See a company XYZ which produces assorted automotive parts. One such portion is ABC, for which there is a rise in stock list degree. The selling squad decides to establish a promotional run to hike the gross revenues and ABC and restrict this lifting stock list degree. This promotional run was a great success and there was an addition in the gross revenues of merchandise ABC. The production section noticed this rise in gross revenues of merchandise ABC and they started bring forthing more of ABC in expectancy of lifting demand. This once more resulted in an addition in inventory degree ( negated the full motivation of the run ) . This is a perfect illustration of the importance of information sharing ( coaction and Communication ) . A similar sort of issue occurs, when we do non portion information in a supply Chain, ensuing in “ Bullwhip Effect ” .

In an organisation, if different sections have different proprietors with different positions and ends, they all try to maximise their single net incomes. In the way of accomplishing this, they get deviated from their common end of maximising the overall net income of the full Supply Chain. This divergence from the true end leads to miss of coordination

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Inappropriate flow of information

Due to incomplete sharing of information between phases ( inter-organization and intra-organization ) , information is distorted. Today, for a given organisation, there are a thousand of merchandises. This addition in assortment of merchandises makes it following to impossible for the companies to interchange all information among all its providers

Such inappropriate flow of information consequences in BULLWHIP consequence. Here, fluctuations in orders increase as we move up the supply concatenation from consumer to retailer to jobbers to makers.

Proctor and Gamble was the first to detect the bullwhip consequence in its supply concatenation for Pampers nappies. They found that the natural stuff refilling order at the provider side had immense fluctuations as compared to fluctuation in demand at retail shops. Same manner, HP besides found that the fluctuations varied significantly with being really small at resellers point and increasing as traveling up in the concatenation towards integrated circuit division ( ICD ) . Here besides, while the fluctuation in merchandise demands were really small, replenishment orders placed with ICD saw much more variableness. A similar phenomenon can be seen in dress and food market industry.

Lack of Coordination and its effects on Performance – The Bullwhip consequence

A supply concatenation is said to be missing in coordination if each phase ( degree ) is concerned about optimisation of its ain aim. In making so, assorted single entities get deviated from a common aim or organisational end – to fulfill consumers by fulfilling their demands and there by bring forthing maximal net income for the organisation. Information deformation is besides one of the causes of Lack of Coordination, as in the instance of nappy supply concatenation of P & A ; G.

Areas affected by Bullwhip consequence

Manufacturing cost

Inventory cost

Replenishment lead clip

Transportation system cost

Labor cost

Degrees of merchandise handiness ( service degree )

Relationship across the supply concatenation

Manufacturing Cost

As a consequence of Bullwhip consequence, Manufacturing unit of P & A ; G have to bring forth to fulfill the demand of nappies with much more variableness. P & A ; G can react to such variableness by either keeping of extra stock list or by bring forthing more capacity, both of which leads to increase in fabricating cost.

Inventory cost

The Bullwhip consequence besides consequences in addition in stock list cost. With increased variableness in demand, P % G has to transport a higher degree of stock list than would really necessitate in absence of Bullwhip consequence. Therefore, we can see a major addition in Inventory cost. A higher degree of stock list will besides intend an increased warehouse infinite demand ( once more an addition in cost ) .

Replenishment Lead Time

The Bullwhip consequence consequences in increased replenishment lead clip. With the addition in variableness in demand due to Bullwhip consequence, scheduling at providers and P & A ; G are much more hard as compared to a flat demand. There are state of affairss when the available resource ( stock list ) is non plenty to run into the demand and there by ensuing in higher refilling lead clip.

Transportation system cost

The Bullwhip consequence consequences in higher transit cost. With the increased fluctuations in demand due to Bullwhip consequence, there is a relative fluctuation in the demand of transit. This consequences in a rise in transit cost

Labor Cost

Labor cost additions in presence of Bullwhip consequence. Labor cost at P & A ; G and its providers increase due to fluctuations in demand. Besides, labour cost for having at retail merchants end additions due to this increased uncertainness. Now all these phases have option of either operating at extra labour or variable labour, both of which consequences in addition in labour cost.

Degree of Product handiness

One of the major results of Bullwhip consequence is the Out Of Stock state of affairss. As we know, with addition in fluctuations in orders, P & A ; G is non capable of fulfilling the demands of all its retail merchants on clip, which in bend increases the likeliness of retail merchants traveling OOS – ensuing in a gross revenues loss in the supply concatenation.

Relationship across the supply concatenation

The Bullwhip consequence, holding a negative consequence on public presentation at all degrees of supply concatenation consequences in resentment in the relationship between these assorted phases of supply concatenation. Since each phase is working independently and is seeking to accomplish its single end, they are under an feeling that they are making it in right manner. They start faulting other section of inefficiency and at that place by ensuing in loss of trust.

