“ If intoxicant was discovered late it would be made illegal ” ( Professor John Nutt, Horizon, Is alcohol worse than ecstasy? BBC, 2008 )

( Horizon Alcohol and Ecstasy Tuesday 5th February 2008, 9pm, BBC Two hypertext transfer protocol: //www.bbc.co.uk/sn/tvradio/programmes/horizon/broadband/tx/drugs/survey/ )

Some substances are banned outright but, nuts will ever acquire a clasp of these drugs. If they are unsuccessful in obtaining them they will, travel on to something else they can acquire a high from and will mistreat any substance they can happen. UK Torahs do forbid some of these substances but under particular fortunes they can be allowed every bit long as it is monitored by a professional.

Different Drugs and their effects

Controlled substances can be classified into 3 chief groups harmonizing to their effects they are Stimulations, Sedatives and Hallucinogens





Stimulates Brain activity




Inhibits encephalon activity

Alcohol, Opiates, Valium


Alters perceptual experience and temper

LSD, Cannabis,

psilocin, rapture

( Above ) the 3 classs of effects on the organic structure and illustrations of each ( UWS talk Alcohol and drugs, Science and offense, 2012 )



Ecstasy or MDMA ( 3-4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine ) is a drug that is associated with 80 ‘s and 90 ‘s dance/ enchantment music civilization. Its effects of doing people joyful, full of energy and able to dance away for hours made it really popular to clubbers. hypertext transfer protocol: //www.talktofrank.com/drug/ecstasyFile: MDMA ( simple ) .svg

Ecstasy has been classed in the UK as a Class A nevertheless on reappraisal Professor David John Nutt said to the BBC skyline plan in 2008

“ ecstasy seems to be in the incorrect category ”

When taken MDMA causes an rush in the neurotransmitter 5-hydroxytryptamine.

Emotional effects of this drug root from a sudden big graduated table release of 5-hydroxytryptamine ( a temper heightening endocrine ) . Serotonin is a precursor for other endocrines such as Oxytosin and vasopressin these two endocrines are known for their portion played in emotions such as love, trust and sexual rousing therefore it is believed that this is what causes the emotional intimacy and empathy that is associated with MDMA

After the high of the monolithic sums of 5-hydroxytryptamine that was released Begins acquiring used up, the encephalon terminal up wholly void of 5-hydroxytryptamine. This creates after affects such as depression, confusion, anxiousness and sleep jobs. However these after effects are non ever felt a few hours after the drug has been taken. The effects of coming down from the drug can happen anything from a few hours to a few hebdomads

( hypertext transfer protocol: //www.drugabuse.gov/publications/drugfacts/mdma-ecstasy )

Lysergic acid diethylamide

LSD ( lysergic acid diethylamide ) . When taken the receivers can change their positions on world and they start to hallucinate. These are called ‘trips ‘ nevertheless these ‘trips ‘ can be really tickle pinking for the user but they can besides see ghastly ‘trips ‘ , where the user has overmastering thoughts, become delusional and have terrorizing hallucinations, which can take to possible accidents.

( hypertext transfer protocol: //addictions.about.com/od/designerdrugs/f/What-Is-A-Bad-Trip.htm )

( hypertext transfer protocol: //www.talktofrank.com/drug/lsd )

When LSD is ingested, effects normally occur between 30 and 90 proceedingss subsequently and have been known to prevail for a drawn-out period of clip ( 12 hours )

Lab trials show that although still unconfirmed psychedelic drugs stimulate the group of 5-hydroxytryptamine receptors called 5-HT2 receptors.

hypertext transfer protocol: //alcoholism.about.com/cs/lsd/f/lsd_faq04.htm

hypertext transfer protocol: //alcoholism.about.com/od/lsd/a/The-Effects-Of-LSD-On-The-Brain.htm


Cannabis is derived from a works known as hemp or the hemp indica works.

It is classified like all other life by its scientific taxonomy, which is:


PlantaeA – plantes, Planta, Vegetal, workss

A A A Subkingdom:

ViridaeplantaeA – green workss


StreptophytaA – land workss

A A A A A A A A A Division:

TracheophytaA – vascular workss, vascular plants

A A A A A A A A Subdivision:

SpermatophytinaA – phanerogams, seed workss, phanerogames

A A A A A A A Infradivision:

AngiospermaeA – blossoming workss, flowering plants, plantas com flor, angiosperma, plantes a fleurs, angiospermes, plantes a fruits

A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A Class:


A Superorder:





CannabaceaeA – hemp

A A Genus:

CannabisA L. – hemp


Cannabis sativaA L. – hemp, grass, hasheesh, Mary Jane, pot, marihuana


Direct Children:


Cannabis sativa ssp. indicaA ( Lam. ) E. Small & A ; Cronquist – hemp, grass, hasheesh, Mary Jane, pot, marihuana


Cannabis sativa ssp. sativaA L. – hemp, grass, hasheesh, Mary Jane, pot, marihuana

( hypertext transfer protocol: //www.itis.gov/servlet/SingleRpt/SingleRpt? search_topic=TSN & A ; search_value=19109 )

It is thought that the hemp works was originally found in the cragged parts of India but it besides grows freely in certain parts of the universe.

