[ If person is inquiring from another 1 who has a just cognition about universe trade, Is joint venture the merely successful collaborative method of come ining an Emerging Market ( EM ) ? The simplest reply that is coming to the head is no ]

Business in Emerging Markets


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Madushan Abeyratne

Lecture in charge: Mr. Shyam Dissanayake

Bachelor ‘s Degree in Business Management

Sri Lanka Institute of Information Technology




Page No





Hazard Involve in Emerging Markets



Entry Schemes



Are Joint Ventures the merely successful entry scheme of come ining an EM?



Joint Ventures



Cause for Forming a Joint Venture






Swiss Com



Motorola in China



GM and Daewoo



McDonald ‘s



Century 21





A Joint Venture is the merely successful collaborative method of come ining an Emerging Market

[ Critically analyze this statement utilizing illustrations drawn from two emerging economic systems ]

1.0 Introduction

As a term emerging market is a really much familiar word to the modern-day concern universe. Harmonizing to the concern analysts, Emerging Markets ( EM ) are the states which are within developing and developed stage managers. Furthermore, the Gross National Production ( GNP )[ 1 ]of these states is under $ 9,385 per twelvemonth.

The Gross Domestic Production ( GDP ) of EMs are by and large over 6.5 % per annum. It is a higher GDP rate when comparison to developed states every bit good as other developing states. Further, there are immense border of ingestion capacity, personal disposable income rate, untapped natural resources, labour force and etcaˆ¦

There are several entry schemes that companies can utilize to come in into an EM. Frequently, the Multinational Companies ( MNC ) which have the ability to run their big figure of host state operations throughout their female parent state, are making their concerns by utilizing different sorts of entry schemes such as joint ventures, licensing, franchisers, subcontracts, amalgamations, acquisitions and etc. in EMs. Among these entry schemes, most of the companies concentrate on collaborative entry schemes such as joint ventures, licensing, franchisers and bomber contracts, because of many grounds.

Furthermore, when MNCs enter into the EMs they have to analyse the certain hazards. For cases, cultural hazards, economic hazards, political hazards, etc. Therefore, the companies that have selected suited entry scheme must concentrate on these hazard factors as good.

2.0 Risk Involved in Emerging Markets

Harmonizing to the Chinese position, hazard is a combination of danger and chance. Therefore, the chances are dishevelled with danger.

Ems have been invested because of considerable jutting net income borders by the MNCs. For case, Coca-Cola predicted net income per centum in BRIC EMs is 41 per centum, out of their entire net income rate.

More than $ 2.5 trillion of abroad assets have been attracted for the BRIC counties with a immense chance of investing. Even though the EMs seams attention-getting sphere for investors, there are many more concealed hazards available at that place.

It is said that, EMs do non hold typical primary hazards or freshly identified hazards. But, for western companies, puting in CEE ( Cardinal European Union ) EMs are non riskier than puting in Asiatic EMs. The cultural hazard in Asiatic EMs like India is highly high compared to the CEE. In Asia, the criterion of life, verbal communicating differences, features, attitudes, faiths and the life manners are so much different to the West. But, in CEE, they are so much same as the western companies. Therefore the western female parent companies seem to be holding a smaller sum of cultural hazards when they are puting in CEE host states.

By and large each and every investor has to confront cardinal hazards in EMs as everyplace in Earth. “ Interest rate hazard, currency hazard, economic hazard, default hazard and political hazard to call a few ” . Changeability of these factors is higher than developed states much up to developing states. ( Zask 2000 ) .

As the two sides of a same coin, economic system and political relations inter reliable with each other. When a MNC is come ining to an EM, they have to believe twice about that host states cultural and political hazards move than other come ining hazards. The concentration of monitory, political, societal and economic stableness in the EMs is a wiser start for brighter hereafter for a MNC in a host state. The rising prices rate, per capita income, exchange rate, involvement rate, substructure, menace of openness, rising prices rate, low exchange debts, unfastened capital market and etcaˆ¦ are the major indexs that are demoing the economic, political, socio cultural and fiscal stableness. The MNCs who use joint venture, licensing, sub-contracting, franchising, and etc.. must be careful when they enter into an EM. Further there is an of import factor to maintain on head that is most of the EMs like India, China and other state ‘s authorities intercessions to the trade are in really higher phase.

Most of the MNCs while come ining into EMs they come across hapless legal conditions, corruptnesss, fraud and other such hazards. Poor Chinese rational belongings Torahs, Russian complicated legal construction that gaps still go oning, Russian higher rates of frauds, excessively chief Indian administrative officials and Chinese red- tape methods which delay work are modern-day illustrations for those hazards.

The deficiencies of adequate substructure installations in the EMs have been falling investors into hurting. For case, incapableness of choosing quality logistics, roads and uninterrupted electricity supply affairs are the major issues that are confronting the Chinese investors. Most of the clip that comes across when analyzes the political and economic hazard.

