The sacred Bibles of both Hinduism and Islam have been objects of scrutiny for centuries now, simply for the enigma attached to their being.
Hindooism is the 3rd largest faith in the universe. It is neither based on a individual book nor on the words of any instructor or prophesier but on the Eternal Truth. However there are, literally, 1000s of books and Bibles to steer both novice and the bookman alike, which offers rich beginning of religious literature. Bhagavad Gita is besides known as Gitopanishad. It is the kernel of Vedic cognition and one of the most of import Upanishads in Vedic literature. The talker in Bhagavad Gita is Lord Krishna, who is mentioned in all the pages of this Bible as the Supreme Personality of Godhead. For this ground it is rather imperative for one to experience somewhat enthralled about the Bhagavad Gita and carry on a survey on it.
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Islam, on the other manus, is the 2nd largest faith in the universe, after Christianity. The Baronial Qur’an, as believed by the Muslims is the merely spiritual text which has survived for over 14 centuries now, without any corruptness or human intercession. It still continues to be in its purest signifier as revealed to the Prophet Muhammad through Angel Jibreel ( Gabriel ) . It is a stock of valuable research stuff under one roof catering to the demands of bookmans, theologians and scientists all across the Earth.
Therefore, as a pupil of literature, it is quiet explicable for me to choose these two puzzling Bibles for my research and grok how God communicates to adult male through them.
To understand the use of linguistic communication, both semiotic and rhetoric, in the spiritual texts of Hinduism and Islam.
To analyze the form of communicating between God and Man in Bhagavad Gita and Qur’an.
To analyze the common subjects such as Concept of God, Creation of the Universe, and other common instructions etc.
There are three types of Research Methods, viz. Qualitative analyses, Quantitative analyses and the 3rd, Mixed method analyses is a mixture of both qualitative and quantitative research methods.
The basic difference between Qualitative analyses and Quantitative analyses is that the former involves the analysis of informations such as words ( e.g. , from interviews ) , images ( e.g. , picture ) , or objects ( e.g. , an artefact ) , whereas the latter involves the analysis of numerical informations ( e.g. , statistics ) . Assorted method analyses, as the name suggest is a mixture of both Qualitative and Quantitative analyses and in the procedure covering the short approachs of both these methods.
The survey undertaken in this peculiar work falls under the wide class of- Qualitative content analysis.
Qualitative Content Analysis
Qualitative content analysis processs were influenced by the Hagiographas of Weber ( 1907 ) , Bulmer ( 1933 ) and Levi-Strauss ( 1963 ) .
Analytic tools deducing from the subjects such as literary unfavorable judgment, movie surveies and linguistics have been applied to probe of text construction and production of significance. Qualitative content analysis processs emphasize the capacity of texts to convey multiple significances, depending upon the receiving system. ( Gunter 2000 )
Krippendorf ( 1980 ) distinguishes two cardinal constructs of model and logic in relation to content analysis. The model of content analysis involves clear statement of the chief research inquiry, the sort of informations, the context relation to the informations and the naming of interventions from informations to certain facets of their contexts or the mark of their illations. That is to state that, to carry through these illations the research worker needs to hold the operational theory of data-context relationships. Logic trades with the processs involved in the choice and production of informations, the processing of informations, methods of illation and analysis, including the appraisal of cogency and dependability. Hijmans ( 1996 ) distinguishes several types of qualitative content analysis.
In this research the semiotic analysis method and narrative analysis method of the qualitative content analysis processs will be used.
Semioticss in recent old ages has come to intend both the survey and reading of marks. Founded by Ferdinand de Saussure, semiologies seeks to explicate the content and the aesthetics of the text by agencies of the marks utilizing which the text has been encoded. Signs average different things to different people and semiologies try to construe the significances that are derived from it. Semioticss can be defined loosely as a sphere of probe and that explores the nature and map of marks every bit good as the systems and the procedures implicit in meaning, look, representation and communicating. It is a valuable tool for understanding how people find intending in life-in objects, in rites, in text of all sorts. It is an highly of import tool to analyse text found in the mass media every bit good as communicating in mundane life.
