The Giant Panda inhabits South Central China and scopes from six stray mountains in the Gansu, Sichuan and Shaanxi Provinces ( IUCN, 2007b ) . Presently, this species is on the Appendix 1 CITES ( Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora ) List ( CITES, 2011a ) . This means that elephantine coon bears can non be traded internationally except in fortunes in which the ground for trading is for scientific research ( CITES, 2011b ) . This is because this species is critically endangered and is at a high hazard of extinction. The prohibition of trade will forestall elephantine coon bears being removed from their natural home grounds and cut down extinction rates in this species.
Despite being biologically carnivorous, A. melanoleuca has an herbivorous diet dwelling chiefly of bamboo ( Dierenfield et. Al, 1982 ) . In fact it is estimated that 99 % of the Giant Pandas diet comprises of this nutrient beginning ( Schaller et. Al, 1985, cited in Carter et. Al, 1999 ) . Therefore, habitat locations are really dependent on the distribution and handiness of bamboo ( Xuezhi et. Al, 2008 ) .
There is a broad assortment of bamboo which is consumed by the elephantine coon bear which consists of 60 different types with 35 of those incorporating their primary nutrient beginnings ( Hu, Wei, 2004, cited in IUCN, 2007b ) . By restricting their diet to chiefly bamboo, the elephantine coon bear is at hazard of eventual famishment. This is because in every 15 to one hundred and twenty old ages, there is a “ bamboo die-off rhythm ” which of course occurs ( Calhoun, 2005 ) . Once this die-off occurs in the bamboo ( depending on which species ) , the clip it takes to turn to a degree which can feed a full population of elephantine coon bear can be up to twenty old ages, therefore many coon bears are starved and may decease due to this ( Calhoun, 2005 ) . Examples of this would be two of the chief species of bamboo which are eaten by the elephantine coon bear ; Arrow and Umbrella. It takes on norm between 40 and 50 old ages for Arrow bamboo to bloom and for Umbrella bamboo this procedure takes about one hundred old ages ( Franzen, 2003 ) . Once these species and others finally decease off, elephantine coon bear will necessitate to seek for a replacing and if unsuccessful, will hunger to decease and may confront extinction.
In the event of certain types of bamboo species deceasing off, preservation programs must be in topographic point. In recent old ages, environmentalists have been seting in topographic point ‘corridors ‘ between coon bears populations and countries which have bamboo which is non being fed on which can be suited for feeding ( Carter et. Al, 1999 ) . This type of programme is besides being done to make corridors between different populations of coon bear besides ( Carter et. Al, 1999 ) . It was besides suggested by Carter et. Al, 1999, that these corridors should be a long term solution as the transporting capacity ( the maximal population size a species can make ) of the elephantine coon bear can take up to two hundred old ages!
Another factor which has had a negative impact on the population sizes of coon bear is their exposure to poaching. This is when they are hunted ( by worlds ) in the natural state for their teguments and skulls ( Yiming et. Al, 2002 ) . To measure what consequence poaching is holding on the elephantine coon bear ; population viability analysis ( PVA ) is required. PVA takes into history a scope of ecological and environmental factors to measure the hazards and menaces to peculiar species. This allows be aftering for preservation and allows us to place “ degrees ” of menaces to a given species ( Yiming, et. Al, 2002 ) . By utilizing PVA, Yiming et. Al, 2002, found that even without the effects of poaching to giant coon bears, population Numberss were still really low. This is rather distressing as this means that although poaching is extremely baleful, other factors are still forcing the species towards extinction. Consequences from Yiming et. Al, 2002, experiments found that with the addition of poaching of the elephantine coon bear, a big lessening in population size and a higher extinction rate was the consequence. Their experiments besides compared poaching between the two sexes. They found that poaching in females was found to hold a more negative impact on the extinction rate as they would look to hold a higher extinction rate than males, despite the strength of poaching being the exact same. This comparing was mirrored in the analysis comparing grownup and immature coon bears ( i.e. Adults had a higher extinction rate ) . Therefore, Yiming et. Al, 2002, highlighted that although the elephantine coon bear is of course facing extinction due to many factors, poaching can significantly increase the extinction rate in populations. However, in recent old ages, the market for coon bear teguments and incidents of poaching has began to diminish and is now no longer a cardinal menace to the population of the elephantine coon bear ( IUCN, 2007b ) .
