There is therefore an equivocal relationship between the realistic consequence of Pinter ‘s duologue and other effects of stylisation. This stylisation, or the apposition of stylisation and an feeling of natural address, may non merely have “ a symbolic charge ” , in Bernhard ‘s words, it may besides make amusing effects. In my position, the “ consistent rhythmic building ” , which breaks the convention of pragmatism, has amusing potency.

1.2 Rhythmic Duologue

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Pinter frequently structures his duologue in a rapid exchange of lines between two characters. It is hence natural to turn up this type of verbal construction to a separate class. The 2nd class therefore trades with sequences of duologue where lines of comparatively equal length are distributed between two characters. Such sequences represent what is here meant by the term dialogue.

The chief and larger sequences of this subcategory of rhythmic dialogue are found in the drama Old Times. There is besides a short sequence in Ashes to Ashes.

Rapid exchanges of address between two characters may make amusing consequence because they form extended interruptions with the convention of natural address. The fluxing beat within the context of a fast dialogue may besides be broken with a amusing consequence. For rapid dialogue to hold a beat that can therefore be broken or released with a amusing consequence, the lines of the sequence must be uttered with attending to tempo. The velocity should be comparatively high in order to construct up the tenseness of the sequence towards its decision, and the bringing of the histrions must hence be connected to each other ‘s velocity. Hall stresses importance of timing and rhythmic preciseness on the portion of the histrions in a drama, if the purpose is to continue the address beat that the text demands.

1.3 Schemes of Comic Speech

In Old Times a struggle arises between Anna and Deeley as they in their different ways try to derive control over Kate, Deeley ‘s married woman. This control is at first sought through cognition

about the other. Anna and Deeley besides both attempt to acquire the others to hold upon or believe their ain version of the past, peculiarly their experiences with Kate. Deeley largely wants to happen the normally agreed version of the past memories, whereas Anna treats memory as a means more for personal look than every bit historical fact. The definition and constitution of memory within the dramatic trigon therefore go an of import struggle in the drama.

Thomas Postlewait argues that the characters in Pinter ‘s dramas are “ locked into the past, unable to accommodate to the present except in footings of the past ” ( 148 ) . Anna concedes that there are episodes she remembers that may in fact ne’er have happened, but as she recalls them, “ so they take topographic point ” ( P3: 270 ) . As Anna and Deeley engage in a battle to possess Kate, they try to convert Kate and the other that their ain relationship with her was, and is, of import and close. In order to get the better of the other battler they must forestall him or her from commanding Kate. This act of converting takes a scope of different lingual schemes. With respect to Pinter ‘s dramas in general Esslin notably stresses the aggressive and occupying potency of the dramatist ‘s duologue, and the function of amusing address inherent in this aggression:

The 1 who gets clasp of the more luxuriant or more accurate look establishes laterality over his spouse ; the victim of aggression can be swamped by linguistic communication which comes excessively thick and fast, or is excessively absurd to be comprehended: [ … ]

( Esslin 40 )

1.4 Rhyme and Ritual Repetition

The class of rimes and repeat covers rather general cases of such devices, and the significance of its amusing effects may hence refer to other classs as good. It is still utile to divide open rhyming and pronounced repeats of words, phrases and sentences, in order to concentrate on such basic signifiers of amusing technique. The general consequence is ritualistic, and it is interesting to see how this works in Old Times, both within one character ‘s vocalizations and through interaction. Since the struggle centres on which character ‘s vocalizations take authorization, the characters create ritualistic tempers to back up their demand for authorization and control. The contingent amusing beat in their address concentrate the audience ‘s attending on their schemes for control. However, although the amusing beat are consequences of the repeats and the lingual rites, the beat may still work to interrupt the feeling of authorization the character tries to make.

Deeley ‘s repeats frequently come through interaction with the other characters. He goes on to propose that he and Anna help Kate dry herself. The unconventional proposal is discussed in a elaborate mode that increases the absurd nature of the construct:

DEELEY: I ‘ve got a superb thought. Why do n’t we make it with pulverization?

Anna: Is that a superb thought?

DEELEY: Is n’t it?

Anna: It ‘s rather common to pulverize yourself after a bath.

DEELEY: It ‘s rather common to pulverize yourself after a bath but it ‘s rather uncommon to be powdered. Or is it? It ‘s non common where I come from, I can state you. My female parent would hold a tantrum.

