Khan ( 2007 ) did a research on ‘Energy Demand in Pakistan ‘ . The research inquiry of this article is ; what is the energy demand at disaggregate degree? We employ Johansen ( 1988 ) and Johansen and Juselius ( 1990 ) multivariate cointegration method to analyze the cointegration between assorted constituents of energy, existent end product per capita and monetary value degree. We will non offering a elaborate account of Johansen ‘s methodological analysis because it has good documented in the existing literature. If the nothing of no cointegation is rejected, so we estimate the dynamic energy demand theoretical account by utilizing the undermentioned error-correction theoretical account Thus, this survey examines the demand for energy at disaggregate degree ( gas, electricity and coal ) for Pakistan over the period 1972-2007. Over chief consequences suggest that electricity and coal ingestion responds positively to alterations in existent income per capita and negatively to alterations in domestic monetary value degree. The gas ingestion responds negatively to existent income and monetary value alterations in the short tally, nevertheless, in the long-term existent income exerts positive consequence on gas ingestion, while domestic monetary value remains undistinguished. Furthermore, in the short-term the mean snaps of monetary value and existent income for gas ingestion ( in absolute footings ) are greater than that of electricity and coal ingestion. The differences in snaps of each constituent of energy have important policy deductions for income and gross coevals. To plan appropriate energy pricing policy, up to day of the month estimations of monetary value and income snaps of gas, electricity and coal demand that this survey provides, will turn out utile.
Shah and Bhatti ( 2010 ) performed their research on ‘Crises of Electricity in Pakistan and Future guideline for Policy shapers ‘ . The article has answer to the inquiry of what is the deficit in supply of electricity energy faced in Pakistan. The root causes of the deficit in supply are mentioned. Share of different sort of power bring forthing workss in Pakistan is presented in Figure 2. Historical extremum demands of Pakistan from twelvemonth 2002-2007 are presented in Table 2. A prognosis of demand and coevals for the old ages 2009-2020 is given in Table 3. A careful scrutiny of the tabular arraies 2 and 3 clearly indicates that although Pakistan ‘s installed generating capacity will increase, the deficit will go on to be [ Federal Bureau of Statistics 1998 ] . The authorities must take stairss to get the better of this state of affairs. A prognosis for following 10-12 old ages has been made utilizing empirical informations and preliminary computations. A brief reappraisal is given about the potency of Pakistan to bring forth electricity and energy beginnings it has. Importance of using coal resources of Pakistan besides discussed in it. Besides possible of H2O resource for building of hydro-electric power station is described with adverting the importance of tally of river power station. Short and long term solutions to get the better of this crisis are besides given. Importance of renewable energy beginnings such as solar and wind power is discussed in this article. This article provides a brief reappraisal of energy crisis in Pakistan and the chief country to be focused to minimise deficit of electricity in Pakistan.
Fraser ( 2005 ) did a research on ‘Lessons from the Independent Private Power Experience in Pakistan ‘ . He is senior fiscal analyst in the South Asia Energy and Infrastructure Unit of the World Bank. The treatment paper answers the inquiry ; depict the “ orderly model ” developed by the World Bank Group for the IPP exercise, and conclude with several lessons learned. The immediate measure was to reason voluntary deadlock understandings valid for a period of 30 to 45 yearss so that a meaningful duologue could get down on all relevant issues without the IPP companies and the loaners being under a menace of expiration of the understandings and without authorities notices giving rise to farther defaults and legal proceedings. The 2nd measure was to guarantee a just and merely execution of the IPP contracts. The 3rd measure was to put a negotiating scheme for different groups of IPPs. The 1292 MW, $ 1.6 billion Hub Power Project was hailed as a landmark in the field of substructure finance at the clip of fiscal stopping point in 1995. It set an of import case in point for the viability of private finance for a major substructure undertaking in a underdeveloped state. The complex suite of certification developed together with experience gained by Pakistan functionaries and establishments during its six old ages of undertaking development led to the acceptance of a Private Power Policy in 1994. Under this policy, 19 independent private power undertakings ( IPPs ) reached fiscal near in record clip for an extra 3400 MW. ( Four undertakings, numbering 435 MW were later terminated. ) Pakistan earned high congratulations amongst international developers and moneymans and was a theoretical account for private sector development in the power sector in the mid 1990s. It was described as “ the best energy policy in the whole universe ” by the US Secretary of Energy following a trip to Karachi in September 1994. That same twelvemonth, the Hub Power Project was named undertaking finance “ Deal of the Year ” by Euromoney Institutional Investor. However, by 1998 the Government had issued notices of purpose to end 11 IPPs, stand foring two tierces of private