

Merchandises are sold under the same trade name internationally

Single-brand merchandises include merely those identified during fabrication

Any extra merchandise classs to be sold under single-brand retail must foremost have extra authorities blessing

Pre-conditions for FDI in multi-brand retailing in India

a- A stipulated per centum of FDI in the sector could be required to be spent on constructing back-end substructure, logistics or agro-processing units in order to guarantee that the foreign investors make a echt part to the development of substructure and logistics.

a- At least 50 per cent of the occupations in the retail mercantile establishment could be reserved for rural young person and a certain sum of farm green goods could be required to be procured from hapless husbandmans.

a- A minimal per centum of manufactured merchandises could be required to be sourced from the SME sector in India.

a- To guarantee that the public distribution system and the Indian nutrient security system, is non weakened, the authorities may reserve the right to secure a certain sum of nutrient grains.

a- To protect the involvement of little retail merchants, an sole regulative model to guarantee that the retailing giants do non fall back to predatory pricing or get monopolistic inclinations.

Benefits of FDI in Multi-brand retailing

Benefits to Farmers

With FDI in multi-brand retail trading, the husbandmans will acquire better wages for their green goods. The husbandmans will besides acquire better monetary values from the heavy decrease in post-harvest losingss. It will besides ensue in the strengthening of the backend substructure and lead to direct purchase by the retail merchants. The yes-to-FDI in multi-brand retail trading will besides ensue in the strengthening of the supply-chain substructure for all merchandises, runing from storage to processing and fabrication substructure, which would cut down post-harvest losingss. Organsied retail would besides drastically cut down the figure of gratuitous jobbers.

Benefits to Consumers

The most advantaged subdivision with the execution of this policy would be the consumers. From the decrease in monetary values that would ensue from the supply concatenation efficiencies to the betterment in the quality of the merchandises, the consumers are traveling to be benefitted the most. Along with this, nutrient safety criterions would besides acquire better with jury-rigged testing and collection installations. The consumers would besides hold more picks to pick from. This policy step is most likely to profit the poorest subdivisions of the society. Lowering of monetary values would collar the eroding of existent incomes and the current incomes of the economically deprived subdivisions would therefore be able to purchase more than earlier.

Benefits to Small Retailers

Foreign direct investing in the retail sector would besides incentivise the bing bargainers and retail mercantile establishments to upgrade and go more efficient. This would usher break services to the consumers, and besides good wages to the manufacturers from whom they beginning the merchandises. A concern that the little retail merchants will acquire displaced by leting FDI is wholly misplaced. It is to be noted here that domestic organised retail services are already provided by entities like Big Bazaar, Shoppers Stop, Croma, Reliance Fresh among others in different parts of India. More interestingly, it constitutes merely four per cent of the retail trade and co-exists with little kirana shops and the unorganized retail sector. There has been a strong competitory response from traditional retail to these organised retail merchants through engineering upgradation. As a consequence, the organized retail ironss have closed down in a figure of locations, while others have reduced the graduated table and spread of their operations. Globally excessively organised and unorganized retail co-exist and grow. Small retail merchants would go on to be able to beginning high quality produce, at significantly lower monetary values, from sweeping hard currency and carry points. In states such as China, Thailand, Indonesia, Brazil, Singapore, Argentina and Chile, where there are no caps on FDI and where there are no conditions, little retail shops have flourished, taking to more employment. Therefore, it is a white prevarication to province that FDI in multi-brand retail trade will coerce little retail merchants to close down.

Benefits to SMEs

Small and medium makers are besides traveling to be benefitted as 30 per cent sourcing from these industries has been made mandatary. This would supply the necessary graduated tables for these entities to spread out their capacities in fabrication, hence adding up to the employed population and besides hiking the fabrication sector of the state. These industries besides stand to acquire added advantages of engineering upgradation, which would give them an upper manus in productiveness and local value add-on, thereby raising the profitableness and net incomes of the little makers. The 30 per cent sourcing norm would besides assist the little endeavors to acquire integrated with the planetary retail ironss. New fabricating chances will besides open for the state ‘s micro, little and average endeavors.

Benefits to Rural Youth

FDI in multi-brand retail trading will besides assist a big figure of immature people from rural countries to fall in the work force. Young person from the small towns spread across the state can prosecute themselves in activities runing from backend to the frontend retail concern, as besides from the accomplishments imparted to them by the prospective investors.

Creates Job and Reduction in Inflation

Investings in the organized retail sector will see paid employment chances in agro-processing, screening, selling, logistic direction, little fabrication sector like fabrics and dress, building, IT, and other substructure. The most of import facet of FDI in retail is that it will significantly increase the figure of occupations in the front-end. Harmonizing to a survey conducted by the Indian Council for Research on International Economic Relations in 2008, as per the industry estimations of the employment of one individual per 350-400 sq. ft. of retail infinite, about 1.5 million occupations will be created in the front-end alone in the following five old ages. Assuming that 10 per cent excess people are required for the back-end, the direct employment generated by the organized retail sector in India over the coming five old ages will be near to 1.7 million occupations. The survey besides suggested that with direct purchasing from the husbandmans, bettering supply concatenation inefficiencies, breaking storage capablenesss to command supply/demand instabilities, rising prices could besides be tamed.


It can be concluded that the FDI would take to a more comprehensive integrating of India into the worldwide market and it leads to overall economic development and societal public assistance of the state. If done in the right mode, it can turn out to be a blessing and non a expletive. Open up multi-brand retail trading to foreign direct investing would hold a multiplier impact on Indian economic system. It would move as a strong accelerator for pulling investings in the nutrient processing sector. This would besides be a driver for economic growing by speed uping demand.