Abstraction: Gold, the “ ageless metal ” has long been a favourite of the Indian consumer traveling back to Vedic Ages. Gold imports nevertheless, started picking up steam in the last century, with supply in the legendary Golconda mines dwindling. Even though the International market demand of this cherished metal is chiefly as a hedge to falling stock markets, the Indian consumer, of all time wary of the banking system, has used it as a device of nest eggs, and non-taxed income. The Indian gold market has been internationally recognized as a monetary value taker, even though it contributes approximately 20 % of planetary demand. Fallowing the Lehman Brothers Collapse of 2008, Gold monetary values have shot upward, and stayed up. This paper argues, that even though gilded monetary values may hold been an reply to planetary uncertainnesss in the fiscal markets, the short term monetary value of gold seems to be gluey upward, and will go on for at least the following five years..
This paper attempts to accommodate an evident contradiction the long tally “ stickiness ” of gold monetary values in the 2007-2012 period, as planetary markets collapsed. Between short-term and long-term motions, the Indian market for gold remained insatiate, even with the higher monetary value government. This paper looks at the present theoretical account that suggests a set of conditions under which the monetary value of gold rises over clip at the general rate of rising prices and a newer paradigm displacement, whereby Indian and Chinese demand will maintain gold monetary values stable at a new degree, herewith moving as a less stable hedge against inflation.The survey analyses short term alterations in gold monetary values and the rental rate, covariance of gold versus assets such as bonds and gold monetary values versus dollar and the rupee rate. Using monthly gold monetary value informations ( 2008-2012 ) , and utilizing cointegration arrested development techniques, the survey proves the “ stickiness ” of the gilded monetary value, and attempts to bring forth a stable prognosis for short term gold monetary value alterations
This paper besides attempts to analyze the assorted qualitative factors impacting the stickiness of gold monetary values worldwide. With autumn of Lehman Brothers, autumn of existent estate monetary values in the US, the Euro Crisis and lifting bond rates in Europe, the fighting US recovery, and the fiscal markets bespeaking that the Indian Growth narrative is sputtering, there is a wealth of informations that suggests that the universe is non utilizing gilded chiefly as a hedge against rising prices, but instead as a sound investing tool, given the crisp autumn in the stock and bond markets. Nevertheless, gold volatility is still every bit high or tantamount to that of other fiscal markets. So what is the temptingness of this cherished metal? The survey efforts to demo that the conditions under which the monetary value of gold rises over clip at the general rate of rising prices and a newer paradigm displacement, whereby Indian demand will maintain gold monetary values stable at a new degree, herewith moving as a less stable hedge against rising prices.
Gold monetary value motion is really of import from economic and fiscal point of position. Monetary value of gold has been steadily increasing and there has been many fold addition in the gold monetary value since 2007.The prostration of Lehman Brothers in 2008, followed by Euro crisis and fighting U.S. economic system has made gold the most sought after alternate. Short tally volatility of gold is explained by demand supply mismatch. Given below is the demand and supply of gold from 2009 to 2011. Although there is merely 3 % addition in supply, there is 10 % addition in the demand for gold in 2011 compared to 2010. Given below is the tabular array demoing entire demand and entire supply of gold from 2009 to 2011.
Supply OF GOLD
% ch 2010 V 2011
Net Producer hedge
Entire Mine supply
Demand OF GOLD
% ch 2010 V 2011
Sub entire above fiction
Entire saloon & A ; coin demand
ETFs & A ; similar
Official sector purchases
Beginning: WORLD GOLD COUNCIL REPORT
There has been immense addition in the ingestion of gold by China. India continues to be the major consumer. The Sanghai Gold exchange opened up in 2002 and gilded investing by China entered a whole new stage. Chinese people save a batch and Gold is preferred as an investing option in China. Entire investing demand is expected to increase in following five old ages. Despite high monetary value of gold, demand by India has besides continued to lift. Increase in disposable income of mean Indians and besides sustained economic growing has resulted in the addition in demand for gold.
Shown below are the gilded monetary value motions in some of the major gold devouring states of the universe.
Beginning: World Gold Council
2. Demand AND SUPPLY DETERMINATS OF GOLD:
Short tally monetary value of gold is determined is determined by demand and supply state of affairs. Let us see some of the short tally supply factors. Gold is being supplied by the manufacturers in two ways. They either infusion from the mines or they lease gold from the cardinal bank. Gold supplied through extraction is positively correlated to earlier gold monetary values. A portion of this from extraction is used to refund the gold that was leased in the old period. Therefore gilded monetary value is negatively correlated to gold rental rate. Now the demand side is considered. Gold is for jewelry, engineering and besides as plus. There has been immense addition in the jewelry demand for Gold from India and China. The 2nd constituent of demand is the demand for gold as an plus. The demand for gold as an plus depends upon on the returns on other assets. When stock market prostrations, the demand for gilded additions as it reduces the volatility. There in negative relationship between Gold ‘s Beta and its monetary values.
