The first portion of this term-paper largely focused on the sort of imagination associated with the dear ‘s regard in Shakespeare ‘s Sonnets to the Fair Youth and in other Elizabethan sequences. Get downing from the old appraisals, this 2nd portion will therefore more exactly concentrate on the lover ‘s eyes. It has been said earlier that the Elizabethans considered love as a agony, a lesion, or as Robert Burton has it in his Anatomy of Melancholy, “ a pestilence, a anguish, an snake pit, a bitter-sweet passion at last ” ( Burton, 1854 [ 1621 ] : 535 ) , one inoculated into the immature adult male ‘s bosom through ocular contact. Nevertheless, the precise nature of the lover ‘s agony comes into inquiry. The extract from As You Like It, quoted earlier, is really interesting. The 4th grade in love, harmonizing to Rosalind, is that of suspirations and agony: “ no Oklahoman met butA they look ‘d ; no soonerA look ‘d butA theyA lov ‘d ; no soonerA lov ‘d butA they sigh ‘d. ” ( 5.2.34-6 ) .

Gisele Venet, most knowingly asserts that the common organic structure of optic images to which we referred earlier serves the look of the petrarchan voluptas dolendi. As she puts it,

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[ L ] a fleche d’un premier respect entraine une blessure build et mystique qui ne pourrait guerir que par l’impensable merger diethylstilbestrols corps et ne sera donc suivie que de la langueur d’une attente jamais recompensee. Elle induit nut l’amant qui souffre de la passion amoureuse une humeur melancolique, la subtile “ voluptas dolendi ” de Petrarque. ( Venet, 2002:96-7 )

Her statement is proved by Rosalind ‘s address. Lover ‘s suspirations – the signal of their melancholy enduring – have two redresss: an “ incontinent ” race to “ marriage ” , which leads to the idealized Christian sort of “ merger ” contemplated in Phoenix and Turtle, or mere “ incontinency ” , that is animal cognition before or out of matrimony. Yet, in most Renaissance poetic plants, this merger remains ungraspable and the lover turns melancholy. In utmost illustrations, unanswered love may even take to madness.

Equally far as Shakespeare ‘s dramatic production is concerned, the instance of Hamlet, the melancholy prince, is so the most telling with respect to this train of idea. Throughout this drama, Polonius is likely the main advocator of the forlorn lover theory as to the cause of Hamlet ‘s lunacy. In Act 2, as Ophelia explains to her male parent that the immature adult male entered her room “ with a expression so hapless ” on his face ( Hamlet, 2.1.82 ) and so tormented her, Claudius ‘s attendant Godhead instantly envisages that the immature adult male may really good be the quarry of a lover ‘s melancholic temper: “ Mad for thy love? ” ( Hamlet, 2.1.85 ) he asks her. Then Ophelia goes on with her remembrance of the events and asserts,

He raised a suspiration so hapless and profound

As it did look to shatter all his majority

And stop his being. That done, he lets me travel,

And, with his caput over his shoulder turned,

He seemed to happen his manner without his eyes,

For out O ‘ doors he went without their aid,

And to the last bended their visible radiation on me. ( Hamlet, 2.1.95-101 )

Here Hamlet sights and suffers. He remains unable to interrupt oculus contact with Ophelia and even prefers walking blindly through the doors than losing it. As animal merger has been purely limited to “ nil ” , optic contact remains the merely loose signifier of merger he can perchance trust for with the object of his love. Polonius analyses the Prince ‘s behavior in these footings,

This is the really ecstasy of love,

Whose violent belongings fordoes itself

And leads the will to desperate projects

Equally oft as any passion under Eden

That does afflict our natures.

[ aˆ¦ ] [ aˆ¦ ] [ aˆ¦ ] [ aˆ¦ ]

That hath made him made.A ( Hamlet, 2.1.103-12 )

Even after Ophelia ‘s decease and entombment, her male parent goes on with this theory and asserts,

But yet do I believe

The beginning and beginning of his heartache

Spring from neglected love.A A ( Hamlet, 3.1.179-81 )

