Arthur Miller was born in Harlem, New York on October 17, 1915. Middle category parents raised him, until his household lost everything during the wall street clang of 1929. Once graduating high school, Miller went on to go to the University of Michigan. In college he wrote for the pupil paper and wrote his first drama No Villain. He besides took classs with Kenneth Rowe who taught pupils how to build their dramas with an consequence. Inspired by this, Miller moved back east and began his calling, It did n’t get down excessively good for Miller his fist drama in 1940 The adult male who had all the fortune, became the antithesis of its rubric. Later his drama All my boies. Had success on Broadway and won him his first Tony award for best writer. His popular success is derived from Death of a salesman, which opened on Broadway in 1949. It had won him a Pulitzer award, New York Drama critics award, and a Tony, In 1956 he left his first married woman Mary Slattery. Soon he married the celebrated Marilyn Monroe. Later that twelvemonth the HUAC refused to reexamine his passport and called him in to look before the committee- his drama The Crucible. Which is simply an fable of McCarthyism, Miller did n’t follow with them. In 1961 Miller and Monroe divorced. A few months subsequently he married Austrian lensman Inge Morath. His boy in jurisprudence is celebrated histrion Daniel Day-Lewis. He died at the age of 89 in 2005.

Historical Information About Period of Publication

The Crucible was written during the epoch of McCarthyism ( 1950s ) – a clip during the Cold War when the House of Un-american Activities Committee met to find if there were communistic activities taking topographic point in assorted facets such as authorities, amusement, and military. In the amusement section all types of authors had to squeal if they took portion in communist activities. Many who denied this impression, were taken for farther probe. Because the human dynamos of film and telecasting studios were scared of being considered disloyal, a “ black book ” was therefore created. If people were seen as leery they were put on this list. The events traveling on at this clip was known as the “ enchantress Hunts, ” a term that derives from the Salem Witchcraft Trials of 1692 in which accusals were being made among the people in the community of being something they ‘re non, this lead to an huge sum of confusion and tenseness was lifting every bit good.

Features of the Genre

The Crucible is a tragic play. The supporter ( John monitor ) is destroyed by a tragic defect, and corrupt moral values, which leads him to an huge sum of sorrow. At the beginning of the drama he is considered a hero, nevertheless the terminal of the drama his true character is revealed, Superstitions are stressed greatly in tragic play. This drama is besides an fable to McCarthyism and the Salem enchantress tests of 1692.

Plot Summary

Taking topographic point in Salem Massachusetts 1692, a immature miss named Betty is lying in bed inert and no 1 knows why. In this Puritan society life is centered on faith and superstitious notions. The society implies that anything negative is affiliated with the Satan: witchery. Eventually, some immature misss and a slave are caught dancing in the wood, which is seen as interaction with the Satan. The undermentioned twenty-four hours there is a rise in the figure of people acquiring ill that escalates the intuition of witchery. The adversary and selfish leader of the misss is named Abigail, alerts the others non to squeal to the dance. At this clip she is left in a room entirely with a adult male by the name of John Proctor, she had has history with monitor due to the fact that they had an matter. She attempts to lure him nevertheless fails to make so. Tension rises throughout the community as neighbours are non fond of each other and are acquiring irritated. A spiritual adult male named Rev. Hale negotiations to the misss and demanding them to state the truth of what ‘s truly traveling on. First Tituba ( the slave ) confess and the other misss follow, as they list names of people who are Alliess with the Devil. Some clip base on ballss by and we are in the monitor family, which consists of John and Elizabeth ( his married woman ) . Elizabeth has remained loyal and persuades John to explicate the matter between him and Abigail, to happen out her true character. John is terrified and does n’t follow with her orders. Additionally, Marry Warren is a retainer for the monitors and she returns from tribunal claiming that Elizabeth has been accused of witchery. Many other married womans have besides been convicted and john believes this is absurd so he beats Mary and orders her to hook on Abigail. Now in tribunal, Judge Danforth is holding uncertainties about monitor and his cogency and besides states that Elizabeth will be killed after she completes her gestation. More struggles rises when Abigail blames Mary for witchery therefore, John must come clean about the matter with Abigail. Then, Elizabeth is brought in for inquiring and she lies about the matter in order to stay loyal to John, the lying nevertheless does n’t work in their favour. After all that has occurred, John is accused of witchery to turn out his name/innocence. John is put under apprehension and Abigail flees. John confesses to Elizabeth and does non call any other affiliates and is executed.

