Higher human death rates, one million millions of dollar cost in medical, jurisprudence suits and in compensation, waste of working hours, repute of house, low ethical motives of colleagues and assorted grounds put building worker safety into nucleus attending to many in the industry.

Prevention through Design ( PtD ) is the attempt taken in design phase to cut down the building safety jeopardies up to the acceptable degree. Surveies have shown that every dollar spent on a good safety plan can ensue in a four to eight dollar decrease in losingss from accidents. Design phase is the right clip where safety safeguards taken have the high impact on building accidents.

On the other manus interior decorators are confronting barriers in implementing PtD construct into design. Lack of design tools is one of the chief grounds. This survey will suggest a conceptual model for the application of PtD construct into design procedure by analyzing the design procedure, factors impacting the design procedure and general pattern of turn toing safety into design.

The methodological analysis adopted for the survey is reexamining the relevant literature and corroborating the informations field interviews and inquirers. This survey is expected to develop a model for interior decorators on the bases of theoretical and field informations.

The model will assist designer to implement PtD construct safety into design procedure by placing safety design reappraisal procedure, engagement of stakeholders in design procedure.

Cardinal Wordss: Prevention through Design, Design Process,

Postgraduate Student, MSc Construction Management, Faculty of Civil Engineering, UTM

2 Assoc. Prof. Department of Construction Management, Faculty of Civil Engineering, UTM


Introduction and Background:

Human nature is hard to alter ; hence, alternatively of seeking to carry people ( workers ) non to do a error, we ( as interior decorator, proprietor ) should accept people ( worker ) as we find them and seek to take chances for mistakes by altering the work state of affairss, that is, the works or equipment design or the method of working. Alternatively, we can extenuate the effects of mistake or supply chances for recovery ( F. A. Manuele, 1999, B ) .

A 2nd idea can be made from above statement, to remind interior decorator and applied scientists of some of the oddities of human nature so that it can break reference and allow flexibleness for them in design ( F. A. Manuele, 1999, B ) .

There is consensus among the all design and building professionals that the design affects the cost, quality and continuance of a building undertaking, so it makes some sense that the design can impact the built-in hazard to the workers building the undertaking.

Surveies have shown that the determination taken on design phase can do a important figure of accidents and ensuing hurts. The design impact on safety is apparent, so the possible benefits of execution of safety construct are important ( Gambatese, 2005 ) . A survey conducted in UK, found more than 42 % of 224 human death accident instances could be prevented by alterations in the lasting design characteristics ( Gibb et al, 2004 ) . It gives the chance to the interior decorators to implement the PtD construct into design and salvage child and major hurts ( Gambatese, 2005 ) .

Problem Statement:

Not sing safety of building and care workers seems unethical and raises a host of ethical inquiries for interior decorators. Do non plan professionals have the same responsibilities for building and care workers as for the populace? Are building workers a less of import group of people than the corporate general populace? Do non plan professionals have ethical responsibilities for moderately minimising all of the hazards that they have control over, non merely the hazards that they are improbable to be sued over?

The safety of the populace is given such a outstanding place in the codifications of moralss because it is recognized the populace lacks the elaborate proficient cognition of hazards associated with constructions that design professionals possess. Can plan professionals province with certainty that building workers possess the same set of proficient cognition and apprehension of the hazards associated with exposure to fall, physical forces, electricity and chemicals as do design professionals? These issues suggest that a interior decorator who is non willing to see design determinations that could cut down the built-in hazards to building workers to a sensible degree is non committed to maximising the societal equity of a undertaking.

The diffusion of PtD has been hampered by several practical factors. Research shows that interior decorators ( those who are cognizant of the PtD construct ) want to implement it into design. But due to miss of guidelines, safety tools, procedure and processs barriers ( i.e. , deficiency of a standardised attack, and vague constructions for undertakings and jeopardies ) , trouble in finding the phase of design reappraisal, cheque lists, best pattern, placing the responsible individual to turn to, how to place the building jeopardies, cognition and information barriers, etc, are the chief hurdlings faced by the interior decorators. ( Gambatese ; 2005, M. Behm ; 2008, M. Gangolells, 2010 ) .

This is because interior decorators do n’t hold the formal preparation of safety and deficiency of building experience ( Gambatese, 2005 ) . And besides turn toing the safety of building workers into design is non an built-in aim of a design procedure.

It shows that interior decorators are earnestly missing in safety design tools and safety design procedure, which can be customized by type of house, by the house size and besides should see the procurance method adopted for the undertaking.

Purposes and Objective of Study:

The barriers impacting the PtD construct execution into design can be addressed by developing a model of PtD construct execution into design procedure and doing it an built-in portion of design aims.

The purpose of this survey is to suggest a conceptual model for interior decorator for the execution of PtD construct into design procedure. This will assist interior decorators to turn to building worker ‘s safety into design procedure and will heighten the integrating of different undertaking stakeholders. This integrating of assorted professionals will besides heighten the determination devising at the early phases of undertaking to choose the effectual design within the cost, clip and quality parametric quantities of undertaking and cut downing the building jeopardies into an acceptable degree.

1.3.1 Aims of Survey:

The aims of this survey are follows:

To analyze the architecture design procedure.

To analyze the factors impacting the design procedure.

To develop a conceptual model for the execution of PtD into design procedure.

Research Scope and Restrictions:

This survey will merely concentrate the safety safeguards in the design phase by placing, extinguishing, replacing and cut downing building jeopardies up to acceptable degree. The safety safeguards and processs taken during the building phase is non range of this survey. Where of all time the term building workers are mentioned, it means the workers involved during the undertaking executing and care of the edifice.

The country chosen for this survey is Pakistan. The design procedure studied for this survey is limited to the current pattern of architectural design pattern in Pakistan merely. Testing and happening the credence degree of model in the field are non range of this survey.