We learn from the old illustrations that the lesion inoculated by the oculus, through the oculus, can be healed. Animal merger makes it possible ; otherwise the lesion will putrefy into a melancholic temper, which may even take to madness. The humoral beginning of melancholy is invariably reaffirmed in Shakespeare ‘s dramas. For case, in As You Like It, Jacques describes his ain melancholy as the consequences of a “ assorted contemplation ” , of a “ contemplation ” which “ wrap [ s ] ” him “ in a most humourous unhappiness ” ( As You Like It, 4.1.19-20 ) . “ Humorous ” has so to be understood here as a mention to the beginnings of Jacques ‘s unhappiness, viz. an instability of temper. Furthermore, allow it be added that Jacques ‘s “ assorted contemplation ” provides an interesting reverberation with Berwone ‘s “ dull contemplation ” in Love ‘s Labour ‘s Lost ( 4.3.328 ) . Both characters emphasise the mirrorlike beginning of the melancholic adult male ‘s humoral instability.

This belief has been extensively developed by Burton and so, its literary look was grounded within the Elizabethan train of idea. In the 1621 edition of the Anatomy, Burton writes on the correlativity between vision and love melancholy and recommends to any recovering melancholy reader to avoid oculus contact with the object of his love:

Nothing Oklahoman revives, or ‘waxeth sore once more ‘ , A as Petrarch holds, than ‘love doth by sight’.A As pomp renews aspiration ; the sight of gold, covetousness ; a beauteous object sets on fire this firing lust.A Et multum saliens incitat unda sitim.A The sight of drink makes one prohibitionist, and the sight of meat increaseth appetency. ‘T is unsafe hence to see.A ( Burton, 1854 [ 1621 ] : 589 )

Melancholy was an indispensable component of Elizabethan England. The association of optic images with it can possibly be considered as another new intending the sonneteers added to the original ‘darting metaphor ‘ .

2.1.2. Elizabethan Cryings: An Ocular Distillation of Sorrow

Far less utmost nevertheless than for Hamlet, this connexion can be identified in most Elizabethan sonnet sequences. In all of them, the lover is dolorous and melancholic. See for case this quatrain by Sidney,

The funny marbless, seing dull pensivenesse

Bewray it selfe in my long settled eyes,

Whence those same exhausts of melancholy rise

With idle Paines, and losing ayme, do guesse. ( Astrophel and Stella: 23, 1-4 )

The oculus motive is here endowed with another meaning. It serves the diagnosing of the poet ‘s melancholic agony. Quite frequently, so, the lover ‘s oculus, in a figure derived from chemistry, distils his sorrow. Lodge likely advances the most luxuriant bend of this image,

My love doth serve for fire, my bosom the furnace is,

The aperries of my suspirations augment the combustion fire,

The limbec is mine oculus that doth distil the same ;

And by how much my fire is violent and sly,

By so much doth it cause the Waterss mount on high,

That shower from mine eyes, for to pacify my girl. ( Phillis: 37,9-14 )

In this sonnet, the poet compares his organic structure to the traditional tools of the alchemist and depicts it as a combination of ambix, curcubit and retor. His bosom is the “ furnace ” , incorporating love ‘s lesion. It is heated by love ‘s combustion fire and therefore, his melancholic temper becomes volatile and “ mont [ s ] on high ” within his organic structure as if in a retor. His oculus is the “ limbec ” which proceeds to the distillment and metamorphoses his melancholic temper into cryings of the pure, crystallised, kernel of sorrow.

Similarly, Daniel introduces this image in his sequence,

These grieving sighes, the smoakes of mine annoy,

These teares, which heate of sacred fire distils,

Are those due testimonials that my faith doth wage

Unto the Tyrant whose unkindness kils. ( Delia: 22,1-4 )

Finally, it can besides be identified in Michael Drayton ‘s Idea,

But cherished Teares condensing from mine Eyne

Which with my Sighes this Epicure doth burn. ( Idea: 7,6-7 )

In the old illustrations, Sidney, Lodge, Daniel and Drayton extensively rely on the dogmas of the Galenic medical theory. The procedure they present has to be construed as the mutant of putrefied temper into critical liquors and so, into carnal liquors. They most poetically show the basic instability of tempers – and the consequent disease – that love has provoked in them.