Describe the Author ‘s Manner

Miller uses a 3rd individual nonsubjective point of position, does n’t straight turn to the audience.

The characters speak in a simple seventeenth century linguistic communication.

Examples that Demonstrate Style

“ Already taking a measure backward: ” ( pg. 8 )

“ A Psalm is being sung below. ” ( pg. 24 )

“ Why, her eyes is closed! Expression you, Ann. ” ( pg. 13 )

“ I ne’er saw no liquors. ” ( pg. 107 )

Memorable Citations

“ Aye, sir, he have been searchin ‘ his books since he left you, sir. But he bid me state you, that you might look to unnatural things for the cause of it. ” ( pg. 9 )

Susanna

“ Abby, I may believe of you quietly from clip to clip. But I will cut off my manus before I ‘ll of all time make for you once more. Wipe it out of head. We ne’er touched, Abby. ( Abigail in response ) Aye, but we did. ( John answers ) Aye, but we did non. ” ( pg. 23 )

-John and Abigail

“ My husband-is a goodish adult male, sir. ” ( pg. 113 )

– Elizabeth

“ No, I can non, I can non halt my oral cavity ; it ‘s God ‘s work I do. ” ( pg. 115 )

-Abigail

“ I can. You have made your thaumaturgy now, for now I do believe I see some shred of goodness in John monitor. Not plenty to beckon a streamer with, but white plenty to maintain it from such Canis familiariss. ” ( pg. 144 )

-John Proctor

Significance of Citations

This is the first clip we see a mention being made to supernatural causes: Witchcraft, and activity with the Satan. This is important because the whole contention is over witchery and actions sing that impression. By making this, Miller sets the lineation for the drama early, physiques suspense, and provokes the reader to happen out what occurs following. Besides, Parris responds to this by denying the fact of an unnatural cause, and is dying in respects to his girl.

When we reach this quotation mark, we come to recognize that Abby and John both had an matter, nevertheless they are traveling to lie about it. As the drama is slightly developed at this point, their true characters are being shown. Abigail is the adversary, and John is the supporter. This is merely the foundation of the prevarication that continues in the drama.

Presently, we are in the courtroom and Judge Danforth is look intoing if Elizabeth is a enchantress, and if John Proctor committed lechery. Elizabeth remains faithful to her hubby because she lies for him, claiming that he is a good pure adult male and did non hold the matter with Abigail. She is dishonest to the tribunal, which makes it worse for Proctor who is arrested. This is tragic because Abigail whose evil traits prevailed, and resulted in destructing their matrimony.

This is an dry statement made by Abigail because truly she is a misanthropic immature miss, and has no spiritual ethical motives. However, in this instance she says her work is for God. It is interesting how impractical Puritan society was it at times, particularly under force per unit area. This reveals the true significance of the rubric The Crucible. Many of the witnesss in tribunal are blind and naA?ve, this crafts the farther events we anticipate in the drama.

As we approach the last few lines of the drama, Proctor will be executed on behalf of uncluttering his name. He alludes to the common impression of beckoning a white flag to give up, which shows us that he has some moral values and is slightly persevering. Many looked down upon him, which shows how corrupt their society was in respects to mundane life.

Fictional characters

Name

Role in Story

Significance

Adjectives

Rev. Parris

Tituba

Betty

Abigail

Susanna

Ann Putnam

Thomas Putnam

Mercy Lewis

Mary Warren

John Proctor

Rebecca Nurse

Giles Corey

Rev. Hale

Elizabeth Proctor

Cheever

Francis Nurse

Judge Hathorne

Governor Danforth

Sarah Good

Hopkins

Martha Corey

The town ‘s curate

Slave from the Barbados, belongs to Parris

Parris ‘s girl

Adversary

Young miss associated with Abigail and dance.

Thomas Putnam ‘s married woman

Affluent adult male

Servant for the Putnam household

Servant for Proctor ‘s

Supporter

Nurse and married woman.

Farmer and hubby.