The followers are the constructs that come under the scientific discipline of marks.
Languages and talking
For this research the undermentioned constructs will be used to analyse the spiritual Bibles:
Indication and Intension
Indication is defined as the ‘literal ” , “ obvious ‘ or ‘commonsense ‘ significance of a mark. The term intension is referred to the socio cultural and personal associations ( ideological, emotional etc ) of a mark. The associations are really much related to interpreter ‘s category, gender, ethnicity, age and so on. So gestural are more unfastened to interpretation -in their intension than their indications.
Indications and intensions both involve the usage of codifications. Structural semioticans who emphasize the comparative flightiness of forms and Social semioticans who emphasize the diverseness of reading and the importance of cultural and historical contexts are barely likely to accept the impression of a ‘literal ‘ significance. Denotation merely involves a broader consensus.
Indication is the first order of meaning propounded by Roland Barthes. This refers to the common sense, obvious significance of the mark. It is the manifest significance of the mark. In instance of lingual marks, the denotive significance is what the dictionary efforts to supply.
Intension is the 2nd order of meaning. It describes the interaction that occurs when the mark meet the feelings or emotions of the users and values of their civilization. This is when intending move towards the subjective or the inter-subjective, it is when the interpretant is influenced as much by the translator as by the object or mark. It refers to the hidden, subtle, the latent significance of the mark. It is mostly arbitrary, specific to one civilization.
This term deals with pass oning with associations. Meaning is made out of association, by doing connexion between two things. It therefore invokes certain thoughts or represents an object. For illustration in literature we can talk of the male monarch, the thought of kingship as “ the Crown ”
This is subcategory of metonymy where a portion is used to stand for a whole or vice-versa.
The term trades with the relation between texts and is used to demo how texts borrow from one another, consciously and sometimes unconsciously it involves the usage of stuff of sort or another that becomes a approaching currency and happen their ways with anyone being cognizant of it, into texts. Arguments among literary theoreticians exists that all originative texts are finally intertextual, that is are related to other texts in changing grades.
This theory has its roots in the Soviet brotherhood of the late 1920 and has been fed by the surveies of a diverse, international group of linguistics, semiologists, anthropologists, folklorists, literary critics and movie theoreticians. ( Allen 1997 )
Plants of history, play, fiction or doctrine may be comprehended merely with an apprehension of rhetoric. Rhetoric merely put, denotes the art of persuasion. Marcus Tullius Cicero, a solons and rhetorician, suggest that rhetoric has five parts: “ Since all activity and ability of an speechmaker falls into five divisions. He must first hit upon what to state ; so manage and marshal his finds, non simply in an orderly manner, but with a know aparting oculus for the exact weight as it were of each statement ; following go on to range them in the adornments of manner ; after that maintain them guarded in his memory ; and in the terminal present them with consequence and appeal. ” Rhetoric for Cicero is therefore broken into five parts: Invention, Arrangement, Style, Memory and Delivery. The footings which were originally used for analysing oratory are applicable to texts excessively. ( Berger 2000 )
The art of rhetoric alludes to the right apprehension of the symbolism of the ‘tone ‘ used. In other word, significance and purpose in linguistic communication are reliant upon where and how words are emphasized in a peculiar context. Misinterpretation of tone can do misunderstanding of the author ‘s intent. ‘Tone ‘ in literature is frequently hard to depict with exactitude. The following are words that have been used to depict assorted tones: playful, solemn, mocking, reverent, excited, earnest, capricious, sarcastic, sardonic, condescending philosophical, light hearted, self-asserting, dogmatic, level, dramatic, impersonal, unagitated, barbarian, confidant, detached gloomy, heavy, personal, etc. ( A Close Study of Literature 2001 )
The followers are the constructs that come under Rhetorical devices:
Metaphor indicates an implied comparing between two things of unlike nature that yet have something in common.
E.g. : David was a king of beasts in the conflict.
Simile indicates an expressed comparing of two things of unlike nature that yet have something in common.
E.g. : David was like a king of beasts in the conflict.
Personification is an ontological metaphor in which you give human properties to abstractions and inanimate objects.