This symptom of melancholy is rendered clearly expressed in Burton ‘s Anatomy in really similar footings. As he refers to the lover ‘s “ ordinary suspiration, ailments and plaint ” , the bookman asserts,

As beads from a still, — ut occluso stillat Bachelor of Arts igne spirits, doth Cupid ‘s fire provoke cryings from a true lover ‘s eyes, A : A«A The mighty Mars did oft for Venus scream, / Privily washing his horrid cheek / With. womanish cryings, ” , “ Ignis distillat in undas a, Testis erit largus qui rigat ora spirits, A A» with many such like passion. ( Burton, 1854 [ 1621 ] : 551 )

Let us note that the image of distillment reappears in the 2nd Latin citation Burton weaves through his debate. Furthermore, this transition instantly follows, in his book, a probationary medical account of the lover ‘s instability of tempers.

In the old illustrations, Elizabethan sonneteers associate the medical beliefs of their yearss and age with the heritage of the Hermetic doctrine and its attendant scientific discipline of chemistry. As such, the lover ‘s oculus becomes a “ limbeck ” condensing melancholy and sorrow. In other words, the oculus becomes the outward translator of the poet ‘s inward universe.

2.2. “ And perspective it is best painter ‘s art ”

Shakespeare and Artistic Vision

2.2.1.The Aesthetic Birth of Love

With Shakespeare, nevertheless, the poet ‘s oculus is endowed with another meaning. Sonnet 30 Teachs us that the talker ‘s oculus is “ fresh to flux ” ( 30,5 ) . This is non surprising. Indeed, it has been said earlier that the most immediate effect of Shakespeare ‘s reversal of this traditional motive of the Elizabethan love discourse was that no lesion was inoculated into the lover ‘s bosom. Therefore, the grounds of his falling in love and the principle of his melancholy enduring spring from a different context. Sonnet 24 informs us good plenty about it.

Mine oculus hath drama ‘d the painter and hath stell’dA

Thy beauty ‘s signifier in tabular array of my bosom ; A

My organic structure is the frame wherein ‘t is held, A

And perspective it is best painter ‘s art.A

For through the painter must you see his accomplishment,

To happen where your true image pictured prevarications ; A

Which in my bosom ‘s store is hanging still, A

That hath his Windowss glazed with thine eyes.A

Now see what good turns eyes for eyes have done: A

Mine eyes have drawn thy form, and thine for meA

Are windows to my chest, where-through the sunA

Delights to peep, to stare therein on thee ; A

Yet eyes this craft want to decorate their art ;

They draw but what they see, know non the bosom. ( 24 )

The poet clearly describes the manner he fell in love with the immature adult male as an aesthetic, or instead, an artistic procedure. His “ oculus hath drama ‘d the painter ” and imprinted the image of the immature adult male in the “ table ” of his “ bosom ” . It is, most explicitly, the poet ‘s aesthetic emotion before the beauty of the immature adult male which elicited this artistic procedure. This sonnet is peculiarly interesting as it is the key to understand many facets of Shakespeare ‘s love discourse throughout the sequence. Indeed, as distinguishable from other Elizabethan sonneteers, the poet is non the inactive victim of external stimulations. He is at one time the sticker and the victim, the “ painter ” and the “ table ” and as such, the causes of his love are internal. In other words, even though the Fair Youth is the conceiver of beauty, the poet remains the lone conceiver of love.

As Vendler most knowingly puts it in her analysis of this sonnet,

This sonnet turns on the etymological wordplay position = see through [ & lt ; per-spicio ] . As the painter-lover must use position ( his best art ) , to stand for the dear, so the darling must use per-spective to see into the painter to happen his ain image engraved on the painter ‘s bosom. ( Vendler,1997:142 )

This etymological wordplay is cardinal. The young person, in order to contemplate the poet ‘s graphics has so to look through the poet. His eyes are the “ Windowss ” to his “ chest ” . In other words, the immature adult male directs the beams of his eyes into the poet ‘s eyes, and through them, into his bosom. The image of the Sun serves the metaphorical look of this procedure.

Yet, every bit far as this image is concerned, both Vendler and Knight see the Sun as an fable, i.e. another character that is foreign to the Youth/Poet relationship.

The Sun itself delectations to look, non merely, as Tucker takes it, “ into my chest ” , but instead “ through these Windowss, your eyes, into my chest, where it sees you ” . The Sun we may, I think, equate with the head of God, some greater consciousness enjoying and utilizing human experience ; or possibly the cryptic “ love ” to which we refer when we say that two people are “ in love with ” each other. ( Knight, 1955:41 )

However, with respect to the earlier development, it appears that Knight ‘s superb analysis may state a spot more than what really is in this sonnet. The Christian background he introduces in his analysis as he “ equates ” the image of the Sun with “ the head of God ” is so absent from the sonnet proper. Furthermore, it has been demonstrated so far that the Sun is a common metaphor in the Sonnets standing for the oculus of the immature adult male. One may possibly, more merely, see the Sun as such, and non as yet another allegorical character in the sequence or as the symbol of “ some greater consciousness ” .