Reducing illegal gaining control and violent death of the elephantine coon bear has been really successful due to developing environmentalists to police countries in which coon bear are at hazard ( WWF, 2011b ) . The WWF began this preparation in 1996 and had more than three 100 people trained within four old ages. Above this, cameras have been installed on sites in which the elephantine coon bear inhabits. This allows trained staff to see how the pandas unrecorded of course and can be after in front on utile preservation programmes to forestall extinction happening ( WWF, 2011b ) .
A. melanoleuca have a k-strategy attack when it comes to reproduction ( Linderman et. Al, 2004 ) . This is because females do non get down to copulate until they are about four or five old ages old and will merely give birth to a little figure of greenhorn ( this can be every bit small as one or two immature ) ( WWF China, 2011 ) . If nutrient is scarce ( i.e. due to bamboo die-off ) so the opportunity of the endurance of greenhorn is really slender. Another factor which affects the reproductivity in the elephantine coon bear population is pandas in imprisonment. It has been found that elephantine coon bears in imprisonment are non engendering good and it has been suggested that they find it hard to copulate in the presence of worlds. This is because they are non in their natural environment ( WWF China, 2011 ) .
The major menace to giant coon bear communities which is increasing extinction rates is habitat loss. Habitat loss is due to human impacts in which the giant coon bear home grounds have been destroyed by logging, agribusiness and the development of hydropower amongst many other things ( WWF, 2011c ) . Research published in 2008 by Xeuzhi et. Al stated that agribusiness was the most baleful human impact on cut downing home ground sizes in coon bear populations. This is because farming area is normally located near human colonies which affect coon bears straight. Besides, as coon bears are required to devour clean imbibing H2O every twenty-four hours to last, they tend to avoid big rivers. This is because big rivers are normally nearby to human colonies, in which the H2O will be extremely polluted ( Xuezhi et. Al, 2008 ) . Therefore, human impacts are restricting where panda communities can populate. Atomization of the elephantine coon bear home ground is besides a factor lending towards increasing the extinction rate. This has been due to once more, human impact as the Chinese economic system has being turning exponentially ( WWF China, 2009 ) .
As habitat devastation and atomization are the major issues impacting the elephantine coon bear population it is extremely of import that we try to ‘reverse ‘ these effects as human activity is responsible for this. An illustration of an country which has been severely affected is Jiuzhai pealing route in the Minshan Reserve Region ( Xuezhi et. Al, 2008 ) . This has a high figure of traffic daily and has caused the nearby community of coon bear to go distant ( Xuezhi et. Al, 2008 ) . It was suggested by Xuezhi et. Al, 2008 that in order to forestall farther harm to panda communities, the sum of human activity had to be reduced. This same thought was suggested for the Jiuzhai pealing route by cut downing traffic daily.
In decision, it is clear to see that the hereafter of elephantine coon bear populations and communities is critical and will stay so unless great alterations are made. This is chiefly down to human impacts which have negatively affected population Numberss by destructing home grounds, taking this species from its natural environment ( confined genteelness ) and poaching. However, the elephantine coon bear ‘s specialized diet is besides forcing this species towards extinction as they are at hazard of famishment. Despite this, programmes are in topographic point to assist reconstruct home grounds by making corridors to new beginnings of bamboo and monitoring to forestall poaching. However, at the minute it is really hard to find whether or non the extinction of A. melanoleuca will be sooner instead than subsequently. In short, the hereafter of the elephantine coon bear is unsure.