Cannabis has been found to incorporate more than 400 different chemicals, including an antibiotic called Cannabidiolic acid and Tetrahydrocannabinol ( THC ) which is the chief psychotropic ingredient and is besides the cause of the composure, relaxed, giggly and content feelings. ( hypertext transfer protocol: //www.bbc.co.uk/health/emotional_health/addictions/cannabis.shtml )

When any THC is ingested it acts on the two cannabinoid receptors CB1 and CB2

CB1 receptors are found in the basal ganglia, the limbic system of the encephalon and the hippocampus.

The myelin oblongata is the control system that operates respiratory and cardiovascular maps. This means that THC can non do failure of these two systems, unlike many other drugs.

THC ‘s ability to do gladdened feelings and the anticonvulsive effects are thought to be caused by stimulation of the CB1 receptor.

CB2 receptors – portion of the immune system – are located within the lien. The anti-inflammatory and renewing effects of consuming hemp seem to be caused by the stimulation of the CB2 receptor ( http: //www.news-medical.net/health/Cannabinoid-Receptors.aspx )

Wayss substances are taken


The easiest manner of taking drugs is to consume them. This allows the soaking up of the drugs through the tummy run alonging straight into the blood watercourse. It is safest manner of consuming drugs as the ingested substance can be taken up at a slower rate, which ensures the effects take clip to be brought approximately. One of the functions of the digestive system is to guarantee that nil that can do injury can come in the organic structure. Therefore the organic structure can get down purging to throw out the tummy contents. Alcohol Marijuana, opium, rapture, LSD and Mushrooms are taken orally


When injecting, a syringe is filled with a substance, which is so injected straight into the blood watercourse. This method means that the drug will non hold to travel though procedures such as digestion, which usually break down some of the drug before it enters the blood watercourse. This is a unsafe manner of taking any drugs because the receiver may be susceptible to:

Haemorrhaging, sphacelus and thrombosis caused by arterial harm where the injection was given

Contaminated acerate leafs or drugs, giving an increased opportunity of infection from diseases such as hepatitis and HIV

Using blunt acerate leafs which can do scarring of the vena at the injection site. This can, in serious instances, so do the vena to prostration.

The effects of this method of bringing are merely approximately instantaneous, usually within 3 – 5 seconds, because the drug enters the blood, and more can traverse the blood encephalon barrier.. There are three different types of injection:

Hypodermic injections – this is an injection which is used to present medicine to the fatty vascular bed beneath the corium ( hypertext transfer protocol: //www.nottingham.ac.uk/nmp/sonet/rlos/placs/subcutaneous/ )

Intravenous ( IV ) injections – these are injections made straight into a vena

Intramuscular injections – An injection of a drug straight into the musculus ( http: //www.nursingtimes.net/nursing-practice/clinical-zones/critical-care/skills-intramuscular-injections/205349.article )

Nasal Lining

Insufflations or puffing of drugs, such as cocaine, ecstasy and pep pills, is another method of administrating drugs into the organic structure. Health hazards of snorting drugs include:

Damage to the liner and rhinal pit.

Damage to the gristle dividing the two anterior nariss.

Spread of infective diseases ( hepatitis C, HIV ) through the sharing of rolled up bank notes or other points that are used to administrate the drug.

The mucous secretion membrane in the olfactory organ takes up about 30 – 60 % of the chemicals being snorted. This high takes about about 15 proceedingss from the clip of insufflation to go noticeable to the person.


Smoke is one of the most common used paths of taking drugs. Marijuana and crystal Methedrines are illustrations of drugs which can be smoked. The smoke of these drugs and the commixture of them with baccy, can do other diseases such as

Heart disease

Mouth, pharynx and lung malignant neoplastic disease

Heart onslaughts and shots

Chronic clogging pneumonic disease

Hypertension ( High blood force per unit area )

lung infections


Some drugs which are soluble in H2O such as velocity, cocaine and rapture are absorbed through the rectum ‘s mucous secretion membrane. This method of taking drugs is a really untypical path of administrating.