Understanding this image in this manner leads us frontward in our analysis. The oculus of the Youth “ delectations to peep, to stare therein ” , that is, to see through the poet in order to detect his ain image hanging in the lover ‘s workshop. This so is interesting as it creates an instability in love, one which permeates the sequence as a whole. The lover looks at the darling, but the darling, as he looks through the poet, merely looks at himself. The very nature of their love, so pictured, is hence one-sided ; it has two topics but merely one object: the Fair Youth.

This sort of consideration is common in Elizabethan sequences. The kept woman is ever considered as a rocky bosom, incapable of loving anyone but herself. It is a chaste Diana ( Cynthia: 9,1 ) , a “ cruell Fayre ” ( Delia: 10,2 ) who scorns the poet ‘s love. Let it be reminded, for case, that Griffin ‘s sequence is entitled Fidessa, more chaste so kinde. Yet, the specialness of Shakespeare ‘s sequence lies in the fact that the dear ‘s incapacity to love anyone but himself is ne’er considered as something negative. For case, in 94 the talker exclaims,

They that have pow’r to ache, and will make none,

That do non make the thing they most do demo,

Who, traveling others, are themselves as rock,

Unmoved, cold, and to enticement decelerate — –

They justly do inherit Eden ‘s graces,

And conserve nature ‘s wealths from disbursal ;

They are the Godheads and proprietors of their faces,

Others but stewards of their excellence. ( 94,1-8 )

Now allow it be said that sonnet 24 besides features a double-entendre on “ perspective ” . As Booth claims it ( although he does non analyze the effects of his statement with respect to the sequence as a whole ) the word has to be understood in the sense it was traditionally endowed with in Shakespeare ‘s yearss and age, that is, as an anamorphism. Indeed, as Booth reminds it, the word “ position ” used to denominate a “ sort of image that was peculiarly popular with the Elizabethans ; a position is a image drawn so as to look distorted except from one peculiar point of position ” ( Booth, 1977:173 ) . This is non far-fetched. Shakspere himself used the word ‘perspective ” three other times in his complete production and every clip with this significance. See for case this extract from Richard II:

Like positions which, justly gaz ‘d upon,

Show nil but confusion, -ey ‘d awry

Distinguish signifier. ( Richard II, 2.2.18-20 )[ 1 ]

Sonnet 24 is written from the visionary ‘s / painter ‘s point of view. In other words, it informs us as to the “ one peculiar point of position ” from which this position has to be looked at ; this point of position is that of presentia,[ 2 ]when the oculus and bosom are both enabled to see the Young Man, that is, when their eyes meet. When unable to stand in this “ one peculiar point of position ” , that is, when the young person or the poet is absent and that ocular contact is accordingly broken, the poet “ sinks down to decease, oppressed with melancholy ” ( 45,8 ) . As such, contrary to other Elizabethan sonneteers, it is non the lesion inoculated by the dear ‘s oculus which elicits a melancholic temper, but instead the fact that poet ‘s eyes are deprived the juncture to hold oning him.

2.2.2. The affair of Appearances and the Poet ‘s Partial Sight

It has been said that the poet considered love as an artistic representation. Yet, in the pair of 24, he raises a job with respect to love ‘s representation. He asserts that his eyes merely “ pull what they see ” and hence, “ know non the bosom ” of the immature adult male. In other words, the poet has to deduce from a ocular experience a deeper cognition of the Youth ‘s inward nature. Precisely as Shakespeare recalls it through the synaesthesia in 23, “ To hear with eyes belongs to love ‘s mulcts humor ” ( 23,14 ) . The job arising in this pair turns into a matured struggle in sonnet 46 which goes on with this eye/heart amour propre.