3. EMPERICAL Analysis:
A simple empirical theoretical account is set up to place the factors that are responsible for the addition in gilded monetary values.
The theoretical account is as follows:
PG=f ( CPIUSA, EXR, LRG, I?G )
PG is the nominal monetary value of gold measured in nominal Us dollar per ounce and the information is collected from www.gold.org.CPIUSAis the consumer monetary value index figure of USA and the information is collected from USA section of labour statistics.In many analysis the universe monetary value was taken as one of the explanatory variables. We have non taken that as there is a possibility of the universe monetary value being correlated with the retail monetary value of USA.EXR is the exchange rate of dollar to the remainder of the universe and is collected from USA Federal Reserve Board. LRG is the lease rate of Gold and is calculated by the three month Gold forward rate from three month LIBOR dollar involvement rate. Gold Beta is calculated month wise utilizing the undermentioned arrested development equation.
( PG t-n – PG t-n-1 ) / PG t-n-1=I?Gt [ ( SP t-n – SP t-n-1 ) / SP t-n-1 ] +ut
The clip period is monthly informations from 1st of January 2007 to 31st July 2012.The statistical technique that is being used is Cointegration Regression Techniques. All the variables except gilded rental rate and Gold Beta are expressed in natural Logarithm.
3.1.LONG RUN RELATIONSHIP:
To happen out the long tally relationship between Gold monetary value and Retail Price in USA over the clip period 2007 to 2012 ( monthly ) , Johansen ‘s Cointegration ( Srinivasan, 2010 ) . However, it is of import that the stationarity of each single clip series informations is verified as there is ever a possibility of the clip series informations being non-stationary exhibiting deterministic or stochastic tendencies. Even if the series is non-stationary, cointegration attack can be applied but all the variables will hold to be integrated of same order in that instance.
The non-stationary information is made stationary by differencing. The figure of differencing gives the order of the order of the integrating. The Augmented Dickey Fuller trial is applied to happen out the stationarity and the order of each series.
Johansen ‘s Cointegration trial is applied to find the long term relationship if the selected series is integrated of same order.
Any clip series analysis starts with the checking of unit root belongings of the information series as it is important for both cointegration and causality test.. As mentioned earlier the Standard Augmented Dickey Fuller is used to look into the stationarity of the clip series informations on Gold Price and retail Price in USA.
Table 1 shows that the void hypothesis of unit root is non rejected at degrees. Table 2 shows it is rejected at first difference. Thus both the series are found to be stationary and integrated at the order of one I ( 1 ) .So the Johansen ‘s Cointegration trial is performed to happen out the long term relationship between Gold monetary value and retail monetary value of USA. ( Srinivasan 2010 ) .
Table 1: Consequences of Augmented Dickey Fuller Test
ADF TEST Statistics
ADF TEST Statistics
Table 2: Consequences of Augmented Dickey Fuller Test
The consequences for the trial are given in Johansen ‘s Cointegration trial is given at a lower place. As seen from the tabular array below, the Johansen ‘s maximal Eigen and hint statistics for lnPGandlnCPIUSAfail to reject the void hypothesis of no cointegrating vector ( r = 0 ) at 5 % degree of significance connoting that they are non cointegrated.
RESULT OF COINTEGRATION TEST
10 % Critical Value for Trace Statistics
10 % Critical Value for Max-Eigen Statistics
H0: R = 0
One cointegrating vector at 0.1 degree
H1: R a‰?1
Table 3: Consequences of Johansen ‘s Cointegration Test
We know that theoretically there is long tally relationship between Gold monetary value and Consumer monetary value index of USA. It can be seen here that there is long tally relation ship between gilded monetary value and consumer monetary value index of USA. Harmonizing to Granger representation theorem ( 1987 ) , if two or more variables are cointegrated so there should be valid mistake rectification mechanism. Through this the short tally accommodation procedure of the cointegrated variables can be known when they deviate from long tally relationship. We get the coefficients by normalising coefficient of consumer monetary value index to one and the coefficient of gilded monetary value is -0.09. The accommodation coefficients are -0.159 for consumer monetary value index figure and -1.349 for gold.
Therefore we can reason that nominal monetary value of gold and general monetary value degree is cointegrated in the long tally that is they move together and work as rising prices hedge.
3.2.SHORT RUN Analysis:
To analyze the short tally relationship, we use the undermentioned theoretical account:
I”lnPGt =a +bI± ( L ) I”lnPGt-1 +cI? ( L ) I”ln CPIUSA T +dI? ( L ) I”lnEXRt +eI? ( L ) I”LRGt +fI? ( L ) I”I?Gt + Ut
Where a is a changeless and I± ( L ) , I? ( L ) , I? ( L ) , I? ( L ) and I? ( L ) are lagged multinomials and a, B, degree Celsius, vitamin D and vitamin E are vector parametric quantities of these multinomials and Ut is the random variable.