Performance Measure

Bullwhip consequence

Manufacturing cost


Inventory Cost


Replenishment Lead Time


Transportation system Cost


Transportation and Receiving Cost


Degree of Product handiness



DecreaseThus, we can state that the Bullwhip consequence has a important consequence on the overall profitableness of the supply concatenation. There is an addition in cost and lessening in reactivity.

Obstacles to accomplishing coordination in Supply Chain

Factors taking to local optimisation at assorted phases of supply concatenation or increase in information hold are the root cause of trouble in coordination in supply concatenation. The five major classs of obstructions are

Incentive obstructions

Information processing obstructions

Operational obstructions

Pricing obstructions

Behavioral obstructions

Incentive obstruction

When there is a fluctuation in inducement offered at different phases in a supply concatenation, there is an addition in variableness in the productiveness and decrease in entire supply concatenation net incomes.

Local Optimization: Suppose that the inducement of a floor director at a local food market shop depends up on the net income they generate for that peculiar shop. Here, the directors take all their buying and stock list determinations to accomplish this end merely and non for the benefit of the full supply concatenation. Buying and carrying determinations which are based on individual phase optimisation can ne’er ensue in over all supply concatenation profitableness.

Improper gross revenues force inducement: Very frequently, gross revenues force inducement are designed in a mode to accomplish local ends. Gross saless force inducement are based on the measure sold to the distributers and non the terminal consumers. For illustration, see an umbrella fabrication house, which offers its gross revenues force an inducement on the gross revenues mark achieved in off season. To maximise their fillips, gross revenues force convinces distributers to purchase more umbrellas even though there is no demand. This consequences in order variableness with more demand in off season and less demand when really there are gross revenues. This sort of gross revenues forces incentive consequence in order variableness more than client demand variableness.

Information processing obstructions

Information processing obstructions occurs in a state of affairs when there is a deformation in information sing demand as it moves from clients to retail merchants to distributers to makers.

Forecasting based on orders and non on client demand

When there is a Bullwhip consequence is a supply concatenation, the lone communicating between different phases is the orders they receive. Each phase sees its duty as carry throughing orders to its downstream. In such a scenario, a really little alteration in client demand will ensue in big variableness in orders placed by the distributers. The fact that each phase in a supply concatenation prognosiss demand based on the watercourse of orders received from the downstream phase consequences in a magnification of fluctuations in demand as we move up the supply concatenation from the retail merchant to the maker.

Lack of information sharing

Suppose a retail merchant increases the size of order for a peculiar merchandise due to its planned publicity. Now, if the maker is non cognizant of this planned publicity, it will see this addition in order as addition in client demand and topographic point orders with providers consequently. So, when the retail merchant finishes its publicity, both maker and distributer has a piled up stock list.

Operational obstructions

Operational obstructions occur at the clip of puting and filling of orders. There are a figure of fixed costs associated with placing of order, having or transit of an order. Different retail merchants may prefer orders in tonss to minimise such costs. Therefore at the providers end there is big variableness in order as compared to demand variableness at retail merchant ‘s terminal. Now, if there a figure of retail merchants associated with the same provider, and due to arrangement of orders in tonss, there might be some yearss when order may be unpredictably high as compared to other yearss as compared to demand. Such state of affairss may besides take to big replenishment lead clip.

Pricing obstructions

Lot size based measure price reductions occurs when there are price reductions offered on big tonss of order placed. These ensuing big tonss magnify the Bullwhip consequence. There are a figure of trade publicities and short term price reductions. Such offers ever boost orders, which are nowhere in sync up with the existent demand. Such forward purchasing consequence in big orders during promotional activity or particular price reduction rates but really little orders after that.

Behavioral Obstacles

Behavioral obstructions are jobs in larning within organisations which subsequently on contribute to the Bullwhip consequence.

Each phase of supply concatenation Acts of the Apostless locally and is non cognizant of the effects of its action on others.

Different phases of the supply concatenation react to the current state of affairs locally instead than seeking to place the root cause.

Due to deficiency of common apprehension and common trust, each phase plays a blasted game on each other with no 1 taking the duty of these fluctuations.

Lack of trust with in supply concatenation makes them all timeserving at the disbursal of the overall supply concatenation profitableness. This besides consequences in duplicate of attempts. Since single entities do non portion thoughts and work in isolation, many a times they turn up making the same undertaking.