Mine oculus and bosom are at a mortal war

How to split the conquering of thy sight ;

Mine oculus my bosom thy image ‘s sight would exclude,

My bosom mine oculus the freedom of that right.A

My bosom doth plead that 1000 in him dost prevarication — A

A cupboard ne’er pierced with crystal eyes — A

But the suspect doth that supplication denyA

And says in him thy just visual aspect lies.A

To ‘cide this rubric is impanneledA

A pursuit of ideas, all renters to the bosom,

And by their finding of fact is determinedA

The clear oculus ‘s mediety and the beloved bosom ‘s portion:

As therefore ; mine oculus ‘s due is thy outward portion,

And my bosom ‘s right thy inward love of heart.A ( 46 )

Here the poet ‘s bosom and oculus are “ at mortal war ” . The whole sonnet presents a sort of test with a suspect ( the “ oculus ” ) , an accuser ( the “ bosom ” ) and a jury ( “ a pursuit of ideas ” ) . Both claim their monopoly in love ‘s affairs. Yet, the jury gives its finding of fact and distributes different functions or “ parts ” to the accuser and suspect. Whereas the first will be in charge of the Youth ‘s “ inward love of bosom ” , the latter will entirely contemplate its “ outward portion ” . This sonnet reaffirms the basic duality between kernel and visual aspect, one that is unremittingly worked out in the sequence. In malice of the finding of fact which appears as a declaration of the struggle, the original division ( “ mortal war ” ) leads to another, broader division for each of them. Both oculus and bosom are condemned to see the Fair Friend merely in portion, they no longer benefit of a complete vision of him.

2.3. Partition and Substitution

However this struggle is merely fleeting, and in 47 an good-humored armistice is eventually achieved. The agony imposed by the absence of 44 and 45 is stronger than the wrangle, and the original division even appears infantile.

Betwixt mine oculus and bosom a conference is took, A

And each doth good bends now unto the other: A

When that mine oculus is famish ‘d for a expression, A

Or bosom in love with suspirations himself doth smother,

With my love ‘s image so my oculus doth feastA

And to the painted feast commands my bosom ; A

Another clip mine oculus is my bosom ‘s guestA

And in his ideas of love doth portion a portion:

So, either by thy image or my love, A

Thyself off art resent still with me ; A

For 1000 non further than my ideas canst move,

And I am still with them and they with thee ; A

Or, if they sleep, thy image in my sightA

Awakes my bosom to bosom ‘s and oculus ‘s delight.A ( 47 )

Between the “ oculus and bosom a conference is took ” ( 47,1 ) in order to extenuate the absence. The oculus is “ famished for a expression ” ( 47,3 ) , the bosom “ doth clutter ” itself “ with suspirations ” . In other words, because of absence, the poet – whose suspirations serves the diagnosing – turns melancholy. For privation of “ love ‘s image ” ( 47,5 ) they give a “ painted feast ” ( 47,6 ) where each of them is the “ guest ” ( 47,7 ) of the other. They “ portion ” their “ portion ” ( 47,8 ) with one another in order to maintain the “ image ” of “ love ” ( 47,9 ) ever “ present ” ( 47,9 ) with the poet when the Youth is “ off ” ( 47,9 ) .

Here besides the linguistic communication is intensely correlated with art. The point of position is no longer that of presentia depicted in 24 but that of absentia. The psychological position of love ‘s representation can non be looked at right and hence, the poet turns melancholy. His organic structure serves the ruse as to extenuate this melancholy. This, so, is indispensable. As Vendler puts it, “ The air of exultant success in keeping ownership of the beloved, straight attributable to the minuet of courtesy between oculus and bosom, is a mask for the devastation of absence. ” ( Vendler, 1997:238-39 ) . In other words, the poet discovers that he can utilize an ruse in order to keep the perfect position contemplated of 24. This ruse is used once more in 113 as to extenuate absentia and rectify the position.

Since I left you, mine oculus is in my head ; A

And that which governs me to travel about

Doth portion his map and is partially unsighted,

Seems visual perception, but effectually is out ;

For it no signifier delivers to the bosom

Of bird of flower, or form, which it doth latch:

Of his speedy objects hath the head no portion,

Nor his ain vision holds what it doth gimmick:

For if it see the rudest or gentlest sight,

The most sweet favor or deformed’st animal, A

The mountain or the sea, the twenty-four hours or dark, A

The crow or dove, it shapes them to your characteristic: A

A Incapable of more, full with you, A

A My most true head therefore makes mine oculus untrue.A ( 113 )