Taking drugs through the rectum carries a high hazard of complications such as:

Burning of the mucous secretion membrane due to an acidic or basic substance being introduced.

Perforation of the lower colon can be the consequence of presenting an object into the anus.

Controlled substances in the UK

In Great Britain, the ownership, usage and supply of some substances is banned/controlled through 3 chief Torahs. They are:

The Misuse of Drugs Act ( 1971 ) ,

The Misuse of Drugs Regulations ( 2001 )

The Drugs act ( 2005 )

At present, parts of The Misuse of Drugs Act have now been superseded by The Misuse of Drugs Regulations and The Drugs Act.

The Misuse of drugs Act ( 1971 )

This jurisprudence covers the ownership, supply, offering of free drugs and the usage of drugs on premises. The abuse of drugs act specifies that it is against the jurisprudence to:

Be in ownership of a controlled substance without permission.

Be offering a controlled substance for sale ( supply )

The supply of controlled substances in which there is no fee taken

Give permission for drug pickings in a belongings that is yours or one that is in your attention.

The abuse of drugs Act ( 1971 ) is divided into 3 separate classs Class A, Class B, Class C and the penalties for ownership and purpose to provide each category. Class A drugs receive the most terrible penalty and Class C receive the least terrible ( Science and offense category at UWS talk Drugs and Alcohol ( 2012 ) )

( Below ) The categorizations and the punishments for ownership and dealing ( homeoffice.gov.uk )



Class A

Ecstasy, LSD, diacetylmorphine, cocaine, cleft, thaumaturgy mushrooms, pep pills ( if prepared for injection ) .

Up to seven old ages in prison or an limitless mulct or both.

Up to life in prison or an limitless mulct or both.

Class B

Amphetamines, Cannabis, Methylphenidate ( Ritalin ) , Pholcodine.

Up to five old ages in prison or an limitless mulct or both.

Up to 14 old ages in prison or an limitless mulct or both.

Class C

Tranquilisers, some analgesics, Gamma hydroxybutyrate ( GHB ) , Ketamine.

Up to two old ages in prison or an limitless mulct or both.

Up to 14 old ages in prison or an limitless mulct or both.

The full abuse of drugs act can be found on this web reference ( hypertext transfer protocol: //www.legislation.gov.uk/ukpga/1971/38/pdfs/ukpga_19710038_en.pdf )

The Misuse of Drugs Regulations ( 2001 )

This jurisprudence divides up the controlled substances into 5 classs and specify how utile they are as a curative agent and weighs it up against the chance of them being abused by nuts who do non necessitate them. The five classs are

Agenda 1 ( Controlled Drug license )

Drugs which have been put into this category comprise of hemp, coca foliage, LSD, peyote ECT. The production, supply and ownership of these substances ( with the exclusion of for research usage ) are illegal. Doctor ‘s tooth doctors and druggists can non order any of these drugs as the side effects are thought to outweigh any pharmaceutical or good usage they can hold.

Agenda 2 ( Controlled Drugs )

Agenda 2 screens controlled substances such as diacetylmorphine, morphia, levorphano, cocaine, oxycodone and most of their derived functions. These drugs can be administered to a patient for medical usage merely and must be stored in a secured country which has been approved with entree to them restricted merely to people who can lawfully possess these drugs. Merely person under way of a physician or tooth doctor or by the physician or tooth doctor themselves can administrate person a agenda 2 drug. All utilizations of them must be recorded to maintain a elaborate path of all drugs. Importing of drugs in Schedule 2 besides requires a license.

Agenda 3 ( Controlled Drugs – no registry )

These drugs have been classified as a lower hazard of maltreatment than Schedule 2 but are similar in that they can merely be lawfully possessed if a physician has prescribed them. They must besides be kept locked off in a unafraid country with limited entree.

Agenda 4

Schedule 4 of the abuse of drugs act includes drugs that do n’t necessitate to be locked off nevertheless there are demands when makers and import/exporters wish to hold them destroyed. No records need to be kept but if they are Imported/Exported or are produced so controlled drug registries must be kept. There are two parts of agenda 4,

Part one includes drugs which do n’t necessitate to be restricted, such as benzodiazapines but non temazapam or midazolam. It is an offense to possess drugs from portion 1 without a valid prescription and are under ordinance when they are imported or exported.

Part 2 screens anabolic and androgenic steroids. There are no restraints for ownership of these substances every bit long as it ‘s portion of a medicative merchandise.