Meanss to Overcome obstructions of Collaborative information sharing – Collaborative Planning, Forecasting and Replenishment

Meanss to get the better of these obstructions

Improved information truth

Alliance of ends and inducement across the channel

Building strong partnership and common trust

Bettering Operational Performance

All these attempts can be achieved by Collaborative Planning, Forecasting and Replenishment. So what precisely is Collaborate Planning, Forecasting and Replenishment ( CPFR ) ? Here, both Sellerss and purchasers at all the degrees come together and join forces along all or few of these activities.

Scheme and Planning

Demand and Supply Management



At scheme and planning phase, all the spouses involved discuss upon the range of coaction and assign functions and duties and define checkpoints. They align all their activities including publicities, new merchandise debut, shop gap and shutting and stock list policies. Then, at demand and supply direction, gross revenues forecast utilizing point of gross revenues informations give an accurate image of demand. Now, as the prognosiss become house, they are converted to existent orders. Then, procedures like production, transportation, having and carrying are executed. Now the last but most of import undertaking is analysis of KPI. There is ever a demand for placing exclusions and measuring prosodies that are used to entree public presentation.

One successful CPFR execution has involved Henkel, a German detergent maker, and Eroski, a Spanish nutrient retail merchant. Prior to CPFR, Eroski saw frequent stock outs of Henkel merchandises, particularly during publicities. At the origin of CPFR in December 1999, 70 per centum of the gross revenues prognosis had an mean mistake of over 50 per centum and merely 5 per centum of the prognosiss had an mistake below 20 per centum. But, merely within four months of CPFR execution, the Numberss changed drastically. Forecast mistakes above 50 per centum reduced to 5 per centum and more than 70 per centum of the clip, forecast mistake was below 20 per centum. Customer service degree besides increased to 90 % with an mean stock list of merely 5 yearss.

CPFR execution Scenarios

Mentioned below are the most common CPFR execution scenarios

CPFR scenario

Where applied in Supply Chain

Industries where applied

Retail event coaction

Highly promoted channels

All industry other than those that pattern EDLP

DC refilling coaction

Retail DC or distributed DC

Drugstores, hardware, food market

Store refilling coaction

Direct shop bringing or DC to hive away bringing

Mass merchandisers, Club shops

Collaborative mixture planning

Apparel and seasonal goods

Forte retail

Common CPFR Scenarios

Retail event Collaboration:

In any retail supermarket, there are a figure of events such as promotional activities and they affect demand really much.OOS and extra stock list, unplanned logistics cost and order arrangement costs are sometimes really high and may impact the overall profitableness in the supply concatenation. Here the two parties involved identify specific trade names that are to be included in coaction. Each and every minute item like publicity clip and topographic point, show tactics, advertizement are shared. Once, information sharing is done, a demand prognosis is prepared and shared with in the two parties.

P & A ; G is one such illustration which has implemented Retail event coaction with many large retail ironss including Wal-Mart.

DC refilling Collaboration

This is one of the simplest and largely used coaction scenarios, where spouses need to join forces for calculating on demand and DC backdowns. This coaction is comparably easy to implement since this coaction requires aggregative prognosiss and does non necessitate sharing of point of gross revenues informations. And easy, with due class of clip, this coaction can be moved up to all other storage points in supply concatenation ( from retail shelves to Inventory warehouse )

Store Replenishment coaction

Store refilling coaction is one measure in front of DC replenishment coaction. Here, coaction is on shop degree point of sale prognosis. These prognosiss are used puting shop orders. Benefits of shop Replenishment coaction is increased replenishment truth, improved service degree and less Out of Stock state of affairss, reduced stock list and greater visibleness of point of gross revenues informations.

Collaborative Assortment Planning

For manner dresss and seasonal merchandises, demand follows a seasonal form. Therefore, collaborative planning in these classs follows seasonality Hence, the prognosiss rely more on collaborative apprehension of industry tendencies, client gustatory sensations and less on horizontal informations.

Why is CPFR of import?

See a consumer walking in to a retail food market mercantile establishment to happen that the merchandise which he is looking for is non available ( out of stock ) . For the consumer, it is great incommodiousness and for the shop proprietor, it is a loss of gross. Such a state of affairs is non merely a pestilence in retail industry, but besides a incubus for fabricating sector. Out Of Stock of one peculiar stock list in the fabrication line can take to zero overall production ( constrictions ) . Mostly ( 70 % to 75 % ) , out of Stock occur at retail merchant degree.

Reasons for Out of Stock at retail merchant degree:

Drawn-out Ordering Processes/Cycles

Underestimated demand

Un stocked shelves even though the merchandises are at the shop

So, what is required to undertake such jobs?