power capacity contracted, on alleged corruptness and/or proficient evidences. Percepts by the undertaking patrons of inordinate coercion, torment and bumbling legal and other actions have initiated by the Government to renegociate duties or natural contracts contributed to Pakistan ‘s autumn from grace in the eyes of the international private sector community. A turbulent three twelvemonth work-out period followed where most contracts were finally re-negotiated which coincided with the period when Pakistan was brought to the threshold of fiscal prostration. The World Bank Group played a pro-active function in easing the declaration of the IPP differences, necessitated by its big fiscal function in the IPP plan, and assisted in forestalling the crisis from detonating farther. The work-out scheme called for the Government to divide condemnable allegations from commercial differences with the former to be resolved through the legal system and the latter through amicable dialogue. Several of import lessons can be drawn from the Pakistan experience. Puting a majority duty ceiling allowed Pakistan to relieve its power deficit through private coevals in record clip ; nevertheless, excessively much power was contracted with small respect for least cost enlargement. The graduated table of private investing in coevals should be aligned with the state ‘s province of development with regard to sector reforms and besides societal, economic, political and institutional administration. In add-on, solicitation of IPPs should be on a competitory footing and staggered over a few old ages so that alterations in international investors ‘ appraisal of state and contract hazards could take to worsening command monetary values. Staggering IPP solicitation and scaling down big IPP capacity would besides let the public-service corporation to re-assess demand/supply conditions and adjust the contracted capacity and completion timing for subsequent IPPs consequently. Since false future state conditions at assessment can be well different from what really emerges, it is of import that a crystalline command procedure is followed to be more politically sustainable. Finally, while the hazard of renegotiation can be minimized by competitory command and crystalline contracts, this hazard can non be entirely avoided. All parties have to acknowledge that renegotiation is sensible provided it is done in a reciprocally acceptable mode.
Saleem ( 2003 ) did a research article on ‘Technical Efficiency in Electricity Generation Sector of Pakistan ‘ , where he aims to reply the inquiry ; what is the impact of Private and Public Ownership in Pakistan? This paper aims to prove the void hypothesis of the being of proficient efficiency in publically owned houses. This is achieved by utilizing the one-year studies of the companies and roll uping informations during field visit to electricity sector of Pakistan. This paper conducts a comparative proficient efficiency analysis of 21electricity coevals workss ( 12 private and 9 populace ) utilizing panel informations of 6 old ages ( 1998-2003 ) , and two stat-of-the art methodological analysiss: Stochastic Frontier Analysis ( SFA ) and Data Envelopment Analysis ( DEA ) . The consequences show a assorted proficient and scale efficiency tonss for the public and private coevals workss. There are some public and private houses, which have high proficient efficiency tonss. However the consequences besides suggest that the public ownership has a negative impact on the proficient efficiency of the houses. Due to less evident differences in production construction between, public and private workss, it is suggested that benchmarking of public houses utilizing private workss as a comparators, is executable and desirable. On a more empirical footing, our survey bridges an of import spread in research on the proficient efficiency of private and public electricity coevals sector. The analysis besides shows that there is non a large difference in the production construction of public and private workss, hence, after seting the inefficiency factors like burden factor, system losingss, maximal demand and per capita ingestion of electricity sector could efficaciously be benchmarked against each other.
Basharat ( 2010 ) wrote an article fundamentally based on the inquiry that ‘Where has all the power gone? ‘ He is the member of Centre council establishment of electrical & A ; electronics applied scientists Pakistan. It was highly surprising to read Naeem Tahir ‘s article on the Power Sector as looking in the op-ed pages of Daily Times of August 7, 2010. The gentleman ‘s raid with relatively less insight into the topic has resulted in a skewed analysis. See. As against what has been written, we see that it was the huge burden casting in late 2007 that led to the death of the earlier political set-up and that the power shortages were transporting on since 2004-05, albeit spread off from the bigger of the urban countries. The author is once more incorrect when he casually mentions Pakistan ‘s demand of April 20, 2010 as 14,500 MW, whereas in actuality it was 17,000 MW on that twenty-four hours, while it reached the 20,000 MW grade during late June and early July this twelvemonth. Indeed, it was 14,500 MW for the PEPCO country ( excepting KESC ) and the low production of that twenty-four hours was on history of utmost low hydel coevals of lone 2300 MW against the jutting 4,000 MW or so. However, because of lower temperatures and flood of big countries, the demand for the last few yearss has remained a little less than 18,000 MW.
