1. Introduction

Turbo Sdn. Bhd. and ABC Sdn. Bhd. has their ain scheme to accomplish and pull off the fiscal aim of a concern. The key of aim in company are net income maximization and wealth maximization. Net income maximization is the company have to maximisation income or hard currency influxs. So, the company will merely make an investing undertakings, which get a big net incomes and unprofitable activities will be bead. Whether financing dividend, or investing all the determinations are to maximise income or net income to optimum degree. For wealth maximization the purpose is to increase shareholder’s wealth. So director have to take determination that can do stockholder as rich as possible.

To the procedure of accomplishing the fiscal aim of the house there are fiscal planning, fiscal control, and fiscal decision-making. Financial planning is happening that available for the company must be adequate to run into all the concern activities. In short term, may be the fund demand to put to pay employees and stocks and equipment. In the long term, may be fund is required to the add-ons of productive capacity. Financial control is an of import activity to assist in accomplishing concern aim. Financial control will look to overall of the company fiscal activity to analyzing whether there is secure in assets, expeditiously used in assets, and so wholly. Financial Decision-making is to place scheme must utilize by the company while doing a determination of fiscal. Financing and investing determination is to maximise stockholder wealth.

    1. Techniques of Capital Budgeting
  • Net Present Value

Net Present Value is used for gauging the value of each potency undertaking through utilizing a discounted hard currency flow ( DCF ) rating. This rating requires gauging the timing and size of all the incremental hard currency flows from the undertaking. The NPV is greatly affected by the price reduction rate, so choosing a proper rate is critical to do right determinations.

  • Internal Rate of Return

The internal rate of return ( IRR ) is defined as the price reduction rate that gives a net nowadays value ( NPV ) of nothing. It is normally used step of investing efficiency. The IRR method will ensue in the same determination as the NPV method for non-mutually sole undertakings in an unconstrained environment, in the usual instances where a negative hard currency flow occurs at the start of the undertaking, followed by all positive hard currency flows. However, for reciprocally sole undertakings the determination regulation of taking the undertaking with the highest IRR, which is frequently used, may sometimes choose a undertaking with a lower NPV.

  • Payback Period

Payback period in capital budgeting refers to the period of clip required for the return of an investing to “repay” the amount of the cost. Payback period measures how long a undertaking takes to “pay for itself” . Shorter payback periods are ever preferred to longer payback periods.

  • Profitability Index

Profitability index ( PI ) , besides known as net income investing of a proposed undertaking. It is an first-class tool for ranking undertakings, because it gives company an entree to quantify the sum of value created per unit of investing.

  1. Significance of WACC

It is ever valuable to cognize the leaden mean cost of capital, particularly when the capitalm construction of a house involves both equity funding and debt. The findings of WACC will motivate recommendations by the fiscal analyst to, such as wage off more debt, carry less debt, publish more equity, issue more portion, or trade or refinance debts for those of different involvement rates. The company and the stockholders should supervise the WACC all the clip because it is related to their benefits.

But the cost of capital is besides used at other state of affairss. WACC is utile in doing an nonsubjective organisation analysis, measuring capital construction for room for betterment and optimising the value and return of the organization’s fundss. Without WACC, a company can ne’er do proper fiscal determinations.

  1. Literature reappraisal of WACC

Miller & A ; Modigliani ( 1961 ) recognized that a firm’s value should be unaffected, which contain capital construction or dividend policy in involve of revenue enhancements. Once venture revenue enhancements are initiated the capital construction is able to carry the value of the house. While involvement payments are able to be deducted, for ground of cost of external funding for the company becomes cheaper ( Modigliani & A ; Miller, 1958 ) . The prepositions used are same to that of ciphering CAPM, definition of with prefect information capital markets.

Miles & A ; Ezzel ( 1985 ) calculated a preparation farther WACC in eternity presuming the continuance of the first period the premise of hazard of the Tax Savings ( TS ) which is equal the cost of debt ( Kd ) and, which it is equal to cost of unlevered equity ( Ku ) during residuary periods. Taggart ( 1991 ) look into a preparation to cost of equity. Ke and weighted mean cost of capital ( WACC ) for sempiternities which is none turning. Fernandez ( 2007 ) suppose that WACC and Ke sempiternities, which is turning, should be, where D and E are the market values for Debt and Equity, VTS is the present value of the Tax Savings, T is the Tax Rate, and g is the changeless growing rate in sempiternity.

  1. Literature Review of Capital Budgeting

Gitman Lawrence G. and John R. Forrester Jr. ( 1977 ) analysed the responses from 110 houses who replied to their study of the 600 companies that Forbes reported as holding the greatest stock monetary value growing over the 1971-1979 periods. The study incorporating inquiries related to capital budgeting techniques, the division of duty for capital budgeting determinations, the most of import and most hard phases of capital budgeting, the cut off rate and the methods used to measure hazard. They found that the DCF techniques were the most popular methods for measuring undertakings, particularly the IRR. However, many houses still used the PBP method as a backup or secondary attack. The bulk of the companies that responded to the study indicated that the Finance Department was responsible for analyzing capital budgeting undertakings.