Agenda 5 ( Controlled Drug – bill )

Section 5 of the abuse of drugs ordinances screens low strength signifiers of drugs such as codeine morphia, but merely when it ‘s for medical usage. A accredited physician or druggist has the proper mandate to bring forth and blend a agenda 5 drug. The lone restraint on these drugs is that bills for these drugs must be retained for at least 2 old ages. There are no current bounds on any imports/exports, ownership or dispensing of these drugs

This nexus shows in full, which drug categorizations have been assigned to each controlled substance.

hypertext transfer protocol: //www.homeoffice.gov.uk/publications/alcohol-drugs/drugs/drug-licences/controlled-drugs-list? view=Binary

hypertext transfer protocol: //www.legislation.gov.uk/uksi/2001/3998/contents/made

Changes to the manner controlled drugs are prescribed, records that are kept sing their usage and devastation brought about the demand for a new jurisprudence which began on the 1st of January 2007 this is known as:

The controlled Drugs ( Supervision of Management and usage ) Regulations ( 2006 )

This jurisprudence was brought approximately after consecutive slayer Harold shipman, was convicted of slaying 15 patients utilizing the drug diamorphine while working as a GP. In response to this the UK authorities ordered the shipman question. It was so decided that the Torahs covering Controlled drugs were unequal and needed to be looked at once more. ( hypertext transfer protocol: //www.centrallancashire.nhs.uk/Library/Documents/Board % 20papers/2007/01 % 20January/The % 20Controlled % 20Drugs % 20 % 28Supervision % 20of % 20Management % 20and % 20Use % 29 % 20Regulations % 202006.pdf )

This jurisprudence was introduced to oversee the usage of controlled drugs whilst non acquiring in the manner of the ground they are needed in medical specialty. ( http: //www.telford.nhs.uk/Services/A-Z-of-Services/Medicines-Management/Controlled-Drugs/ )

The Drugs Act ( 2005 )

This act is used to cover with a scope of drug jobs. From a suspect who has to turn out that a big sum of drugs is for personal usage, to person with an antisocial behavior order who must be tested for drugs in there system and intervention if they are found.

The other two chief clauses are that fresh thaumaturgy mushrooms are illegal. In the yesteryear, merely dried mushrooms were considered as a Class A drug. Equally good as compulsory drug testing of people in detention, this can merely be carried out if the constabulary have assurance that Class A drugs have been taken.

hypertext transfer protocol: //www.drugscope.org.uk/resources/drugsearch/drugsearchpages/laws

hypertext transfer protocol: //www.legislation.gov.uk/ukpga/2005/17/pdfs/ukpga_20050017_en.pdf

Minor Laws

The usage of controlled drugs is besides limited by Torahs such as:

The Medicines Act ( 1968 )

Regulating the industry and supply of legal medical specialty is The Medicines Act. There are three classs of medical drugs

Prescription merely. The most restricted class of drugs. Pharmacists can merely give these out if directed by a physician to make so.

Pharmacy medical specialties. This categorization of drugs can merely be sold with permission by a druggist themself.

General gross revenues list. These medical specialties have strict regulations on their advertisement, labelling and production. However they can be sold in any store.

Customss and Excise Management Act ( 1979 )

Used in concurrence with the Misuse of drugs Act, this jurisprudence prosecutes the unauthorized import/ export of controlled substances.

Road Traffic Act ( 1972 )

This jurisprudence states that if you are “ in charge ” of a motor vehicle and are incapable of keeping complete control, you are perpetrating an offense even if the drug taken is illegal, prescribed or if the individual has inhaled a dissolver.

Drug Trafficking Act ( 1994 )

It is illegal to sell drug gears which can be used with illegal drugs. This act besides allows the constabulary to prehend all of a individual ‘s assets and income even if they have non been bought with money made from drug trafficking. This can merely go on if the individual has been convicted of drug trafficking.

