Critically reexamine the policies pursued by authoritiess in the last 14 old ages in order to turn to the societal causes of offense amongst immature people. Have these policies made a difference to either the offense figures or recidivism amongst juveniles
Young person offense has been on the top of every authorities docket in the UK. In its ‘Crime Reduction Strategy ‘ the authorities estimates that about seven million offenses are committed by immature people every twelvemonth. Harmonizing to a study conducted about twenty old ages ago, most immature people surveyed in the Youth Justice Board ‘s Annual Report on Youth offense found out that three out of every 10 school kids aged between 11 -16, interviewed said with certainty that they have non committed any offense in the past twelvemonth. However, merely one in six of those school kids that admitted that they have committed an offense in the past twelvemonth said that their offense has been detected and therefore recorded by the constabulary ( MORI study, 1998 and Youth Justice Board Annual Report, 1999 ) .
This is a criminology essay and the essay will critically reexamine the policies put in topographic point by the authorities of the United Kingdom in the last 14 old ages in order to turn to the societal causes of offense amongst the young persons in our society and see if these constabularies have reduced offending by young persons or recidivism amongst juveniles.
Young person offense is a serious job in the United Kingdom. The figure of immature people in England and Wales coming in to reach with the condemnable justness system in England and Wales and acquiring their first rebuke, warning or strong belief stood at 74,588 as at September 2009 ( Ministry of Justice, Statistical Release, 2010:2 ) . The figure of immature people in England and Wales acquiring their first rebuke, warning or strong belief stood at 57, 291 as at September 2010 ( Ministry of Justice, Statistical Release, 2010:2 ) . This represents a lessening of about 23 per cent from the 2009 figures released by the ministry of Justice. The bulk of the rise and autumn of these figures over this period is due to the usage of out of tribunal disposals by the constabulary such as rebukes and warning ( Ministry of Justice, Statistical Release, 2010:2 ) . The rate at which immature people come in to reach with the condemnable justness system is falling, nevertheless violent offenses amongst immature people is on the addition. The figure of violent, belongings and sexual offenses committed by immature people is on the addition ( Leapman, 2008:1 ) .
Young person offense is ever in the imperativeness and the authoritiess in the last 14 old ages have been developing policies to turn to the societal causes of offense amongst immature people Crime amongst immature people. However, it appears that these policies have non truly addresses the societal causes of young person offense, because young person offense is on the addition peculiarly violent, belongings, sexual and drug offenses.
The rate of piquing amongst young persons appear to be falling in the last twosome of old ages, nevertheless a figure of immature people come in to reach with the condemnable justness system every twelvemonth. This has caused the authorities to put a batch of resources to cover with the issue of offense amongst immature people.
Social factors have been given as a major ground why a batch of immature people take to offense. In order to undertake these societal factors, consecutive authoritiess have introduced a figure of policies in the last 14 old ages to cover with the societal factors that make immature people commit offense. It should be pointed out that many immature people still take to offense despite the assorted and diverse policies that the authorities have put in topographic point to halt them from making from prosecuting in offense ( Graham and Bowling, 1995:10 ) .
There are so many grounds why immature people engage in offense. Social grounds are merely one of such grounds. The scheme of the authorities is to undertake societal causes of offense so that immature people will eschew offense and condemnable behavior. However, the policies introduced and implemented by authorities have non had much impact on offense figures amongst immature people.
Statisticss on Youth Crime in the United Kingdom
By and large members of the society position young person offense with contempt. The imperativeness on its ain portion ever give precedence to any incident of young person offense in its characteristics subdivision. These factors have combined to do young person offense a modern-day issue. A transverse subdivision of the society has criticised the authorities for being indulgent to immature wrongdoers ( Farrington, 202:132 ) . However, some other members of the society support the authorities ‘s policies on young person offense. There are so many doctrines on how to cover with young person offense and many theories as to why youths engage in offense.