This sonnet is peculiarly interesting. Indeed, as sonnet 47 establishes the theory, sonnet 113 features the practical facet of this theory. The point of position is that of absentia, “ Since I left you ” ( 113,1 ) . The poet ‘s “ oculus is [ his ] bosom ‘s guest / And in his ideas of love doth portion a portion ” ( 47,7-8 ) . The fast one imagined in 47 reveals its drawbacks. Here, the poet ‘s oculus “ doth portion his map ” ( 113,3 ) and is hence “ partially blind ” ( 113,3 ) . The polyptoton on “ portion ” / “ partially ” recalls sonnet 46 and 47 which besides shared this really word “ portion ” ( 46,12 ; 13 / 47,8 ) . The effect of the armistice contemplated in 47 is that the bosom replace his “ portion ” to that of the oculus, and hence, the oculus, although it “ seems seing ” ( 113,4 ) “ no signifier delivers to the bosom ” ( 113,5 ) . The bosom replaces the oculus and as such, every form the oculus can see is metamorphosed by the bosom, which “ shapes it ” to the “ characteristic ” of the immature adult male. ( 113,12 ) . In other words, the ruse contemplated in 47 plants but it removes the poet from world. His love turns to compulsion, but at least, he remains safe and stands melancholy.

Shakespeare ‘s intervention of optic images was already really different from that of his coevalss every bit far as the dear ‘s eyes were concerned. But now, the effects of this simple reversal turn into a matured idiosyncratic intervention with respect to the poet ‘s oculus – 1 that is eminently different from that of his modern-day authors.

2.3. “ These present-absent with fleet gesture slide ”

Time, Death, Absence: The Melancholy of the Invisible

2.3.1. “ For through the painter must you see his accomplishment ” : Nature ‘s Rich Pageant

It has been said earlier that the construct of love expressed in the Sonnets was eminently artistic and that the poet ‘s relationship with the immature adult male had to be construed in footings of a visual/psychological position whose one right point of position was that of presentia, and whose wrong point of position was that of absentia. This consideration becomes progressively of import throughout the sequence. Indeed, this aesthetic experience of love springs from the poet ‘s acknowledgment of the immature adult male as a work of art. His love is, in some manner, a mirror image: the position artistic representation of another work of art.

In sonnet 20, the conceiver of the work is clearly defined as the poet exclaims, “ A adult female ‘s face, with Nature ‘s ain manus painted, / Hast 1000, the master-mistress of my passion ” ( 20,1-2 ) . The immature adult male is clearly defined as Nature ‘s graphics, one so absolutely realised that Nature herself, such as Pygmalion, fell in love with her creative activity: “ And for a adult female wert 1000 foremost created, / Till Nature as she wrought you fell a-doting ” ( 20,9-10 ) . The sense of “ doting ” is univocal ; it recalls the “ small western flower ” who makes everyone “ frantically dote ” upon any animal seen upon rousing in A Midsummer Night ‘s Dream, ( 2.1.169-72 ) or “ This second childhood of our general ‘s ” ( 1.1.1 ) which features Antony ‘s “ overflow [ ing ] ” love for the queen of Egypt in the gap line of the eponymic drama, Antony and Cleopatra.

However, if the poet ‘s love is nil but an artistic meta-representation – i.e. the mirror image of an bing artistic representation – the words of sonnet 24 are endowed with a important importance: “ For through the painter must you see his accomplishment ” ( 24,5 ) . That ‘s exactly what the poet will make throughout the sequence.

Indeed, Nature ‘s duty in the creative activity of the work of art the Youth represents is invariably reaffirmed. For case, it is impossible to name to mind the image of the Fair Youth without remembering at one time the rose in full bloom ( 1 ) , the peace of a cheery springtime forenoon ( 33 ) , a summer ‘s twenty-four hours ( 18 ) or the rise of the Sun ( 7 ) ; nor is it possible to save a idea for Shakespeare ‘s lyrical ego without adverting the frail frozen bough agitating against the air current ( 73 ) . Indeed, throughout the sequence the poet invariably intends to look “ through the painter ” as to “ see his accomplishment ” . ( 24,5 ) . Yet, even though it is Nature which created the graphics, her creative activity is however “ framed ” by “ Time ” ( 5,1-2 ) . As such, nevertheless transcendent the aesthetic experience of love expressed in the Sonnets, it remains however locked within the universe of Nature and Time. The poet bit by bit discovers the truth in Hotspur ‘s words “ Life ‘s Time ‘s sap ” ( Henry IV Part I, 5.4.81 ) and through this, that in Ulysses ‘ words,

