Whenever the word terrorist act is heard, existent panic seizes the Black Marias of work forces and adult females, the old and the immature. There is no denying the fact that people are more cognizant of terrorist act today than they were a decennary ago. Name callings such as Osama Bin Laden convey really sad and unpleasant memories both to those who have straight borne the brunt of terrorist act and those who have had the opportunity to watch the intelligence or read newspapers. For states such as United States of America, United Kingdom, Somalia, Kenya, Uganda, Tanzania, Iraq and Iran to call but a few ; do understand better, out of experience, the intense magnitude of terrorist activities. Every twelvemonth memorial ceremonials are held in different parts of the universe to mourn the lives that have been lost in the custodies of terrorists. It is a sad province of matter that should stir everyone to lift above race, faith and political relations and face the terrorist act threat. This paper wishes to research the possible usage of other agencies apart from the normally known extremist 1s to win the conflict against terrorist act. The failings in terrorist organisations can be exploited to get the better of the job wholly.
Harmonizing to the 1992 United Nation ‘s definition, terrorist act is an anxiety-inspiring method of repeated violent action, employed by ( semi ) -clandestine single, group or province histrions, for idiosyncratic, condemnable or political grounds, whereby – in contrast to assassination – the direct marks of force are non the chief mark. Terrorism, whether domestic or International has become a monolithic concern to the authoritiess across the Earth. Be it in Africa, America, Asia or Europe ( other continents included ) , this phenomenon has altered the lives of many, disrupted economic activities and has besides led to states passing lucks on security steps. It has affected everyone, either straight or indirectly. Those who travel internationally have to postulate with strict testing procedures at different ports of entry in a batch of the state. In fact, the security processs have become so intense such that organic structure showing is a common thing most travellers have to digest despite incommodiousness caused. Government security bureaus are about ever on high qui vive, in expectancy of a terrorist onslaughts. The secret service and intelligence bureaus are invariably ‘sniffing ‘ the air for possible terrorist act activities. The incommodiousnesss the travellers go through notwithstanding, the immense budgetary allotments to the bureaus that fight terrorist act has in the old ages continued to increase due to the complexness of the issue. Alternatively, if the ideal state of affairs were to predominate, such financess could be allocated to more worthy undertakings such as contending the planetary heating, nutrient security, instruction and wellness attention.
The elusive nature of the terrorists and their organisations is the basic ground contending this threat has become an acclivitous undertaking for the counterterrorism organizations the universe over. Its sometimes faceless nature, the usage of the common and ordinary citizens ; improved engineering has all added a turn to the whole matter. The culprits employ different methods to run into their aims. Their simplistic and sometimes edification in planning and readying has in most instances caught security bureaus flat-footed. Sometimes their audacious theatrics involve the usage of Person-borne Improvised Explosive Devicess ( PBIED ) and Suicide Vehicle-borne Improvised Explosive Devicess ( SVBIED ) . They have non stopped at that place yet as they continually update their methods to transport out dramatic onslaughts that influence and make media exposure to their class National Counterterrorism Center, ( 2009 ) .
The statistical informations published by United States ‘ agency- National Counterterrorism Center ( NCTC ) in the 2008 and reported in April 2009 reveals a distressing tendency. Terrorist activities have risen enormously. As NCTC ( 2009 ) studies, about 11,800 terrorist onslaughts against noncombatants occurred in assorted centres during 2008, ensuing in over 54,000 deceases hurts and snatchs. The high human death onslaughts have doubled since 2007. Harmonizing to the NCTC study ; Kidnapping for ransom has besides increased by galvanizing per centums peculiarly in the Southern Asia part. During the 2008, the incidences surged by 45 % . In Pakistan entirely, such instances increased by shocking 340 % and 100 % in Afghanistan.
There is no uncertainty the fact the universe is confronting a serious job in the name of terrorist act and terrorist political orientations. While a batch of attempt is being made, an pressing solution demands to be identified and implemented to set to an terminal or at least conveying to a sensible control of the activities of terrorists, which leads to the cardinal inquiry ; why has the war on terrorist act failed? Could the answer prevarication in the attack the bureaus mandated to contend terrorist act usage? This research will look into and research the possibility of utilizing a more elusive arm to extinguish terrorism- break of the extremist attack to work the failing in terrorist organisations. Since other terrible steps seem to hold failed. The paper will further expose the singularity and the importance of de-radicalization of the war on terrorist act. The menace of terrorist act is existent and effectual steps should be crafted.