Young person offense in the United Kingdom is rampant and the facts and statistics about young person offense in the United Kingdom call for concern. The United Kingdom has one of the highest rates of young person offense in the European Union. One of the grounds for that is that the United Kingdom has one of the lowest age of condemnable duty in the universe. The age of condemnable duty in the United Kingdom is 10 old ages. The rate at which immature people between the ages of 14-17 are incarcerated in the United Kingdom have doubled in the last 14 old ages ( Home Office, Statistical Bulletin, Crime in England, 2009-2010 ) .
The figure of immature people below the age of 18 that are locked up in the United Kingdom in 2010 was about three 1000. During this period good over two hundred and 50 1000 recorded offenses were committed by immature people during this period ( Home Office, Statistical Bulletin, Crime in England, 2009-2010 ) . Young person offense costs a batch to the revenue enhancement remunerators. The authorities spends an norm of four billion Pounds every twelvemonth to undertake young person offense in the United Kingdom ( Home Office, Statistical Bulletin, Crime in England, 2009-2010 ) .
Every twelvemonth about hundred 1000 immature people get in contact with the condemnable justness system for different offenses and about 50 per cent are immature people ( Home Office, Statistical Bulletin, Crime in England, 2009-2010 ) . Furthermore, the figure of juveniles in prison detention has trebled in the last 14 old ages. These statistics goes to demo that young person offense is a existent job in the United Kingdom. Every authorities in the United Kingdom recognises this fact and in the last 14 old ages the UK authorities has introduced policies aimed at reference the societal causes of offense amongst immature people ; nevertheless the policies introduced by the authorities do non look to undertake the job. Young people are still perpetrating more offense and a big figure of immature people are come ining the condemnable justness system for the first clip ( See the Home Office, Statistical Bulletin, Crime in England, 2009-2010 ) .
The societal causes of offense
Our politicians are ever seeking to turn to the societal causes of offense amongst immature people in society. The authorities scheme is to place the societal causes of offense in society and so implement policies that will efficaciously battle the job. Youth offense receives much attending from all subdivisions of the society. This is due to the fact that piquing by immature people is used to estimate the degree of morality and jurisprudence and order in any given society ( Brown, 1998:56 ) .
Young person wrongdoers are immature people that repeatedly break the jurisprudence ( Maguire, 2007:112 ) . There are many societal causes of offense, peculiarly among immature people. These include equal force per unit area and labelling. Surveies have shown that people that are labelled as felons are more likely to perpetrate offense than those that re non ( Eadie and Morley, 2003:552 ) .
Young males tend to perpetrate more offense than immature females. The immature male is more likely to be affected by societal causes including peer force per unit area and labelling than immature females. Young males are normally more adventuresome and make bolding than immature females. Young males are more normally influenced to fall in condemnable packs than females ( Brown, 1998: 109 ) .
Another societal cause of offense is poverty and low educational accomplishment. Peoples from hapless background or working category background are more likely to perpetrate offense than people from in-between category background. Furthermore immature people from hapless background may drop out of school without proper makings. This normally affects their chances of happening a occupation in future. Without educational makings and money, a immature individual is likely to turn to offense.
Young people from broken places are likely to besides turn to offense. This is due to the fact that kids turning up in individual parent places are more likely to meet economic troubles than kids turning up with both parents. Economic adversity may coerce these immature work forces to go forth place early to fend for themselves and these immature people from broken places most times leave school without proper makings that will see them through life ( Farrington, 2002:162 ) . Therefore immature people with low educational makings or no making are more likely to prosecute in condemnable and anti-social behavior.
Another societal cause of offense among immature people is the household. The household helps in the societal, physical and mental development of kids and therefore is really of import in the lives of immature people. Parents can hold a positive impact on their kids. Abused kids are more likely to turn to offense than kids from a loving place. Young people from a individual parent family are besides more likely to interrupt the jurisprudence than kids brought up by both parents ( Graham and Bowling, 1995:33-35 ) .the two biological parents.
The policies pursued by authoritiess in the last 14 old ages in order to turn to the societal causes of offense amongst immature people
The authorities has pursued policy on young person offense in the past 14 old ages is to cut down young person offense in England and Wales.
One of the purposes of any authorities is to cut down the fright of offense, peculiarly young person offense and guarantee that immature people are decently channelled and motivated in to making legal and use activities. The authorities formulates a figure of policies for turn toing the societal causes of offense amongst immature people.