Crime and Disorder Act ( 1998 )

This gives police the power to implement a drug intervention and/or proving order on persons. This lone applies to people who commit offenses to fund their drug wont

The Crime Scene

When a offense has been committed, the first officer at the scene ‘s ( FAO ) function is first and foremost to protect and continue any and all life, even at the disbursal of of import grounds. ( Forensic Science, Jackson and Jackson ) Next they should name for aid i.e. other officers, Scenes of offense officers ( SOCO’s/CSI ‘s ) . The offense scene must so be secured to protect the grounds. A forensic scientist called Dr Edmond Locard discovered the most basic rule of forensic scientific discipline, which is now known as Locard ‘s exchange rule, saying that

“ In the physical universe, when culprits enter or leave a offense scene, they will go forth something behind and take something with them. ” ( hypertext transfer protocol: //my.safaribooksonline.com/book/networking/forensic-analysis/9781597496612/chapter-1dot-introduction/toc15 )

The FAO must besides determine as much of the basic facts as they can, do notes and besides note their first observations in add-on to taking the names and contact inside informations of any others present at the offense scene. ( Forensic Science by Jackson and Jackson )

Evidence aggregation

The Scenes of offense officers will get to treat the offense scene. These extremely trained officers will roll up physical points that are so stored individually, packaged, labelled and are taken to the research lab to be forensically examined. There are three specialist types of labs biological science, chemical science and toxicology. Biology labs trade with offenses against others such as violent offense. Most of the samples this subdivision of the lab will have are fibers and organic structure fluids for DNA testing.

Chemistry subdivisions work involves offenses against belongings such as contact hints, fire probe and reconstructing consecutive Numberss but most instances in this lab involve drug analysis

Toxicology subdivision trades with probes into deceases that are thought to be caused by overdoses every bit good as analyzing samples taken from drink driving instances ( world and fiction, scientific discipline and offense )

Analysis of a sample

Once the substance is given to the forensic lab, samples are taken at one time. There are two different trials that they are as follows to find what a substance is these are:

Presumptive trials: these reagents are used to sort different unknown substances which can give the forensic chemist a program of what trial should be used following to analyze and place the substance.

The color trial is the most widely used presumptive trial in a lab. The color trial can be broken down into 5 different trials thest are:

Marquis Colour

This trial uses the Marquis reagent ( a mixture of methanal and concentrated sulfuric acid ) when added to pep pills will travel a orange/brown coloring material and in the presence of opium drugs or diacetylmorphine will turn purple.

Scott trial

Cobalt thiocyanate is the reagent used to prove for cocaine. A mixture of Co thiocyanate, hydrochloric acid, glycerol, distilled H2O and trichloromethane will turn bluish in the presence of cocaine.


This will turn purple blue in the presence of barbiturates such as Phenobarbital. This reagent is a mixture of Co ethanoate and isopropylamine.


The trial for LSD is the VanUrk trial a solution of p-dimethylaminobenzaldehyde, ehyl intoxicant and hydrochloric acid will turn violet when LSD is added.

Duqenois-Levine trial

This solution will turn purple in the presence of the Chemical THC which is found in marihuana.

( hypertext transfer protocol: //science.howstuffworks.com/forensic-lab-technique2.htm )

The other general trial for controlled substances is Collateral trials these consequences can be used in tribunal to convict a suspect. The lone authorised trial that can be used for evidentiary intents is GC-MS ( Gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy ) . GC-MS is two procedures which have been combined to make one method of placing chemicals.

( hypertext transfer protocol: //www.gmu.edu/depts/SRIF/tutorial/gcd/gc-ms2.htm )




Course notes

Web sites

hypertext transfer protocol: //www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/detailmini.jsp? _nfpb=true & A ; _ & A ; ERICExtSearch_SearchValue_0=EJ946459 & A ; ERICExtSearch_SearchType_0=no & A ; accno=EJ946459

hypertext transfer protocol: //www.telford.nhs.uk/Services/A-Z-of-Services/Medicines-Management/Controlled-Drugs/

hypertext transfer protocol: //addictions.about.com/od/designerdrugs/f/What-Is-A-Bad-Trip.htm

hypertext transfer protocol: //science.howstuffworks.com/forensic-lab-technique2.htm


hypertext transfer protocol: //www.youtube.com/watch? v=_54vRNqM4K0 Tuesday 5th February 2008, 9pm, BBC Two

hypertext transfer protocol: //www.youtube.com/watch? v=CX5Uw4-bW-o

hypertext transfer protocol: //www.channel4.com/programmes/drugs-live-the-ecstasy-trial/video/series-1/episode-1/ep-1-drugs-live-the-ecstasy-trial

hypertext transfer protocol: //www.youtube.com/watch? v=4coPYeGs2y4 & A ; oref=http % 3A % 2F % 2Fwww.youtube.com % 2Fresults % 3Fsearch_query % 3Ddrugs % 2Blive % 2Bepisode % 2B % 26oq % 3Ddrugs % 2Blive % 2Bepisode % 2B % 26gs_l % 3Dyoutube.3..0l2.45614.45614.0.45968.… 0.0… 1ac.1.9FS9xd7wvFc & A ; has_verified=1