For steel support in concrete the ionic flow running through the concrete and fond regard between the steel can non be disconnected since the corrosion circuit is buried inside the construction. It is possible by utilizing an ‘artificial ‘ anode to add a new and higher current to the original corrosion circuit where it runs in the antonym of way of the corrosion current. It converts all the old anodes into current receiving systems. Therefore all the steel support is made into a negative pole known as cathodic, hence it was named as cathodic protection.

For a careful designed and constructed concrete constructions, the embedded steel are under protection from corrosion harm as the of course extremely alkalic cement provides a inactive environment. A good compacted and equal concrete screen will able to forestall corrosion of steel for old ages even it exposed to aggressive status. However, those standards are seldom met in building pattern. Besides, good current denseness and distribution way factors should be bear in head as they are of import to cut down, halt or forestall corrosion of the steel support.

Before proceed to following subdivision, there are several issues that need to be avoided in cathodic protection. Excessive negative potencies can do accelerated corrosion since environment contained alkaline are created in cathode. This status may ensue of loss of adhesion between the coating and the construction. Besides, H development at cathode surface may ensue in H affect the crispness of the steel and loss of strength. Another issue is when organizing of flicker jeopardies in a risky country. Therefore it is necessary to look into the system after installing to avoid escape of electric current.

Choice of a suited current denseness end product is important in this peculiar design since there are no mentions or clear guidelines provided. Harmonizing to Concrete Society Technical Report No. 37 ( 1991 ) the current densenesss within the scope of 10 and 20 mA/m? of steel support are given as typical values. In practical the current denseness is largely dependent on the steel corrosion province which related to the location and exposure of the steel construction such as concrete permeableness and chloride degree. For illustration, a concrete construction with a minimal concrete screen that is exposed to warm, cyclic moisture environment will hold a high current denseness demand to cut down corrosion rate. In the other manus, a low current denseness will be sufficient if the concrete environing country is under alkaline activity where small chloride nowadays and the steel is non strongly eating.

Steel support agreement, country of the corrosion spread and degree of corrosion activity are of import issues to accomplish optimal current distribution. Normally the highest degree of current should be installed in the country where most active corrosion are. There is no specified expression and footings to find the current distribution in strengthened concrete. This is due to unstable electric resistance of the concrete, electric resistance from steel to concrete interface and denseness of the steel support.

There are assorted types of anode that are available in the market but it is of import for interior decorator to see sagely harmonizing to the anode features and consequence to overall design. However, constructions in the ambiance have been successfully protected by utilizing 200mm spacing between the anodes go throughing current. In general, anodes that are mounted on concrete would be expected to run below a current denseness of 10mA/m? to cut down possibility of premature anode failure. For illustration, a conductive coating on the construction will necessitate positive feeder wires and a distinct anode system require distribution boxes. Furthermore, well-applied and suited coating will increase the effectual spread of cathodic protection current. Normally good coating will hold high electrical opposition, uninterrupted to protect the steel surface.

A precast beam runs between the column and it supports a fan deck which loaded with dead and unrecorded burden. From observation, corrosion occurred on the top surface of the beam that being exposed to sun, with chloride contaminated H2O through the beam. The lone entree provided was a platform from basin floor therefore the cathodic protection has to be simple and easy installed for future care. Structural applied scientists that involved in this undertaking had issued about the terrible corrosion harm, trial burden and computation of strength had been ignored and therefore should merely have a low precedence for cathodic protection.

A current denseness ( 15mA/m? ) of steel was supplied to reflect to the environing environment of the beam. It is more convenient by utilizing the same length of anode in the column and it was proposed to bore vertically upwards into the beam. However in the pattern the boring work cause troubles with the dust and a horizontal placement is used with closer spacing to counterbalance the decreased current distribution.

The sacrificial anode system consists of a galvanic cell system which the anode is made of active metal that are normally used such as Zn, Mg and aluminium metal. They are utile when electrical power supply are non available, or in other state of affairs where it is wasteful to put in power lines on the site. Furthermore, they can function as alternate beginnings of portable electrical energy. The anode is connected by welding to the construction and the anode end product current can be measured. This causes a positive current to flux in the electrolyte from the anode to the steel. Therefore, the surface of steel become negatively charged and go the cathode. In this circumstance, the construction is protected by the active metal until it is wholly consumed and the base steel will be susceptible to corrosion.

However, the sacrificial anode system is improbable to supply effectual protection to construction other than those immersed in sea H2O owing to the low electromotive force supplied. Alternatively of that, there are some active eating countries to do the snap of the screen. It is expected that the impairment will go on for a clip in the really early of the protection system.

Theoretically, aluminum operates at a electromotive force between Mg and Zn. The chief disadvantage of aluminum as a sacrificial anode is that it is tends to go inactive in wet environment. Therefore, debasing add-ons such as quicksilver and Sb are galvanised to aluminium to avoid passiveness. Compared to magnesium, aluminum are more dependable for long clip public presentation. Magnesium anodes may be consumed and can non last until the construction reached its terminal of life-time. Below are the lists of metals that are usually used:

Current normally will be high due to the difference in possible between the anode and cathode are high. However the possible difference will diminish due to the consequence of the current flow into the cathode, current bit by bit lessening due to the polarisation of the cathode. The circuit opposition that are running between anode and cathode includes the H2O way, metal way and any overseas telegram related to the circuit. The primary value of this circuit is the opposition of the anode to the saltwater since our chief concern is the corrosion will happen in anode side. In practical the metal opposition can be ignored since the value is little compared to H2O opposition.

Different anode sizes contribute to different consequence gained. In most instances, long thin anodes have lower opposition than short fat anodes. As a consequence, they discharge more current but it will non last long. Therefore it is of import for interior decorator to make up one’s mind and take the right form and surface country in order to dispatch adequate current to protect the construction for a long period. Another of import point is the length of anode can find how much the current can be produced by anode and therefore the country of steel can be protected.

Compared to sacrificial anode protection system, impressed current method will be better option and more efficient to protect constructions that are atmospherically exposed. For illustration, high currents involved in saltwater and usually impressed current method is used. This technique works by presenting a little electrical current ( DC ) from a direct current beginning through an subsidiary anode to the surface of the support as shown in figure.

Impressed current method should be moderately practical, safe and economical to put in. Besides, the choice of anode type will be the chief consideration to the effectivity of the system. From the choice of the anode, there will be increased dead burden in the system installed and this must be accounted into the system design phase. The burden instances are highly critical when the system is applied to bing construction. It is of import to do certain that the system is able to supply a unvarying and stable current to the support steel at an acceptable low DC end product electromotive force.

The system constituents must be lasting to defy the installing procedure and the design service life during the operation. They should non neglect under moderately vary environmental conditions else it would be dearly-won to mend the system. Furthermore, the installed system should non adversely impact other constituents or the constructions. Last but non least, the system should be designed in comparatively simple for easier operation and care in the hereafter.