End to stop information channel – Point of Sale information coming from retail merchant to the provider. CPFR is one such procedure where we use common tools to capture informations at all phases in the supply Chain. Pioneers to this pattern are Wal-Mart and Tesco. They foremost linked their Point of Sale informations from Retail shops to their Warehouses. This laid down the bricks to the edifice of an unfastened information substructure. The 2nd and more critical undertaking in execution of CPFR is pull offing cultural alteration. There has to be a willingness to portion information. A common trust between different stakeholders is a must, since the needed information to be shared is confidential most of the clip.

Benefits of Collaborative Planning, Forecasting and Replenishment

Lower stock list degrees

Increased gross revenues

Less overhead

Reduced human mistakes ( informations exchange )

Better penetration in client demand ensuing in better resource use, reduced stock list demands.

Improved and direct communicating with clients

Opportunity to supply class direction

Reduced replenishment clip

Less redundancy

Increase service degree and decreased stock outs

Lower Inventory Level

By holding cognition of exact stock list position of client, the provider has better control on lead clip of his stock list. He knows his exact stock list demands due to lower uncertainness. A better prediction leads to take downing the demand for safety stocks ( besides termed as buffer stock – is the degree of excess stock maintained to extenuate the hazards of stock outs due to uncertainnesss in calculating ) . All these factors combine to ensue in lower stock list.

Increased Gross saless

CPFR in topographic point ensures the merchandise handiness at any given point. This consequences in a better client experience and client satisfaction. A satisfied client becomes your loyal clients. A loyal, regular client generates more gross than a first clip client. Besides, less stock outs at mercantile establishments result in less clients returning without any purchase. This consequences in increased gross revenues.

Better Resource Utilization

Proper cognition of client demand due to stop to stop information sharing, consequences in a better prediction. An improved prediction Numberss result in more planned determinations, lucidity of head in footings of stock list demands and so a better RU program.

Increased Service Level

Collaborative Planning, prediction and Replenishment builds up a better prediction theoretical account. In CPFR system, at each degree, a provider has entree to existent clip gross revenues and stock list informations of a client. Equally shortly as the stock list goes below the safety degree, a replenish order call is triggered. It helps clients to run at higher service degrees and lower stock lists. Now, these are the benefits every provider aspires for.

Challenges in execution of CPFR

It is a cosmopolitan truth that no benefit comes without a cost. Same manner, with so many benefits associated with Collaborative Planning, Forecasting and Replenishment, there are besides few hazards and hurdlings to its execution. With sharing of information at such a big graduated table, its abuse is one such hazard. Often, one entity may hold relationship with assorted rivals. Another hazard involved is viability of alteration in engineering. If one of the spouses in coaction alterations its engineering, the other is forced to make so or it may lose its coaction. Third, with the demand of close interaction of the spouses, a fluctuation in their civilizations can besides play a really of import function in doing determinations of CPFR execution. The inability to further a collaborative civilization across the spouse organisations can be a major hurdle to the success of CPFR. However, one of the biggest challenges is that the demand information which is shared between the spouses is frequently non used in an incorporate mode within the organisations. It is imperative to hold integrated supply and demand, logistics and corporate planning within the organisations. This will assist in maximising the overall net income generated in the supply concatenation.

Factors impacting Distribution Network design

Elementss of client service influenced by web construction:

Response clip

Merchandise assortment

Merchandise handiness

Customer experience

Order visibleness

Return ability

Supply concatenation costs affected by web construction:


Transportation system

Facilities and managing


Supply Chain Costss affected

With a better visibleness due to information sharing, the stock list demand lessenings, thereby cut downing overall stock list cost. Besides, a common provider may hold information ( existent clip ) of all its clients and can really easy nine in assorted orders. This can be achieved by utilizing MILK RUN theoretical account of distribution – One truckload fillet at multiple points to refill assorted clients. This helps him to cut down his transit cost besides. Execution of centralised information systems ( ERP, SAP ) may extinguish the fusss of manually informations entry and transportation. Though, the erstwhile cost of execution of such systems might be really high, they cut down the human mistake chance. Such mistakes may ensue in inaccuracy in calculating which will once more ensue in higher stock list costs and out of stocks ( loss of gross revenues ) .

Elementss of Customer Services influenced

Response clip and Product handiness

CPFR builds up a better prediction theoretical account. The existent demand information is used to bring forth replenishment orders. This helps sellers to better their response clip and less out of stock state of affairss in the retail mercantile establishments.

Customer Experience

When a client walks in to a retail shop, there is a lesser opportunity of him happening an out of stock state of affairs. Product handiness ( right merchandise at right topographic point ) helps to increase client satisfaction.

Order Visibility

With CPFR in topographic point, the provider can see the client demand in existent and can expect the orders. This helps in decrease in mistakes in prediction. A well informed and collaborated spouses increases order visibleness. All this is possible merely due to Collaborative information sharing in the system.