Beauty, humor,

High birth, energy of bone, desert in service,

Love, friendly relationship, charity, are subjects all

To covetous and calumniating clip ( Troilus and Cressida, 3.3.171-4 )

The acknowledgment of the creative person ‘s accomplishment is ocular and it is peculiarly exemplified in sonnet 12 as the poet observes the rich pageant of Nature. The thought that is expressed here is one of inevitableness, as though destiny had decided that everything in the universe was condemned to an ineluctable decay and extinction. Everything in nature unremittingly forecast the disintegration to come and hence, it is in a most self-contradictory and so typically Shakespearian manner that life itself becomes a regular souvenir mori.

When I do number the clock that tells the clip, A

And see the courageous twenty-four hours sunk in horrid dark ; A

When I behold the violet past premier, A

And sable coils all silver ‘d o’er with white ;

When exalted trees I see wastes of leavesA

Which once from heat did canopy the herd,

And summer ‘s green all girded up in sheavesA

Borne on the bier with white and bristly beard, A

Then of thy beauty do I inquiry make, A

That 1000 among the wastes of clip must travel,

Since Sweets and beauties do themselves abandon

And decease every bit fast as they see others turn. ( 12, 1-12 ) A

For the first clip in the sequence, the first-person remarkable pronoun “ I ” dominates the sonnet and put the accent on the kernel to the temporal geographic expedition induced by the initial adverb “ When ” . As the poet “ count [ s ] the clock that tells the clip ” ( 12,1 ) – where the initial rhyme of the stop consonants /t/ and /k/ phonemically imitates the oppressive ticking of the pendulum – he is called upon to see grounds of the transition of clip throughout the natural universe. He provides us with seven different images of clip in the following seven poetries. These are the image of the “ courageous twenty-four hours ” overcome by “ horrid dark ” ( 12,2 ) , the attenuation “ violet ” ( 12,3 ) , the “ sable coil ” which are “ silvered ” with “ white ” ( 12,4 ) , the “ exalted trees ” losing their “ foliages ” ( 12,5 ) , the resulting loss of protection for the “ herd ” ( 12,6 ) , the crop of the wheat ( 12,7 ) and eventually, the image of the crop as a funeral emanation. ( 12,8 ) . All these images win one another with an grim celerity which creates a turning tenseness in the sonnet. All of these depict the coming of decease, yet they are all urgently vivacious with an ultimate breath of life as if the universe intended to fight against its ain destiny or fate. What is really interesting here is that Shakespeare extensively uses verbs of ocular perceptual experience in this sonnet. He “ count [ s ] ” the “ clock ” , “ see [ s ] ” the “ twenty-four hours ” , “ behold [ s ] ” the “ violet ” etc. Yet all he sees in the universe leads him to an overpowering inquiry which springs in poetry 9 and unfolds until verse 12. This so is uncovering. In the octave of the sonnet, one observation per line was the norm, but four lines are necessary for the inquiry to blossom. This emphasises the procedure of integrating. The poet has observed the “ painter ” of the immature adult male, viz. nature, as to “ see his accomplishment ” . He has discovered that everything it created was condemned to disintegrate. This assessment leads him to the inquiry of poetry 9 where he asks himself if the immature adult male ‘s beauty will amount amongst the “ wastes of clip ” .

2.3.2. From Observation to Integration

This ocular geographic expedition of the creative person ‘s accomplishment continues in 64.

When I have seen by Time ‘s fell manus defacedA

The rich proud cost of outworn buried age ; A

When erstwhile exalted towers I see down-razedA

And brass ageless slave to mortal fury ; A

When I have seen the hungry ocean gainA

Advantage on the land of the shore, A

And the house dirt win of the watery chief, A

Increasing shop with loss and loss with shop ;

When I have seen such interchange of province, A

Or province itself confounded to disintegrate ; A

Ruin hath taught me therefore to ruminate, A

That Time will come and take my love off.