3.0 Entry Schemes

When a MNC is choosing an EM, there are scope of factors such as, the market concern environment, promise and the size of the market, nature of the market competition and managerial degree of consciousness about market ( Cavusgil et al 2002 ) . Generally, three chief entry signifiers are used ( Export, Contractual, and Investment ) . When come ining to an EM, company can make up one’s mind what would be the best entry scheme for the company to utilize. It depends on assorted other demands and policies such as host state economic policies, host state company policies, rick involve in the host state. Some companies like to come in into such states without acquiring aid of any one or without any local coaction. Nonetheless some prefer to make so, because of the concealed hazards involve at that place. Though, whatever the entry scheme has been selected most of the companies fails to success in such markets. That besides depends on assorted factors such as right placing the host state market ( as illustration Mc Donald ‘s in India, they fail their beef Burger because of the Indian community rejected it because of beef ) .

India is a state which has higher sum of cultural believes. Harmonizing to their believe cow is a secret animate being. Therefore, they rejected beef ingestion. The success besides depends on how good the company maintain the relationship with the host state authorities ( in the instance of Yahoo in China “ Yahoo ‘s entry and operations were unopposed by the authorities ( China ) , a effect that was mostly attributed to its good dealingss with China and strong support from its local spouse Beijing Founder Electronic Co ” ( Luo 2002 ) . ) and many more. Therefore merely merely come ining into an EM is non merely affair for the companies ‘ success but besides many other schemes what they capitalize when operation in an EM affairs for the success of the company.

4.0 Is Joint Ventures the merely successful entry scheme of come ining an EM?

4.1 Joint Ventures

“ AA jointA venture takes topographic point when two parties come together to take on one undertaking. In aA jointA venture, both parties are every bit invested in the undertaking in footings of money, clip, and attempt to construct on the original construct. ” ( Wikipedia )

4.2 Causes for Forming a Joint Venture

When coactions form by JVs there are many of import motive factors that they are looking for.

Hazard Sharing- If a company can portion its hazard with spouses when set up a JV in another location. It ‘s a monolithic advantage for that company. Chiefly, immense capital concentrated industries and industries that have higher cost of developing merchandises have higher chance to be unsuccessful in the market.

Economies of Scale- when work in an industry that has immense fixed costs, the other competitory companies must hold the ability to vie with them. There for companies have to cut down their high cost of production. Thus, JV is a positive solution to organize a company.

Market Access- If companies that do n’t hold adequate apprehension about the clients, substructure and relationship it ‘s evidently hard to administer clients. For a peculiar client base and effective/efficient provision Channel, JV is a wise pick.

Geographic Constraints- Even foreign markets are really attractive for investors like JVs, there is no such attractive force while they are puting in foreign states whether they collaborate with local spouses. The local barriers to abroad companies are such as deficiency of acquaintance or experienced with foreign owned and foreign controlled companies.

Funding Constraints- When a immense up front development cost is being faced by a company, indispensable funding and trustiness can offer from the existent JV with 3rd party.

( Janel Vaughan 2010 )

Because of the concealed hazards involve with the EMs, most of the companies formed coactions with local companies. Following illustrations depict some of the foreign company ‘s advancements when signifier confederations with local companies to come in their markets.

4.3 Alcatel

As a France based Communication Company, Alcatel has been supplying terminal to stop communicating solutions, service providers, easing bearers, and activities to supply voice. Alcatel is one of the taking providers of terminal to stop telecommunications every bit good as public and privet sector cyberspace based solutions. It has been being in India for over four decennaries. The coaction between Alcatel and Indian Telephone Industry Limited ( ITI ) that industry Indian public sector telecom equipment ‘s has been making their operations since 1982. Because of that coaction, Alcatel could pull big market portion in the Indian market. While making concern in India it stated joint ventures with many local companies who are booming in the industry ( Modi group, Telerex Communications ) . Soon, There are 800 employees, growing advancement is about 29 % , could accomplish USD 540 million registered turnover within the clip period of 2001-2002. Further, with over 50 % market portion, Alcatel supplies digital shift as the individual largest provider in India.

4.4 Swiss Com

“ 1996, Swiss PTT formed a joint venture with Delhi based Essar TeleHoldings Limited, in Sterling Cellular Limited to supply GSM cellular service in Northern India, geting 30 % interest ab initio which subsequently rose to 32.5 % , with an investing of USD 202 million. ” ( Kiruba Jeyaseeli BENJAMIN LEVI.2006 ) . This first Asiatic investing of Swiss PTT had been turning highly good mode in India. “ At the terminal of 1997 there were around 125,000 clients in the four parts ” ( Ibid ) . By doing ain 24 per centum portion of Sterling Cellar ‘s the direction of Swiss PTT needed to go the company bigger. “ However, these recapitalization collapsed due to a failure to obtain certain regulative blessings associating to restrictions on the foreign ownership of telecommunications licences, and, more by and large, to go on regulative uncertainness within the Indian cellular industry ” ( Kiruba Jeyaseeli BENJAMIN LEVI.2006 ) . Currently Swiss PTT is non being in India.

