The sections of spoken linguistic communication are the vowels and consonants. The address sections are called segmental phonemes or primary phonemes. They combine to bring forth syllables, words, phrases and sentences. As we utter them, we make usage of broad scope of tones of voice. This address features, which are higher than sound sections are called suprasegmentals. The address features that are higher than the sound sections are length, emphasis, pitch, modulation, beat and occasion. Here I am depicting about emphasis.
Stress is a suprasegmantal characteristic. Stress refers to the prominence given to a syllable. In English all the syllable in a word are non expressed with equal force. One or more than one syllable is articulated with greater force than the remainder. The grade of force with which a syllable is expressed is known as emphasis. A syllable additions prominence as a consequence of the emphasis it receives. However, factors such as the prolongation of the vowel in the syllable and alteration in pitch besides work in concurrence with the breath force ( emphasis ) to do a syllable prominent. The syllable expressed with the greatest grade of force is called stressed or accented syllable. In the word tabular array, /’teibl/ the first syllable /tei/ is more conspicuously articulated than the 2nd syllable /-bl/ . In the word committee/ / the 2nd syllable is more conspicuously uttered the others. In the word recommend / / the speech pattern or emphasis is on the 3rd syllable. The stressed syllable in the word is said to transport primary ( tonic ) emphasis. The syllable following to that in grade of force of articulation in the word is said to transport secondary emphasis. The primary emphasis is normally marked with a perpendicular shot high up merely before the peculiar syllable. The secondary emphasis is marked with a perpendicular shot below merely before the peculiar syllable. e.g. out-migration / / .
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If prominence is given to syllables in stray words it is called word emphasis. In English, the emphasis is both free and fixed.it is free in the sense the chief emphasis can full on any syllable in a word and fixed in the sense that each word has its ain fixed emphasis forms. For illustration while the disyllabic instructor / / has stress on the first syllable, the disyllabic word canteen / / has stress on the 2nd syllable.
The emphasis forms of a word is an of import characteristic of the word ‘s spoken individuality. Thus we find state / / , and non state / / , nationality / / and non nationality / / . Any alteration in the emphasis patterns nay deform the phonic form of the word beyond acknowledgment. Stress is relevant to grammar every bit good as to phonetics. Thus it contributes much to the signifier and map of the word. The emphasis forms in some words may be affected by their grammatical word category. For illustration, some disyllabic verbs are distinguished from matching nouns or adjectives on the footing of the emphasis they receive, the verbs take primary emphasis on the 2nd syllable whereas the nouns and adjectives take it on the first syllable.
E.g. Digest / / ( noun ) ; digest / / ( verb ) .
Frequent / / ( adjectival ) ; frequent/ / ( verb ) .
STRESS IN SIMPLE WORDS.
Stress appears in all polysyllabic words. It is instead hard to foretell where the is to be placed. if we examine the emphasis forms in simple words, the following general inclinations may be observed.
1. Wordss with the postfix -ee, -eer, -aire take the emphasis on the syllable incorporating the postfix.
e.g. trust / / legal guardian / / .
auction / / auctioneer / / .
2. Wordss with the postfix -ion, -ity, -ic, -ial, -ially, -ian return emphasis on the syllable predating the postfix.
e.g. modulate / / ordinance / / .
economic system / / economic / / .
3. The suffixes -ness, -less, -ly, -al, -full, -hood do non alter emphasis.
e.g. lissome / / lissomeness / / .
critic / / critical / / .
4. The inflectional postfixs -ed, -es and -ing do non do any stress alteration.
e.g. associate / / related / / .
Mangifera indica / / mangoes / / .
advancement / / come oning / / .
ACCENT IN COMPOUND WORDS
By compound words we mean a word composed of two separate words. If we examine the emphasis forms in compound words, the following general inclinations may be observed.
1. In most compound words in English, the primary speech pattern falls normally on the first component.
e.g. pen pal, hand-bag.
2. When a compound noun denotes a individual thought instead than a combination of two thoughts suggested by the original words, the first component is stressed.
e.g. honey-moon, goldworker.
3. When the significance of a compound noun is the significance of the 2nd component emphasis is on the first component.
e.g. dinner-table, sheep-dog.
4. Wordss compounded of a verb and an adverb are by and large pronounced with emphasis on the first component.
e.g. makeup, setoff.
5. In compound words that end in -ever or -self the primary emphasis falls on the 2nd component.
e.g. himself, whenever.
6. Double emphasis is used in compound adjectives of which the first component is an adjectival.
e.g. juicy, fine-looking.