This idea is as a decease, which can non take

But weep to hold that which it fears to lose. ( 64 )

Here besides the poet emphasises his single perceptual experience. Yet, even though the verse form is in many ways similar to that presented earlier, Shakespeare however introduces here a major reversal in the tone he uses. Indeed, the poet introduces a past tense: have-en, and hence, inscribes the procedure of ocular acknowledgment in the yesteryear at same clip that he puts on the foreground the present effects of this very acknowledgment. Whereas sonnet 12 merely presented the talker ‘s turning consciousness of the common destiny of all Nature ‘s creative activities, he has now integrated devastation as a norm. In other words, his ocular perceptual experience of natural procedures has began to act upon his really apprehension of life itself, and most affectingly, his really understanding of love. The poet does no longer comprehend the universe merely through his optic variety meats, he has “ seen ” ( 64,1 ; 5 ; 9 ) in the past, but now he “ ruminates ” . In other words, his “ head and sight ” are now “ distractedly commix ‘d ” ( A Lover ‘s Complaint, 28 ) . He is at one time committed to both a ocular and a psychological sort of centripetal perceptual experience. The talker does no longer analyze the universe with rough objectiveness and withdrawal, he is now involved into an intensely subjective internalization of the natural processes he observes. The effects of this internalization are clearly rendered seeable throughout the verse form as the personal pronoun “ I ” ( 64,1 ; 3 ; 5 ; 9 ) is eventually replaced by the genitive one, “ my ” ( 64,12 ) . In verse 12, “ my love ” ( 64,12 ) endorses a double semanticism as it foremost designates an object in the universe, the Fair Youth, and so refers to an international emotion: the poet ‘s intensely personal feeling of love.

From his ocular perceptual experience in the universe of Nature – the Godhead of the Young Man – the poet has drawn a decision: “ Time will come and take my love off ” . ( 64,12 ) . This is possibly the most indispensable poetry in the whole sequence. In itself it symbolises the connexion between love and clip. It has been said earlier that, for the poet, love was an artistic emotion, a position whose one right point of position was that of presentia, and whose wrong point of position was that of absentia. Because he has observed the Youth ‘s Godhead, the poet has realised that, his love ( whether the object or the feeling ) , was “ supposed as forfeit to a confined day of reckoning ” ( 107,4 ) , that imposed by “ Time ‘s thieving advancement to infinity ” ( 77,8 ) . Time will therefore “ take ” the poet ‘s “ love off ” ( 64,12 ) . In other words, Time will take to decease, and decease will be a replacement to absentia. It clearly appears that Love ‘s Nemesis in the Sonnets is non Death, nor Time, but absence. Death is merely the prototype of absentia and Time the vehicle towards it. This really thought leads the poet to melancholy agony, to a near-death: “ This idea is as a decease ” ( 64,13 ) . One that can non be cured by the simple fast one of permutation contemplated in 47 and 113 because decease is unremovable. As such, Time becomes a menace for love as it will switch the position ‘s point of position from presentia to absentia.

Burton most strongly makes this point in his treatise as he asserts,

If farewell of friends, absence entirely can work such violent effects, what shall decease make, when they must everlastingly be separated, ne’er in this universe to run into once more? This is so dangerous a torture for the clip, that it takes away their appetency, desire of life, extiuguisheth all delectations, it causeth deep suspirations and moans, cryings, exclaimings. ( Burton, 1854A [ 1621 ] A : 234 )

Subsequently on he adds,

A true expression, Timor mortis, morte pejor, the fright of decease is worse than decease itself, and the memory of that sad hr, to some fortunate and rich work forces, ” is every bit acrimonious as saddle sore, ” Ecclus. xli. 1. Inquietam nobis vitani facit mortis metus, a worse pestilence can non go on to a adult male, than to be so troubled in his head ; ‘t is triste divortiuma, heavy separation.A ( Burton, 1854A [ 1621 ] A : 238 )

This idea obsesses the poet, and so, he can merely populate a life of melancholy. This is peculiarly rendered explicit through the sequence ‘s double intervention of clip which urges everything in the universe and so destroys it, “ For never-resting clip leads summer on / To horrid winter and confounds him there ” ( 5, ) , which gives value “ Then the amour propre of this inconstant stay / Sets you more rich in young person before my sight ” ( 15, ) and so, takes it off. Indeed, as the poet observes Nature he becomes cognizant of the exposure of its creative activities. This exposure is set against the transition of Time which is the beginning of this exposure. The climbing nightshade concomitance of love and menace, strength and exposure is ever exploited with an unbelievable poignancy. Everything is seen in its relation to clip and the load of extinction and absence is invariably perceived in what is present, new and alive.