The chief purpose of this research is to relatively analyse whether break of the extremist procedure can so work the failing of terrorist organisations. To get down with the beginnings of informations, there are many beginnings of informations that will be utile for this survey. Datas can be classified into two classs, which are primary and secondary informations. In order to transport out this research survey, both primary and secondary informations are indispensable.
First, secondary informations are explained as informations that have been antecedently gathered by person for some other intents ( Saunders et al, 2007 ; Steven et Al, 2005 ) . There is a assortment of secondary informations beginnings that can be used in this survey, for illustration, internal beginnings collected by the organisation, published studies and statistics from diaries, articles, books and on-line resources. However, the restrictions of secondary informations demand to be considered, for case, unfit information job, truth of informations and right of first publication job Steven et Al, ( 2005 ) . Despite that, secondary informations were chiefly used in this survey and out of it sufficient information was gathered compared to the primary informations ; the undermentioned information looking under bomber subjects have been retrieved mostly from secondary beginnings.
Conventional Counterterrorism Schemes
The United States of America, being at the head in the battle against universe terrorist act ; will supply a land to analyze the anti-terrorism schemes. In the 2003 study titled National Strategy for battling terrorist act ; the U.S. lineations steps that were to be taken to get the better of terrorist act. The words of George W. Bush after the 9/11 panic onslaught in America carried with it the urgency and the resoluteness of America and her Alliess to get the better of terrorist act. He said, “ No group or state should misidentify America ‘s purpose: we will non rest until terrorist groups of planetary range have been found, have been stopped and have been defeated. ” Within the constructions of legal frame work, all states were urged to follow a nothing tolerance to terrorist act. The U.S. and other European states have put logistical every bit good as fiscal programs in topographic point to ease designation of the bid and command units of the culprits of panic and subsequent powder of the full systems.
Another scheme is, by agencies of engineering and human capablenesss, locate the terrorist organisations. They would give significant information about the modus operandi of these organisations. With such understanding, assemblage and expecting their purposes would be easier. This is to be achieved with the aid of other collaborative provinces.
The eventual consequence would take to another scheme ; to destruct the terrorists and their organisation. Enfeebling their capacity to transport out Acts of the Apostless of panic would convey a large alleviation to the universe at big. A forceful and aggressive offense scheme would so be used to wholly neutralize their capacities.
There are states blacklisted by America, which do non merely patron but have besides offered a safe oasis for terrorist act and terrorist elements. Iran, Iraq, Syria, Libya, Cuba, North Korea and Sudan, NSCT ( 2003 ) are perceived to hold created environments contributing for terrorist act to boom. If these states stood out against the immoralities of terrorist act and stopped their sponsorship so the lineage of terrorist act would be chocked off but if this does non go on, the possibilities of such dissenters geting arms of mass devastation are really high and the universe can non conceive of biological or chemical or radiological arms in the custodies of panic groups such as Al-Qaida.
Change of Tact
Despite concerted attempt by different bureaus to control terrorist act, the threat still persists which means that the methodological analysis being used is non effectual hence the demand for a alteration of tactics and attack. The difficult radical/ line angle of contending terrorist act seemingly is non good plenty. Research has shown that poorness and discontent are powerful tools that may drive person to the extreme. Alternatively of the scratchy manners resources should be invested in understanding the failings of these groups to enable anti-terrorism bureaus swing in and neutralize the organisations. One of the agency is through globalisation. Globalization is another theory that has been fronted as a means that could be used to defuse the socioeconomic barriers that exists between states. However, Joseph Stiglitz sees it otherwise, he says ; Closer integrating of the states and people of the universe which has been brought about by the tremendous decrease of costs of transit and communicating and the interrupting down of unreal barriers to the flow of goods, services, capital, cognition and ( to a lesser extent ) people across boundary lines. ( Stigltz, 2003 )
Biden, ( 2001 ) besides holds the belief that first tracked globalisation causes stresses that mostly impact the developing states yet at the same clip he says that underdevelopment and poorness could be a formula for discontent. The comparative want can take the disgruntled to fall back to terrorist activities in an effort to portion in the wealth. However, when the states perceived to be pro-terrorism are integrated into the universe personal businesss, they would experience obliged to work with the other states against terrorist act.