Hyperbole indicates the usage of overdone footings for the intent of accent of heightened consequence.
E.g. : His fluency could divide the stone.
Euphemism implies the permutation of an agreeable or at least offense look for one whose plainer significance might be rough or unpleasant.
Onomatopoeia indicates the usage of words whose sound echoes the sense.
E.g. : He clattered and clashed in the dark hostel pace.
Metonymy implies the permutation of an implied word by an prenominal or implicative word.
E.g. : Pen for authors.
Fable is the usage of fictional characters in the actual degree of a narrative to unknot the abstract, philosophical, Godhead, historical, societal, moral, fabulous, spiritual or political significance lying underneath its surface. Great fables have many degrees of significances.
Oxymoron implies the yoking of two words that are normally contradictory.
E.g. : mean wealths ; strenuous idling ; relaxed tension ; rational craze
Aphorism is a general truth or a deep observation expressed in a concise mode. The word apothegm comes from Grecian aphorismos intending to specify.
E.g. : A decision is where you get tired of thought.
Paradox indicates an seemingly contradictory statement that however contains a step of truth. A paradox is non so much concerned with a bend of intending in juxtaposed words, but with a bend of significance in the whole statement.
E.g. : Art is a signifier of lying in order to state the truth.
Irony implies the usage of word in such a manner as to convey a significance antonym to the actual significance of the word.
E.g. : For Brutus is an honorable adult male.
Rhetorical Question implies inquiring a inquiry, non for the intent of arousing an reply but for the intent of asseverating or denying something sidelong.
E.g. : How can you perchance do good vino from hapless grapes?
Imagination means word-images.
Apposition is the use of the colon grade for explication.
Antithesis implies the apposition of contrasting thoughts, frequently in a parallel sequence.
E.g. : Though studious, he was popular.
Climax implies agreement of words, phrases, or clauses in an order of increasing importance. It is a heightened signifier of reduplication, a outstanding characteristic of modern prose.
E.g. : I think we have reached a point of greater determination, non merely for our state, non merely for all humanity, but for life upon the Earth.
Parenthesis implies the interpolation of some verbal unit in a place that interrupts the normal syntactical flow of the sentence.
E.g. : Dogs have ( like every other marauder ) the slayer inherent aptitude.
Pile is a technique of reiterating one word or several words with the same or a similar significance. The reader is overcome by the sheer figure of words. This can be an effectual agencies of accent in persuasive communicating. Repeat may add integrity, or stress of import thoughts. It can give force to a topic, and can besides work towards a dramatic flood tide.
E.g. : Everyone was busy, comfortable, snug, self-satisfied, convinced that nil could upset the security of the solid reassurances of advancement.
Simple repeat frequently simply reinforces the significance of a line, as in Hopkins ‘ verse form God ‘s Grandeur.
Coevalss have trod, have trod, have trod.
Shakespeare uses simple repeat to stress King Lear ‘s torment at the conclusiveness of Cordelia ‘s Death ”
Thou’il come no more, ne’er, ne’er, ne’er, ne’er.
Anaphora implies repeat of the same word or group of words at the beginnings of consecutive clauses or sentences. Anaphora is ever used intentionally by the writer. Repeat of words helps set up a pronounced beat in the sequence of categories, bring forthing a strong emotional consequence.
E.g. : We shall contend on the beaches, we shall contend on the landing evidences, we shall contend in the Fieldss and in the streets, and we shall contend in the hills.
Epistrophe implies repeat of the same word or group of words at the terminal of consecutive clauses or sentences.
E.g. : In a bar, nil gustatory sensations like existent butter, nil moistens like existent butter, nil enriches like existent butter, nil satisfies like existent butter.
Epanalepsis implies repeat at the terminal of a clauses or sentence of the word that occurred at the beginning of the clause or sentences. It is a poetic manner of look that springs spontaneously from intense emotion.
E.g. : Blood hath bought blood, and blows have answered blows.
Antimetabole implies repeat of words, in consecutive clauses, in rearward grammatical order. This sort of give voicing figures in most apothegms.
E.g. : One should eat to populate, non unrecorded to eat.