Minister and witchery expert

John Proctor ‘s married woman.

Clerk for tribunal.

Powerful adult male and hubby of Rebecca.

Judge

Presiding justice

Homeless adult female

Jail guard

Giles Corey ‘s married woman

He thinks extremely of himself and strives to protect his repute. He does whatever it takes for people to wish him.

Follows Abigail ‘s waies and patterns witchery, dances in wood.

Attracts attending because she is really ill and initiates the rumours of witchery

Destroys the matrimony between John and Elizabeth Proctor, by holding an matter with John. She is pure immorality and causes pandemonium

Bases by Abigail and her witch-hunt actions.

Most of her kids did n’t populate past one twenty-four hours, her girl is ill and she believes the Satan is involved in the community.

Purchases land from those accused of witchery.

Loyal to Abigail and corsets by her side until the terminal.

Ordered by John to expose Abigail but she comes up short.

Ashamed of the matter with Abigail, but in the terminal tries to salvage his married woman from her.

Peoples respect her and her determinations in the community, praised but becomes a victim.

Died from rocks.

Has good purposes to help Betty, but provokes pandemonium and intuition.

Discoveries out about the matter and removes Abigail from her place.

Clerk during the tests.

Goes against Thomas Putnam

Mediates over tests

Whoever is scared of the tribunal, he says they are guilty.

Abigail accuses her first of witchery

No of import function

Troubled by reading books, does n’t squeal.

Over confident, spiritual, selfish

Obedient, clueless, unnatural

Young, weak, vulnerable

Cynical, selfish, free, dishonest

NaA?ve, scared, dying

Anxious, spiritual, superstitious

Materialistic, objectionable, unpleasant

Faithful, stealthy, manipulative

Simple, dominated, nervous, submissive

Quiet, tough, unfaithful, perplexed

Trustworthy, experienced, old

Practical, moral, underdog

Religious, baffled, acrimonious

Faithful, poised, devoted.

Manipulated, minor

Sweet, spiritual, influential

Bitter, corrupt, ignorant

Restless, blinded, unsmooth

Broke, unfortunate, useless ( sarah good )

Binding, obedient, ( Hopkins )

Smart, used, Godhead

( corey )

Puting

The drama takes topographic point in Salem, Massachusetts, 1692. The puting displacements from a house, to a courtroom. Besides, the Forrest is mentioned.

Significance of Opening Scene

First, we are in the sleeping room of Rev. Parris ‘s girl Betty who is really sick and lying inert. No 1 knows why and therefore people assume that witchery is taking topographic point. The people of Salem are dying to see what will happen next. A immature miss named Abigail is evil and she manipulates others to protect her. Finally chaos and tenseness rise at the same clip and their society becomes destroyed.

Symbols

1. ) Supernatural causes/Witchcraft- This shows panic and corruptness in society. If a individual is even assumed of making something non- spiritual, they are evil ; which morally demolishes a society.

2. ) Books- They symbolize intelligence, yet it looked reprobating and iniquitous.

3. ) The crucible- Implies that under great force per unit area, people panic and their true existences are revealed.

4. ) Cows- When the cattles roam the streets it symbolizes the confusion of the people and the feverish clip they are traveling through.

5. ) The Forrest- Implies immorality and upseting actions that the misss committed.

Significance of Closing Scene

At the terminal, Proctor confesses for his wickednesss and does non squeal any other names. He stands up for himself and believes that he is making the right thing, claiming there is good in him. It shows us that their society is rearward, and filled with no logic.

Possible Themes/Topics of Discussion

Character ( repute ) “ It must come out-my enemies will convey it out. Let me cognize what you done at that place. Abigail, do you understand that I have many enemies? ” ( pg. 10 ) – Parris

2. ) Dishonesty- “ Abby, I may believe of you quietly from clip to clip. But I will cut off my manus before I ‘ll of all time make for you once more. Wipe it out of head. We ne’er touched, Abby. ( Abigail in response ) Aye, but we did. ( John answers ) Aye, but we did non. ” ( pg. 23 )

-John and Abigail

3. ) Religion- A Psalm is sung below. The words “ God ” “ Hell ” , “ supplication ” , “ Bless ” , and “ Devil ” are used repeatedly to connote that faith is the centre of puritan life.