The policy of the authorities appears to be zero tolerance to offense. The authorities negotiations tough but in world their policies appear to accommodate the felons alternatively of the victims. Young wrongdoers seem to acquire away with a batch. The policies pursued by the authorities to undertake the societal causes of offense and therefore cut down the offense rate amongst immature people do non look to be working.
Crime has reduced among immature people, but violent offense and belongings offense is on the addition ( Ministry of Justice, Statistical Release, 2010:2 ) . The authorities programs to construct more prisons and imprison more immature wrongdoers.
In a authorities white paper delivered in July 2003, titled justness for all, the authorities insisted that it will give more protection to the populace and punish wrongdoers more badly. However, this has non happened, records show that the authorities policy does non look to be working. The condemnable justness system is non in favor of locking up immature wrongdoers. The authorities prefers the usage of other methods such as community sentence and anti -social behavior orders to cover with young person offense than tutelary penalty. Young wrongdoers are normally locked up for a short clip. This appears to accommodate the relentless immature wrongdoer. The immature wrongdoer knows that he or she will be locked up for a small piece and therefore is non deterred from perpetrating offense. Furthermore, the authorities does non look to hold any policy in topographic point that is that is preventative. Most of the policies are how to cover with the immature wrongdoer and non how non to do the immature wrongdoer commit offense in the first topographic point ( Ferguson, 1994:1 ) .
Government policy does non promote the usage of prisons to cover with young person offense. The authorities supports the usage of community sentences more than prison sentences ; nevertheless the authorities is cognizant of the fact that community sentences do non give equal protection to the populace and in fact does non discourage immature wrongdoers. However the authorities still encourages the usage of community sentences more than tutelary sentences for immature people. The authorities have introduced tougher community sentences for immature people, nevertheless despite these steps immature people on community sentences or remand go on to perpetrate offense, including violent, sexual and belongings offenses on community sentences or on remand still travel on to perpetrate offenses, including slaying and other types of violent offenses ( Ferguson, 1994:1 ) .
The authorities policy on young person offending is to penalize every bit good as rehabilitate the wrongdoer ; nevertheless, this does non look to be working. More immature wrongdoers are re-offending and a good figure of immature people come in contact with the condemnable justness system every twelvemonth ( Ministry of Justice, Statistical Release, and 2010:2 ) . Thus the authorities policy on re-offending has non been successful. It has non succeeded to cover efficaciously with the issue of young person offense. The authorities have tried to present a 3rd option, which will be used in add-on to prison sentences and community service. This 3rd is known as the Supervision and Surveillance Programme ( ISSP ) .This policy is all about penalty and rehabilitation of immature people. The success or failure of this programme can non be judged because there is non adequate grounds or statistics with which to judge the programme. In the interim the authorities is still seeking to come up with new policies that will efficaciously cover with the job of young person offense in the United Kingdom.
It is clear that the policies introduced by the authorities in the past 14 old ages to cover with young person offense in the United Kingdom have non worked. Crime rate amongst immature people in the United Kingdom is traveling down, but the rate of violent offense among immature people in traveling up, peculiarly violent offenses. Gun and stab offense is besides traveling up. The authorities should set in topographic point policies that will turn to the existent causes of offense among immature people. Most of the policies introduced by the authorities trade with offense after they have been committed by immature people and non before the offenses are committed. The authorities should present policies that will assist immature people, particularly immature people populating in the interior metropoliss and from hapless or working category background that will maintain them busy and engaged. These people should besides be encouraged to remain in school until they get a making.
The policies introduced by the authorities over 14 old ages ago have non truly tackled the societal causes of offense nor has it made a difference to either the offense figures or recidivism amongst juveniles. Yes, the figure of immature people coming in to reach with the condemnable justness system for the first clip has fallen, nevertheless more immature people are perpetrating offenses today that were non been committed before by people their age.
Finally the authorities have put in topographic point so many policies aimed at turn toing the issue of young person offense, nevertheless the authorities policy have non achieved the coveted consequence. The authorities needs to travel back to the pulling board and come up with policies that will positively act upon immature people and maintain them off from offense.