Importance of Survey:

Traditionally interior decorator do n’t see responsible for the safety of building worker and building accidents. The interior decorator ‘s engagement in cut downing the figure of building accidents is of import. It can non be achieved without the active engagement of design squad, who really design some of the root causes of building accidents.

The model will assist interior decorators to place the functions and duties, hazard designation procedure, information sharing, end product of each design activity and besides assist in monitoring and commanding the safety design procedure.

Jim Howe ( 2008 ) and Gambatese ( 2005 ) listed some of the result of the successful execution of PtD construct in design:

Bettering building worker safety by cut downing hurts and unwellness.

Controling undertaking cost, quality, constructability, agenda, etc

Completed installation features: design characteristics, operability, operator safety, maintainability, etc

Design house liability, productiveness, profitableness, etc and

High worker ‘s moral ( accidents and hurts decrease the moral )

Decrease in compassion cost.

Significant decrease in accidents, hurts, unwellness, harm to environment and their attender costs.

Productivity will be improved by cut downing the rework

Decrease in operating cost and environmental injury.

Time loses in design rectification and questions can be reduced.

2.0 Literature Review

2.1 Definition of PtD:

Literature reappraisal identified that PtD definition developed by US NIOSH is widely used and accepted, which states:

“ Addressing the occupational safety and wellness demands in the design and redesign procedure to forestall or minimise the work-related jeopardies and hazards associated with the building, fabrication, usage, care, and disposal of installations, stuff and equipment ” . ( F.A. Manuele, 2008 )

This really wide definition covers all the edifice life rhythm from planing and redesigning, building to disposal of non merely constructing but besides material and equipment used in the edifice.

2.2 The Design Procedure:

The design procedure is the loop procedure ; all the activities are interconnected and dependent on each other. Design procedure can be merely defined as the manner the design is carried out in the house from origin to detailed design. Every house can hold their alone design procedure which they developed over the old ages from the experience and the environment in which they are working and the technological capablenesss the house possessed.

2.2.3 Architectural Design Process Models:

There are many design development theoretical accounts developed over the old ages. The literature reviews shows the every theoretical account focuses on certain stages more than others. Some of them are really old non updated and revised with the debut of new engineerings, procurances methods and altering construct of design and edifices ; their pertinence is limited in current high tech scenario than others whish are seasonably updated and revised. Few of the theoretical accounts ( i.e. BAA Project Process ( 1995 ) , Salford Process Protocol ( 1998 ) , etc are used by merely few figure of interior decorators in a certain country are non widely accepted at big. Due to these above mentioned grounds RIBA Plan of Works ( 1969, revised 2007 ) is selected for the survey.

2.2.4 RIBA Plan of Works ( 2007 ) :

RIBA Plan of Works ( 1969, last revised in Nov. 2008 ) developed some 43 old ages ago is still widely used and accepted by the big figure of interior decorators around the universe. Revisions and updates help RIBA Plan of Work to suit all the alterations in direction, building methodological analysis and techniques, concern, procurance and engineering, while staying compendious and retaining its nucleus construction and flexibleness. This makes it applicable to design/construction house in industry. ( RIBA Green Overlay 2011, B. Lawson 2003 ) .

RIBA Plan of Works ( 2008 ) identifies five procedures and 11 work phases. Work phases are the activities carried out in the procedure. The type of procurance method selected will steer the procedure to run at the same time or consecutive. In instance of fast-track contractual understanding, some of the work phases may run at the same time, instead than consecutive. Procurement method will besides propose the engagement of builder and other associates at work phases.

Two out of five procedures of RIBA Plan of Works ( 2008 ) are related to plan, 3rd procedure related to Tendering 4th procedure is of building or undertaking executing, and concluding procedure is related to post business reappraisals.

Table: 2.1 RIBA Plan of Works ( 2008 ) Bar Chart


Work Phase





Design Brief



Design Development

Technical Design

2.3 The factors impacting the Design Procedure:

Design is non carried out in vacuity ; it has a alone environment unlike the building. It is dependent on some positive and negative factors. Positive factors can be described as critical factors for success and negative factors are the berries for the success. The more the complex design is, the more factors are involved in it.

The research shows that these factors are non same for all the stakeholders involved in undertaking. Owners, designer, interior decorators every bit good as contractors have their ain aims and standards for mensurating success. For illustration, aesthetic is frequently considered more of import by the designers instead than constructing cost as the chief standard for success ( Dina Koutsikouri, 2008 ) . And besides this research shows that success factors within the organisation are non same. Management ‘s success factors may differ from the junior designer or CAD technicians. Success factors besides really undertaking to project and project bringing method. It is hard to place the CSF which can be applied to all undertakings. Dina ( 2008 ) summarized CSF into four groups as following: Management Issues, Design Team Issues, Competencies and Resources and Project Enablers

3.0 Research Methodology

The research methodological analysis covers the designation of job and range of survey at the first stage. Finalization of country for the survey is based on the importance of survey, personal involvement, old experience of writer and treatments with adept people in the field. This is done by analyzing instance surveies, old undertakings, diaries and articles. Second stage leads to set uping the aims for survey and literature reappraisal. Aims were identified by reexamining literature, treatment with supervisor.

Data aggregation will be the 3rd stage. Field information will be collected from selected country of survey by questioning and inquirers. And concluding 4th stage will be of informations analysis and decision and recommendations. Collected informations will be analyzed to develop a decision of the survey.

Expected Findingss:

The survey is expected to suggest a conceptual model for the execution of PtD construct into design procedure, based on theoretically and filed work. It will be done by placing the design procedure and factors impacting the design procedure from literature reappraisal and corroborating the findings from interviews and inquirers from field work.