Mr. Tahir thenceforth presented the list of power Stationss that were one time ( installed in the state since 1959 till 1992 ) and so merely sum sums the installed capacities, which by the way have no relevancy with the present capableness of these very workss. The assorted trifles related to power house operations and handiness thereof during assorted times of the twelvemonth was besides ignored. Actually, it has to be understood that instantly on installing, power coevals equipment reduces in capacities, which thenceforth is merely maintained through rigorous care and rehabilitation procedures. In instance, someway, the needful degree of care is non able to be conducted, so the capacities de-rate like anything. Actually, during the last 15 old ages in general and the decennary in peculiar up to 2008, the Power Sector was denied the needed financess taking to overall scrawny coevals capablenesss.
Bhutta ( 2010 ) wrote an article on ‘Wind Power Projects and Role of Government ‘ . He is an energy specializer. The article revolves around the research inquiry ; what are the enterprises are taken by the authorities of Pakistan sing air current undertakings? Energy is the engine of economic growing. Wheels of economic growing have started to travel at a faster gait during the last 4-5 old ages and Pakistan ‘s economic system had grown at an mean rate of about 7 % during the last three old ages. The demand of energy is besides expected to turn about at the same ratio and is expected to increase from about 60 Million Tonnes of Oil Equivalent ( MTOE ) to about 360 MTOE by 2030. To run into energy demands of Pakistan ‘s and to keep the energy security the Government of Pakistan has formulated a medium to long-run energy scheme as a portion of Vision 2030, that aims to guarantee handiness of sufficient energy on sustainable footing at low-cost monetary values to accomplish planned economic growing rates. The rule to be adopted is that the air current IPP will be made immune to factors which are beyond its control ( i.e. , variableness of air current velocities ) , but to the full responsible for factors within its control ( i.e. , the handiness of the works ) . The energy mix of Pakistan is non diversified. Merely three energy beginnings, i.e. gas, oil and hydropower, history for 92 per centum of the entire primary energy supplies. There are under-exploited autochthonal energy resources in Pakistan that includes renewable energy particularly wind power. Presently, activities are being made to increase development of air current resources. Pakistan ‘s electricity demand is lifting quickly. With the up-turn of the economic system, the demand of electricity is expected to increase by approximately eight creases by 2030. In order to pull off the state of affairs and better the primary energy mix, the autochthonal resources air current and hydro has given due weightage in the Energy Security Action Plan ( 2005-2030 ) Strategic waies of energy sector development include supply based on optimal energy mix, maximal use of autochthonal resources with accent on development of air current power. It is envisaged in the Vision 2030 to increase renewable energy portion to 9,700 MW by 2030. The Autochthonal resources including militias of air current power could non be exploited in yesteryear. The restraints on development of air current power include overall deficit of investing financess, high initial cost, deficiency of local engineering, trained human resources and non-availability of air current Millss. Therefore, the Government of Pakistan has announced its first of all time Renewable Energy Power Policy – 2006 by the freshly created Alternative Energy Development Board ( AEDB ) . Thereafter, AEDB has issued 93 Letter of Interest ( LOI ) for 4605 MW from the entire identified air current power potency of 41,000 MW to the private investors. The private investors are in a procedure of carry oning feasibleness surveies and land acquisition. National Electric Power Regulatory Authority ( NEPRA ) has announced a levelized upfront duty of 9.5 cents/kWh for air current power coevals for 20 old ages. This paper gives a brief history of current position of air current power undertakings and function of assorted authorities sections and policy in the development of renewable energy sector of Pakistan. It besides includes the processs involved and formalities to be fulfilled for blessing and support for public sector energy undertakings.
Khan and Qayyum ( 2009 ) did a research on ‘Electricity demand in Pakistan ‘ . The research inquiry that has been made base for this literature is ; analyse the demand for electricity in Pakistan? The energy demand literature suggests that income and monetary value snaps have been used to understand demand forms and to set about other activities such as prediction, demand direction and policy analysis ( Bose and Shukla, 1999 ) . Reliable income and monetary value snaps are more relevant in planing public policies on restructuring because monetary value is the major constituent of reform ( Narayan and Smyth, 2005 ) . .This paper examines the forms of electricity demand in Pakistan over the period 1970-2006 utilizing autoregressive distributed slowdown technique to cointegration. Long tally and short-term monetary value and income snaps are examined for the national degree and for the three major consumer ‘s categories- families, industry and agribusiness. The overall consequences suggest that income and monetary value snaps possess expected marks at sum and disaggregate degrees in the long tally aswell as in the short tally. The mistake rectification footings possess expected negative marks and are extremely important with sensible magnitudes. Furthermore, the estimated long tally and short-term electricity demand maps remains stable over the sample period. The consequences therefore convey of import information to the agents runing in the electricity market sing the pricing policies and helps in be aftering the hereafter scheme of electricity demand direction. The findings of the present survey carry of import policy deductions for Pakistan. The estimations of electricity demand equations can be used for the policy intents, since these are stable and do non endure from any structural interruption. Given that our consequences suggest that addition in the figure of electricity users and alterations in pricing policy can increase gross both in the long tally and in the short tally, the statement for policy relevancy additions more strength. To plan electricity pricing policy, up-to-date estimations of monetary value and income snaps of electricity demand that this survey provides will turn out utile. The policy shapers and private investors could profit from this survey because it provides utile information sing the market for electricity ingestion.