The slowdown length ‘L ‘ has been set to six. Unrestricted VAR was used to see how many slowdowns are required to clear assorted diagnostic trials like consecutive correlativity and normality trial. Unit root trial utilizing Augmented Dickey Fuller standards revealed that all the variables are stationary at first difference. ( Levin and Wright ‘ 2006 )
Addition in consumer monetary value index figure has a positive impact on the monetary value of gold. Gold is used as rising prices hedge. Higher rising prices rate increases the demand for gold and therefore the monetary value of gold additions. A autumn in the exchange rate increases the monetary value of gold. Depreciation of US dollar makes it cheaper to put in gold for those who are populating outside the dollar country. This increases the demand for gold which in bend increases the gilded monetary value. When Gold rental rate is high, gilded monetary value is low. The relationship between gilded monetary value and Gold ‘s Beta is negative. Negative beta agencies there is decrease in portfolio volatility because of gold. So investors hold gold and gilded monetary value additions. ( Ghosh, Levin, Macmillan, Wright ‘2000 )
The concluding theoretical account that is arrived at is every bit follows. The absolute value of the’t ‘ statistic is given in the parenthesis.
I”lnPGt= 0.720 + 0.571I”lnPGt-1 +0.283I”nPGt-2 +1.61I”ln CPIUSA t-1 +-0.7999I”ln CPIUSA t-2
[ 2.46 ] [ 4.23 ] [ 1.86 ] [ 11.27 ] [ 2.92 ]
-0.212I”I?Gt-3 +1.38I”lnEXRt -1- 0.752I”lnEXRt-2+1.37I” LRGt-1 -0.760 I” LRGt-2
[ 1.48 ] [ 9.73 ] [ 3.06 ] [ 9.63 ] [ 3.14 ]
Therefore we can see thatI”lnPG is important at slowdowns of one and two months.I”lnCPIUSA is important at slowdowns of one and two months.I”I?Gt is important at slowdown of three months.I”lnEXR is important at slowdowns of one and two months.I”LRGt is important at slowdowns of one and two months.
The R2 value is 62 percent.. The Lagrange multiplier trial for consecutive correlativity suggests no important correlativity is present I»2 ( 4 ) =0.0470 with p- value=0.828. The BeraJarque trial for normalcy suggests that the remainders are usually distributed with I»2 ( 6 ) =15.040 with p- value=0.130.
The analysis of short tally allows us to place those factors which are impacting the motion of nominal monetary value of gold. Wecan see thatI”ln PG is important at slowdowns of one and two months. ThusPrice of gold is affected by the past monetary value of gold.
I”lnCPIUSA is important at slowdowns of one and two months. As pointed out earlier, Increase in consumer monetary value index figure has a positive impact on the monetary value of gold. We have already shown that nominal monetary value of Gold is cointegrated with the consumer monetary value index figure. Higher rising prices rate increases the demand for gold and therefore the monetary value of gold additions.
I”ln EXR is important at slowdowns of one and two months. A autumn in the exchange rate increases the monetary value of gold. Depreciation of US dollar makes it cheaper to put in gold for those who are populating outside the dollar area..This increases the demand for gold which in bend increases the gilded monetary value. This is captured by the coefficient -0.752.
When Gold rental rate is high, gilded monetary value is low. This is because at low rental rate the supply of gold by the cardinal Bank additions. High gilded rental rate means less demand for gold.This is because high gold rental rate means high rate of involvement. This consequences in people puting in other assets which in bend reduces the demand for gold. I”LRGt is important at slowdowns of one and two months. This is picked up by the negative coefficient -0.760.
The relationship between gilded monetary value and Gold ‘s Beta is negative. Negative beta agencies there is decrease in portfolio volatility because of gold. So investors hold gold and gilded monetary value additions. High beta makes gold less attractive to keep. As a consequence gold monetary value will fall.. I” I?Gt is important at slowdown of three months. This is picked by negative coefficient -0.212.
Gold monetary value is lifting all over the universe. Despite this higher monetary value, Indian and Chinese demand increased by 38 % and 25 % severally in the 2nd one-fourth of 2011.High rising prices and sustained growing in this portion of the universe has resulted in increased demand of gold. Euro crisis, downgrading of U.S. bond, high rising prices and weak economic status of the western states has resulted in gold being used as an plus. The demand from India and China will go on to be high and gilded monetary value will stay high in the short tally. This is besides supported through empirical observation by the paper. The gilded monetary value in the long tally is shown to be the rising prices hedge and in the short tally is affected by its ain lagged monetary value, rising prices, gilded rental rate and gold ‘s beta. The restriction of the survey is that political factors could non be taken into consideration.