  1. Calculation

Note 1

Year 1

Year 2

Year 3

Entire Student

Private Student

Entire Market Share

Private Student

Market Share

Expected Market Share

[ 10 % addition ]

Price / Unit [ 2 % Increase ]


20 %


25 %







Entire Gross

1000 000

1 122 000

125 8884

Note 2

Year 1

Year 2

Year 3

Lecturer’s staff ( 6 x 50 000 uplift 5 % per annum )

300 000

315 000

330 750

Note 3

Year 1

Year 2

Year 3

Bonus 30 % Base

94 500

99 225

Note 4

Year 1

Year 2

Year 3

Travel Payment

10 ten 10 000 ten 10 %

60 000

66 000

72 600

Undertaking 1

  1. Net Present Value

Year 1

Year 2

Year 3

Year 4






Staff Salary

Traveling Cost


Net Annual Cash Flows

Net Cash Flows

Discount Factor

1000 000

-400 000

-40 000

-20 000

-300 000

-60 000

180 000

180 000


200 000

1 122 000

-480 000

-50 000

-20 000

-315 000

-66 000

391 000

391 000


20 000

1258 884

-576 000

-60 000

-20 000

-330 750

-72 600

-94 500

305 034

305 034


-99 225

-99 225

-99 225


Present Value

168 228

341 499

248 999

-75 699

NPV = 758 726 – 75 699

= RM 683 027

Accept the proposal

  • Climatic issues. Green activities has late gained popularity to the extent that companies non puting in equipment that preserve the environment are seen as a non-responsive and irresponsible by the populace who will in bend become clients subsequently. In order for companies to continue this benefit, it sometimes has to put in some undertakings that are non excessively financially sound.
  • Staff Motivation. The consequence of an investing on the motive of staff should be considered before fostering in the investing procedure.
  • Backend Profit/Sales. Another non-financial factors to be consider is the backend gross revenues that will come to the company as a consequence of puting some non-profitable undertakings. This will move as a come-on to convey in client that may finally see another merchandise that they may wish.
  • Customers Satisfaction. The satisfaction that clients will acquire from an investing is a non-financial factors to see before doing any investing. After all, clients are ever the male monarch.
  • Handiness of Manpower. The company need to do certain that there is adequate work force to run the equipment to be invested in.
  • Government Regulation. This is an obvious but the most ignored facet of investing assessment. There is demand to see the authorities relevant Torahs before doing investing assessment.
  • Rivals Action. There is demand to see the action of your rivals before doing investing determinations. This will in most instances lead to company doing investing that are non strictly based on fiscal evidences.
  • Trend ( Present & A ; Potential ). The tendency is your friend is a popular expression among fiscal professionals. You consider the tendency before doing an investing in a undertaking to see if there is possible in the proposed undertaking.

Non-financial factors or standards have ne’er been really of import in investing determination as it is in today’s universe where there is so much uncertainness in finance. Hence, the demand to take them serious.

Undertaking 2

  1. Significance of the WACC for ABC Sdn. Bhd.
  • Evaluation of company

Any rational investor will put clip before puting money in ABC Sdn. Bhd.. The investor will seek to happen out the rating of the company. Based on the basicss, the investor will project the hereafter hard currency flows and dismiss them utilizing the WACC and split the consequence by figure of equity portion holders. Investor will acquire the per portion value of the company and can merely compare this value and the current market monetary value ( CMP ) of the company and make up one’s mind whether it is investable or non.

  • Important Inferences from WACC

Some of import illations from WACC can be drawn to understand assorted of import issues that the direction of the ABC Sdn. Bhd. should turn to.

  • Consequence of Leverage:Sing the Net Income Approach ( NOI ) by Durand, the consequence of purchase is reflected in WACC. So, the WACC can be optimized by seting the debt constituent of the capital construction. Lower the WACC, higher will be the ratings of the company. Lower WACC besides widens the range of the company by leting it to accept low return undertakings and still make value.
  • Optimum Capital Budgets:The addition in the magnitude of capital tends to increase the WACC every bit good. With the aid of WACC agenda and undertaking agenda, an optimum capital budget can be worked out for the ABC Sdn. Bhd..
  1. Ke ( Cost of Equity )

=+ 0.2

= 32 % Kd = 12 %








1250 000

32 %

12 %

73 %

26 %

23 %

  1. Analysis

Turbo Sdn.Bhd. is accepting the undertaking. The company is ciphering all the grosss, disbursals, and happening out net present value. The gross is RM 1 000 000 in Year 1, RM 1 122 000 in Year 2 and RM 1 258 884 in Year 3. Expenses for Year 1 is RM 820 000, RM 931 000 for Year 2, RM 1 153 850 for Year 3 and RM 99 225 for Year 4. Expenses is include rental, care, salary, staff salary travelling cost and fillip. But fillip is merely given by company start from Year 3. The company utilizing 10 % of dismissing factor. After ciphering the present value, NPV is calculated by positive figure subtraction with negative figure in the present value and will acquire NPV which is RM 683 027. For ABC Sdn. Bhd. , cost of capital is less for the company, and it is good, so the company traveling to accept the undertaking.

  1. Conclusion

In this study, Turbo Sdn. Bhd. and ABC Sdn. Bhd. are traveling to accept the undertaking. The procedure of finding whether or non to accept the undertaking or non is by capital budgeting and investing determination. Often companies will hold several chances and must mensurate each one ‘s possible in order to do a comparing and take merely one or a few. The three chief methods of taking this measuring are Net Present Value ( NPV ) , Internal Rate of Return ( IRR ) and Payback Period.

ABC Sdn. Bhd. is calculate WACC to do a determination whether to accept the undertaking or non. It is an of import metric used for assorted intents but it has to be used really carefully. The weights of the capital constituents should be expressed in market value footings. The market values should be determined carefully and accurately. Faulty computations of WACC will ensue in defective investing determinations as good. There are issues such as no consideration given to flotation cost which are non deserving disregarding. The complications increase if the capital consists of callable, putt able or exchangeable instruments, warrants etc.


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