Solar Energy Research Centre ( SERC ) did a survey on ‘Introducing solar power in Pakistan ‘ . The survey answers the inquiry of ; what is the importance of solar energy in states like Pakistan? In the underdeveloped universe, the handiness and cost of power can play a critical function in economic development and people ‘s wellbeing. As states become wealthier and their populations turn, demand for energy additions. Traditional beginnings of energy are frequently excessively expensive to fulfill this demand. There are besides concerns about the limited militias of fossil fuels and their environmental costs. Solar energy, in peculiar, is an first-class option to fossil fuels, peculiarly for such developing states as Pakistan that receive high degrees of solar radiation. More and more states, hence, are presenting economically and environmentally sound energy policies and are turning to solar energy for a broad scope of utilizations, including cookery and H2O warming. However, people are improbable to follow a wholly new engineering until they know something about it and hold seen how it works. They need to hold entree to clearly presented information that explains the proficient and economic benefits of replacing long-established traditional methods with new, advanced ways of making things. This means that the new engineering must be readily available. When this undertaking began, the Solar Energy Research Centre ( SERC ) in Pakistan had already developed designs for solar geysers and cookers suited to the state ‘s socio-economic conditions. However, the Centre did non hold installations to fabricate these devices at low-cost monetary values and of high adequate quality. With US $ 2,500 in support, SERC was able to set up an up-to-date installation for the mass production of solar geysers and cookers and supply all the necessary proficient support, service execution and direction for such a installation.
Looney ( 2007 ) did research on ‘Sustaining economic enlargement in Pakistan in an epoch of energy deficits: growing options to 2035 ‘ . The 1960s, 1980s and early 2000s have been periods of rapid enlargement in most of the standard macroeconomic growing indices. In bend these have affected, albeit to a lesser extent, the many steps of single energy supply and demand. Pulling on the empirically-based complex links between energy and the economic system, several alternate scenarios of growing and energy demands are developed in an effort to reply several cardinal inquiries. In peculiar, what are some of the cardinal interrelatednesss between beginnings of energy demand and provide? What are the economic growing effects of alternate energy handinesss and, in bend, how do these growing forms affect the subsequent energy supply and demand forms? What energy schemes are suggested by the interconnectedness between the state growing demands and energy demands? Are these significantly modified under lifting or falling energy monetary values? Pakistan ‘s recent economic acceleration together with rapid rates of population growing is holding a important impact on the state ‘s energy supply/demand balances. Energy supplies in bend affect the gait and form of the state ‘s economic enlargement. Based on the analysis, several guidelines are drawn for the state ‘s future energy policy.
Weynand ( 2007 ) did a research on ‘Energy Sector Assessment for USAID/Pakistan ‘ . The Mission ‘s Economic Growth squad requested that EGAT ‘s ( economic growing, agribusiness & A ; trade ) Office of Infrastructure & A ; Engineering direct out an energy expert in March 2007 to measure Pakistan ‘s energy sector with an oculus to replying three inquiries:
How is energy lending or restraining Pakistan ‘s economic growing?
What aid needs to be provided to Pakistan ‘s energy sector to further economic growing?
What function should USAID drama?
He and his squad Maintaining and spread outing energy services within Pakistan is important to the economic growing of the state. During the class of this assessment two critical demands have been identified: ( 1 ) supplying more energy supplies through enlargement AND preservation ; and ( 2 ) increasing entree to modern energy services to un-served parts and population groups. The two major challenges that must be overcome to fulfill these demands are: ( a ) alining economic inducements through policies, ordinances, subsidies, duties, monetary values, aggregations, and revenue enhancements to better financial subject and transparence, attract investing, and promote energy preservation and efficiency betterments ; and ( B ) making sufficient capacity to authorise stakeholders such as the Government of Pakistan, the private sector, NGOs, and energy consumers to both implement and respond to the inducements model.