4.5 Motorola in China

Since early 1987 Motorola incorporated as one of the laminitiss among the Multi-National Companies ( MNCs ) that targeted Chinese monolithic Emerging Market ( EM ) for its production. Thereafter, Motorola, China incorporated opened its first subdivision office in Beijing in 1987, with one to the full owned and seven joint venture companies, as the Chinese major investor in the state. Further, a sum of $ 1.5 billion have been joined by five concerted Business Projects. At the terminal of 1998, the one-year gross revenues of the company increased 23.6 billion of Chinese $ RMB.

The development of Chinese Motorola Incorporated has been outstanding and looking really successful. Plenty of chief external factors ( Continuers economic growing, incentive policies of authorities and positive investing environment )

The success of the coaction depends on the companies local strategic spouses who had been appointed by the foreign companies. Further, their indistinguishable involvements degrees must fit with each other.

4.6 GM and Daewoo

“ A 50-50 joint-venture between GM and Daewoo to fabricate autos in Korea lost money until Daewoo acquired it outright. The spouses had incompatible schemes: GM wanted a low-priced beginning for a limited scope of little autos ; Daewoo aspired to go a broad-line planetary car maker. discrepancy and hit frequent consequence when the spouses fail to hold on whether the joint venture or the parent companies will vie in related merchandise countries or in other states ” ( Adarkar et al 1997 ) .

4.7 McDonald ‘s

Out of all the MC Donald ‘s mercantile establishments in the universe, 70 per centum of them are established as franchisers. Mc Donald ‘s is known as the universe most successful franchiser. However, the Chinese Mc Donald ‘s had been operated as JVs since 2004. That JV was started in Beijing 1992 with a local company. There are more than 600 Mc Donald ‘s mercantile establishments have been runing in China. However, today Mc Donald ‘s in China has started to alter their entrance scheme to franchising. The first franchising mercantile establishment has been started at Tianjin 2004 and it says that they are traveling to get down a set of Mc Donald ‘s as franchisers in China. Further, franchisees will be being started by the side of the chief metropoliss. And besides they are traveling to huddle in-between and western parts every bit good as the full state. ( Franchising Industry in China 19.01.11 )

4.8 Century 21

Within four old ages clip more than 500 franchises offices has been established by century 21, with 4000 brokers. “ As the universe ‘s largest and most accepted existent estate organisation owned by New York-based Cendant, Century 21 is cashing in on a roar in place ownership, economic growing and franchising in China. It expects its China franchisees to make 800 in 2005, seting China in line to go its second-largest abroad market, after France. It is reported that the entire gross revenues of Century 21 in China has surpassed RMB 10 billion ” . ( Franchising Industry in China 19.01.11 )

4.9 Decision

Today, The Multinational Corporations play the biggest function in modern planetary concern sphere. After WW II, under the modern Multinational Corporations construct, most of the MNCs spread to all over the liberalized locations in the universe. At the beginning of that, MNCs were seeking for developed states as their investing locations, but today, the tendency is coming towards the developing states such as Emerging Markets including BRICs.

Because of three particular grounds, foreign investors are looking for abroad concerns. These are can identified as market seeking, efficiency seeking and resource seeking.

When a MNC enter in to a new EM as a FD, I the company have to choose a peculiar entry scheme. Because of the high hazard of Green field investings and acquisitions, the MNC traveling for coactions with local spouses ( licensing, franchising, farm outing and joint venture )

There are both advantages and disadvantages in collaborative entry schemes. When yesteryear is being looked at, Collaborations with a local spouse were non successful ever. That coaction is non easy because of accomplishments, deferent civilizations and struggles of aims. The success of the coaction depends on non merely on the local spouse besides on the foreign spouse. Due to the struggles of involvement degrees the Daewoo and the GM ‘s JV coaction botched, Swisscom on India became unsuccessful because of many grounds. Furthermore, as Chinese Century 21 franchises coaction, there are some other illustrations which indicate the success of the other coactions.

Therefore, when expression at that former incidents that happed in EMs, there are successes and the failures of JV every bit good as the successes and failures of the other coaction entry schemes. These apparent are much plenty to turn out that the JVs are non the merely successful collaborative entry scheme for an EMs besides the other coactions entry schemes. Both JVs and other entry schemes can success and fail. There is no merely one successful entry scheme. That success depends on the state of affairs that they are unnerving.