Stephen Krashen ‘s Monitor Model plays an of import function in 2nd linguistic communication acquisition. It was evolved in the late seventiess with the influence of the Noam Chomsky ‘s first linguistic communication acquisition theory. The theoretical account comprises five hypotheses including the acquisition-learning hypothesis, the proctor hypothesis, the natural order hypothesis, the input hypothesis and the affectional filter hypothesis. Krashen claims that the theory is supported by a big figure of scientisfic surveies. However, there are a figure of limitaions in his theory. In this essay, the restrictions of one of the hypothesis: the input hypothesis will be dicussed.

The input hypothesis postulates that worlds get linguistic communication in merely one way- by understanding messages, or by having ‘comprehensible input”….We move from I, our current degree, to i+1, the following degree along the natural order ( Krashen 1985,2 ) . Krashen regards it as an of import construct in 2nd linguistic communication acquisition since it answers the critical inquiry of how we get linguistic communication. However, what Krashen does is non provide grounds in any existent sense of the term, but merely reason that certain phenomena can be viewed from the position of his theory ( Mclaughlin 1987, 36 ) .

There are no clear definitions of ‘comprehensible input ‘ and ‘i+1 degree ‘ . Krashen attempts to utilize the fact that the longer people live in a state, the more adept their linguistic communication is to turn out people get linguistic communication by having comprehensive input. Nevertheless, non all input is comprehendible, and the inquiry left unfastened is when input is comprehendible and when it is non. Krashen tries to explicate the input at the i+1 degree is effectual in 2nd linguistic communication acquisition. This presumes that it is possible to specify a set of degrees and determine which structures constitute the i+1 degree. However, both of them are impossible for research workers at the present phase of 2nd linguistic communication survey. Krashen gives another illustration that hearing kids of deaf parents with small exposure to comprehensible input hold in linguistic communication acquisition and eventually catch it up when they are exposed to comprehendible input. This grounds is once more non converting since it is non testable and there is no manner of understanding what comprehendible input is.

The point that people merely get linguistic communication by having comprehendible input is questionable. Krashen claims that talking is unneeded for geting a 2nd linguistic communication. In his position, the lone function that the talkers ‘ end product dramas is to supply a farther beginning of comprehendible input. Wong Fillmore ( 1976 ) argued that formulaic address can assist kids get a construction consisting of a form or regulations without holding to understand the address. Some research workers have pointed out that end product is necessary since it is the manner for instructors to judge the ability and advancement of scholars. Harmonizing to Boulouffe, scholars can acquire into the deepnesss of mode by showing their ain feelings and ideas. Long and Porter ( 1985 ) have proved that group conversation can increase scholars ‘ communicative ability and motive. It is questionable whether comprehendible input entirely can account for how scholars correct and adjust their hypotheses about the linguistic communication. Unless scholars try out the linguistic communication, they are improbable to acquire feedback to better.

The groundss used by Krashen seem to disregard the possibility of other accounts instead than comprehendible input in the theory. One of the statements made for the input hypothesis is based on age differences. Krashen explains that older acquirers progress more rapidly than younger acquirers in the early phases because they obtain more comprehendible input. However, it contradicts one of the chief claims of the input hypothesis: simpler codifications provide ideal input for i+1. If it is the instance, younger acquirers should hold greater advantages since they receive more repeats and less complex grammar constructions. There are other factors to explicate the high quality of older scholars such as their demand to discourse more complex subjects and the handiness of mnemotechnic devices ( Mclaughlin 1987, 39 ) . Krashen argues that some kids who come to a new state where they are exposed to a new linguistic communication are soundless for a long period of clip since they need clip to construct up their linguistic communication ability by having comprehendible input. Once competency has been built up, address emerges. Actually, there are other possible accounts for the soundless period. The kids may be hesitating to talk because of anxiousness and personality differences.

To reason, the input hypothesis of the Krashen ‘s proctor theoretical account is non substantiated by empirical surveies. There is no manner of finding what comprehendible input and i+1 degree are and therefore no manner of proving the hypothesis. The importance of end product is de-emphasized, and understanding a new linguistic communication is given much more stress than talking it. The debates are non complete plenty. Other factors which are possible to account for the phenomenon are about neglected. The theory should be reviewed in a more balanced position critically.

Mentions

Cook V. Krashen ‘s Five Hypotheses, [ home page on the Internet ] . [ cited 2009 Oct 27 ] . Available from: hypertext transfer protocol: //homepage.ntlworld.com/vivian.c/SLA/Krashen.htm

Ellis, R. 1985. Understanding Second Language Acquisition. Oxford University Press.

Fabisz N. Analysis of krashen ‘s theory of 2nd linguistic communication acquisition, [ home page on the Internet ] . [ cited 2009 Oct 27 ] . Available from: hypertext transfer protocol: //www.geocities.com/pan_andrew/sla.htm

Krashen, S.D. 1981. Second Language Acquisition and Second Language Learning. Pergamon.

Krashen, S.D. 1982. Principles and Practice in Second Language Acquisition. Pergamon.

Krashen, S.D. 1985. The Input Hypothesis: Issues and Implications. Longman.

Long, M. , and Porter, P.A. 1985: Group Work, Interlanguage talk, and Second Language Acquistion. Tesol, Quarterly.

McLaughlin, B. 1987. Theories of Second Language Learning. London, Edward Arnold.

Romeo K. Krashen and Terrell ‘s “Natural Approach” , [ home page on the Internet ] . [ cited 2009 Oct 27 ] . Available from: hypertext transfer protocol: //www.stanford.edu/~kenro/LAU/ICLangLit/NaturalApproach.htm

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