It may be seen that the emphasis of words usually pronounced with dual emphasis is frequently modified in sentences. The first of the stressed syllables is likely to loss its emphasis, when closely preceded by another stressed syllable. Similarly, the second of the stressed syllable is likely to lose its emphasis, when closely followed by another stressed syllable. For illustration, 14 / / is usually dual stressed. When it is preceded by words like merely / / , The first emphasis is lost, / / .
FEATURES OF CONNECTED SPEECH.
An vocalization consisting of more than one word is called affiliated address. When words are used in affiliated address, some words are uttered more conspicuously than others are. prominence given to syllables in sentences is called sentence emphasis. As a general regulation, the words, which carry the chief information, stand out from the remainder. by and large the content words are while the map category words are unstressed. For illustration, in the sentence ‘the tall male child is a superb pupil ‘ , the words tall, boy, superb and pupil are stressed and the remainder, unstressed. The emphasis falls on the same syllable irrespective of whether it forms portion of a polysyllabic word uttered in isolation, or of connected address. If there are several outstanding syllables in connected address merely one will have the primary speech pattern. this is normally the last outstanding syllable. But the pick of the syllable transporting the primary speech pattern depends on the intending the talker wants to convey. The quinine water is marked with [ ‘ ] .
For illustration, he must compose, may be spoken in the undermentioned three ways to consequence alterations in significance, by altering emphasis places.
He ‘must compose.
He must ‘write.
‘He must compose.
One outstanding characteristic of English is that emphasis occur at regular intervals of clip. Accent at the degree of sentence is much freer than that in the word.
WEAK FORMS AND STRONG FORMS.
One of the dramatic characteristics of English connected address is the happening of strong and weak signifiers about 50 words in English which, execute a grammatical map looking these two signifiers. The can be pronounced in two or more distinguishable ways.
1. The weak signifiers are unstressed.
2. They exhibit a decrease in the length of sounds.
3. The weak signifiers of certain words are distinguished from their strong signifiers by the skip of vowels and consonants.
Merely strong signifiers are acceptable in the undermentioned state of affairss.
1. When weak signifier words occur eventually in a sentence, e.g. Who are you waiting for?
2. When a weak signifier word is accented for the intent of accent, e.g. The journey to Kochi and non from Kochi.
1.What is the relevancy of the points you have submitted?
2.Convert the subject into a teaching unit.
3.Critically measure the points you have submitted?
Learning word emphasis is really of import in linguistics surveies. A linguistic communication scholar needs to prosecute with a word many times, sooner in different ways, in order to truly larn it. Mistakes in word emphasis sometimes create misinterpretations in English. There are some words which have same spelling, different pronunciation and different significance. ( homography ) .In such instances if we make errors in pronunciation so it will alter the significance.
‘Lead ‘ in “ I lead the group ” and
“ The home base is made of lead ”
Even if the talker can be understood, errors with word emphasis can do the hearer feel irritated or possibly even amused and could forestall good communicating from taking topographic point. Stressing the incorrect syllable in a word can do the word really hard to understand. For illustration:
“ I carried a basket to the market ” .
If a individual emphasis the first syllable instead than 2nd syllable, so it will go hard to the hearer to understand.
Each word is formed by one or more than one syllable.
In English all the syllables in a word are non expressed with equal force.
The syllable expressed with the greatest grade of force is called stressed or accented syllable.
For illustration: In the word ‘table ‘ the first syllable is more conspicuously articulated than the 2nd syllable.
The most stressed words are called as primary emphasis and the secondly stressed syllable is known as secondary syllable.
The primary emphasis is normally marked with a perpendicular shot high up merely before the peculiar syllable.
The secondary emphasis is marked with a perpendicular shot below merely before the peculiar syllable.
The emphasis forms in some words may be affected by their grammatical word category.
Wordss with the postfix -eer, -ee, -aire, take the emphasis on the syllable incorporating the postfix.
In most compound words in English, the primary speech pattern falls normally on the first component.
By and large the content words are stressed while the map category words are unstressed.
For illustration, in the sentence, the tall male child is a superb pupil, the words tall, boy, superb and pupil are stressed and the remainder, unstressed.
The weak signifiers are unstressed.
3. The information given in this assignment is really relevant and acceptable. It helps the people who are larning linguistics to get basic information about word emphasis. This is an effort to analyze word emphasis in general and the English linguistic communication in peculiar. It describes emphasis as a suprasegmental characteristic. It besides speaks about primary emphasis, secondary emphasis, speech pattern in simple words, speech pattern in compound words, sentence emphasis and the regulations in utilizing emphasis. This assignment besides gives tonss of illustrations sing the subject. In short it is a sincere attempt on the subject word emphasis.