On the other manus from medical position, it is normally believed in the criminology circle ; that the apprehension of human facto, abnormal psychology, modus Vivendi and conspirational association of the terrorists could give a batch of information sing the weak countries of terrorist act that can be taken advantage of. Borum, ( 2004 ) states ; Our observation about causes that by and large seem to be the true and supported by t The best available research is that force is caused by multiple factors, many of which are strongly related to- and even impact each other. Violence is caused by a complex interaction of biological, social/contextual, cognitive and emotional factors that occur over clip.
This belief is shared by Post, ( 2001 ) who besides agrees that there is what he calls “ a wide spectrum ” of terrorists who are motivated by different psychosocial factors. Again with investing into understanding the terrorists ‘ psychological science, it would non be hard to place, perforate, neutralize and interrupt terrorist act. Religious fiends and misinterpreted spiritual instructions are frequently used to brainwash possible recruits because they form the footing of hatred towards peculiar states or groups.
Perceived unfairness has been recognized as a cardinal factor that can take to understanding this phenomenon. This theory dates back to the earliest Hagiographas Borum, ( 2004 ) . In fact, in the mid 1970 ‘s, Hacker ( 1978 ) concluded that remediable unfairness is the basic motive to terrorist act. The desire to revenge the wrongs on person else has fueled terrorist act. To cast more visible radiation on the same, Ross, ( 1993 ) by stating that grudges is the most of import precipitant of terrorist act. He states further that the grudges may be economic, cultural, racial, legal, political, spiritual and or societal.
No 1 is born a terrorist and no male parent or female parent of sound head would give birth to a kid and convey them up, developing them in the ways of terrorist act. There is no known formal establishment whose course of study covers topics on going the best terrorist. Somehow along the way of growing, the way of development something catchs. This thing that snaps is what has lead to emergence of societal misfits who are bent on doing mayhem. This disenchantment is what has given birth to difficult line terrorist motions such as the Taliban, al-Shabaab, Al-Qaida. After all is said and done, something pressing needs to be done about kids who are born and raised in terrorists prone countries. This is a undertaking that international organisations such as UN, UNICEF among other international organic structures should earnestly see. That manner, the universe will be a safe topographic point where everyone will populate under the surety that secure.
Summary of Findingss
The existent root cause of terrorist act is pouched in three chief factors that the research has identified ; grudges, individuality and belonging which co-occur in most terrorist groups or organisations. Luckabaugh et-al ( 1997 ) concludes that the existent cause of psychological motive for connection is the great demand for belonging, a demand to consolidate 1s individuality. . . is a common factor which acts across all the groups. With this psychological cognition and the consciousness of the operations of the terrorist groups ; the conflict towards eliminating the frailty can now be approached through multi-pronged assault and non merely the guns, intelligence and engineering. The attempt to win the heads the possible terrorists and a critical expression at the actuating factors can be the most powerful arm to use in the war against terrorist act. It is necessary to understand the psychological factors driving people to the terrorist act activities and seek to decide them at that degree. More frequently immature people and vulnerable people ( like hapless or orphans ) have been exploited by panic cells to take part in the atrociousnesss. This is a sample indicant of what terrorist ‘s feat, the society which is deprived of socio-economic factors. Addressing the socio-economic factors like back uping economic activities in terrorist enlisting zone can play a important function in barricading the cells from enrolling members.
There is demand for authoritiess all over the universe to seek a common assault on terrorist act. The atrociousnesss perpetrated by the terrorists affect non merely the victims but besides the economic system of different provinces. The perceptual experience that is by and large held by many that contending terrorist act is the function of America must be worked on. Each state should see the demand to fall in custodies with all the others to contend terrorist act. The Asiatic provinces ; peculiarly Middle East should be actively involved in the battle against the frailty. These states must be bold plenty to reprobate these dissenters without fright. They should be seen to be actively involved in the battle against terrorist act ; ideally they should be at the bow forepart in this conflict.
Improved engineering has besides had a converse consequence on terrorist act ; as the engineering better so make the methods and tactics of terrorist act. Nations/ bureaus should put more in engineering and information direction. Intelligence wings of different states need to organize a solid web, sharing of information and be willing to do forfeits. The rush in terrorist act across the universe in the last decennary should move as an pressing oculus opener to all world. Education for the multitudes about terrorist act should be given prominence merely as the battle against HIV/AIDS has been highlighted. If the war against terrorist act is to win, the universe must talk in one voice.
The distressing realisation is that terrorist act is more prevailing in Islam dominated part than in other countries that other faiths are outstanding. Somalia is soon firing because of the eternal battle between authorities ‘s security forces ( flanked by African Union Peace Keepers ) and Al-Shabaab. In the same Somalia seashores ; terrorist act has taken a different face in the name of plagiarists who have grown so bold that they carry out their dirty concerns stat mis and stat mis off from the shores. This has pushed the cost of making concern peculiarly the imports to and exports from Eastern Africa. It is let downing to observe that international organic structures stand to watch as immense, impossible amounts of money is given as ransom. The consequence this has is, while it offers a speedy manner out of the state of affairs, it really encourages terrorists activities, this is one manner terrorist act receives support by the very authoritiess who are in the bow forepart in the battle against the frailty. Young work forces drop out of school to go plagiarists since the wage is speedy and attractive ; it is one of the most moneymaking ‘businesses ‘ in the universe soon.
The manner out of this is for international organic structures to acquire more serious about buccaneering. The foreign conflict ships policing the international Waterss should escalate their operations so that their presence is felt. At no cost should redeem be given to kidnapers and plagiarists if the anti-piracy war is to be won. Otherwise it would be like pouring grains into a bag riddled with of holes.
A instead interesting country that research should concentrate on is the head of suicide bomber. The psychological factors need to be considered besides. How one should offer himself to decease in such a mode could do a good subject for research. The causing factors driving the self-destruction bombers in some parts like Middle East can be attributed to brainwashing where spiritual fundamentalism is instilled to the heads of largely the hapless and immature. A co-ordinated co-operation between province intelligence bureau and spiritual leaders like Muslim bookmans and Mosque leaders can be effectual in nailing the behaviour of possible suspects. Although this can non be the lone solution it will be necessary besides to decide sensed historical and political struggles because this is one of the countries used by panic cells to warrant their class.
Is terrorist act beyond adult male ‘s capableness? Is complete obliteration of terrorist activities an impossible undertaking? The reply to these inquiries is a resounding, NO! While it is apprehensible that turn toing this phenomenon is convoluted and to state the least, a tasking duty, it is upon the states to make up one’s mind whether terrorist act should stop or it should be left hibernating until something ghastly happens for people to shout and travel quiet once more ; waiting for the rhythm to reiterate itself. It is interesting to register the sort of consentaneous and univocal disapprobation terrorists receive from the international community ‘s whenever some atrociousnesss have been meted on guiltless unsuspicious civilians. Sadly that is the far it goes ; disapprobation.
Attempts to convey the phenomenon under control have been overridden with differences of attack and conflicting concerns. The metabolism terrorist act has gone through throws to its managing farther confusion. What is believed to be a good detailed concrete steps has non been effectual because they do non turn to terrorist act in its entirety- its effects and effects. In certain parts of the universe, the state of affairs is despairing. A word of cautiousness though ; the battle against terrorist act should non do an full state, race or faith be treated with undue intuition, torment and dehumanizing conditions because some members of their group are terrorists.
Which so is the manner to travel? The first thing that should be done is to interrupt the extremist procedures in the battle against terrorist act and so sensitisation of people about the rights of human existences should follow. It should non halt at that place, publicity and instruction of human rights Torahs should get down in all schools as portion of the course of study. By this attack, human-centered Torahs will go the cardinal arms that will convey down terrorist act. Military operations and counter terrorist act tactics on their ain are non plenty. There is nil more powerful than a structured corporate attack to terrorist act.