1.5 Rhythmic Duologue

Old Times contains two sequences of vocalizing, and these are the most clearly conventionalized cases of rhythmic dialogue in the drama. I will hence here concentrate on discoursing these sequences. As there is one sequence of singing in each act, these infusions may besides exemplify the development of the interaction and the dramatic state of affairs that the drama nowadayss. The vocalizing in Old Times may make laughter because it breaks with the flow of the conversational address in the drama. This is non to state that the vocalizing alienates the audience, or that it is non realistic ; the musical reminiscing during a reunion of old friends can good be. The amusing potency instead defamiliaris the linguistic communication of the vocals. What is important for the amusing effects is non merely the semantic significance of the words, but instead the vocalizing as interaction through sound. The amusing effects of the sounds illustrate the battle for control between the characters and the function of memory in this battle. However, the semantic content of the vocal wordss is of import for analysing the character ‘s demand for specifying and sponsoring Kate.

The manner of the montage gives an feeling of break as the two vocalists try to get the better of each other in retrieving different vocals for each line:

DEELEY: ( Singing. ) Blue Moon, I see you standing entirely…

Anna: ( Singing. ) The manner you comb your hair…

As they sing with mention to Kate, the sequence becomes a common challenge. By manner of romantic divertimentos Anna and Deeley woo Kate ‘s for her attending and involvement.

The sequences of singing in Old Times have the consequence of implementing the feeling of combat or competition. The song montage particularly emphasizes the two characters ‘ demand to depict and specify in their ain footings and words. However, Kate ‘s self-containment and cryptic silence may show her as person it is non easy to specify, allow entirely control. In this regard the vocalizing shows that Anna and Deeley have something in common in that they both try to command Kate, and both seem to neglect at the terminal. The shared experience may be mirrored in the shared vocalizing. The amusing consequence of singing as ruse is stronger in the first sequence of the vocal montage, since it invariably breaks the beat of the context.

It is important that the vocal montage comes in the Act I, as Anna and Deeley here try each other out, whereas the singing exchange in the 2nd act consists of merely one vocal. Anna and Deeley are here less eager to contend and more eager to be comforted. However, Kate is the 1 they both want to near, but as Kate does non take part this demand remains unrealized. The scheme for control through superciliousness becomes tragicomic. The content and the even beat of the 2nd sequence give the audience the feeling of pleasance that may be a favourable status for laughter, but the vocalizing beat is broken by prose when the vocalizing ends. Through the musical exchanges the amusing potency of the beat therefore presents the impulse to possess in a farcical, but besides sad, manner.

1.6 Phatic Address

In Pinter ‘s plays the phatic linguistic communication is related to the character ‘s employment of specific phatic phrases like ‘you know ‘ or ‘do you see? ‘ The phatic map of linguistic communication that is relevant for the presentation of Old Times is merely every bit much expressed in the characters ‘ general wont of measure uping the vocalizations of themselves and the others. Phatic elucidations frequently serve to exemplify the characters ‘ demand for depicting and specifying the other characters, peculiarly Kate, in their ain linguistic communication.

It is hence natural that Kate, who tries to defy the two other characters ‘ efforts at specifying her, should seek to be obscure, therefore doing the others to oppugn her linguistic communication. Anna commends Deeley on his married woman ‘s cookery and the two start to discourse nutrient. After a small while Kate joins the conversation:


KATE: Yes, I quite like those sorts of things, making it.

Anna: What sort of things?

KATE: Oh, you know, that kind of thing.


DEELEY: Make you intend cooking?

KATE: All that thing

Kate ‘s deliberate effort at perplexing the other characters can sound amusing for the audience, since the phrases utilizing “ thing ” have no obvious referent, and since the phatic phrases of Anna and Deeley are repeated. The short sentences and clauses suggest a high velocity of vocalization for each line in isolation, even though the sequence contains a intermission. The perennial phrases including “ thing ” create an ambiance of bunk and shallowness, although they may besides supply Kate with a sense of self-respect and self-containment. Kate is certain of herself and of her strength to specify who she is, and does hence non necessitate to explicate herself to either of the two others. As Kate detects the others ‘ demand to understand and command her, she is able to hedge their nosiness.

1.7 Extended Soliloquy

Although the superciliousness of Kate evident in the duologue of Anna and Deeley may uncover that they underestimate Kate, the class of drawn-out monologue uses techniques that demand great force of effort. With the purpose of overpowering the other characters with mere address, the talker has to concentrate to present long sequences of associations with an absurd consequence. Through barricading the others from speech production, the talker can more easy exercising control. The amusing address beat here illustrate the manner the characters go about to exert domination through such effort of address. The very elimination of linguistic communication becomes and image of characters in tense combat and with a strong, about despairing involvement for control and self-expression.

Anna typically speaks more about Kate than approximately herself. A typical drawn-out monologue on her portion takes topographic point within one of the re-enactments of a past conversation between Anna and Kate. When Kate says she wants to walk across the park, Anna advises against it:

The park is dirty at dark, all kinds of atrocious people, work forces concealing behind trees and adult females with awful voices, they scream at you as you go past, and people come out all of a sudden from behind trees and shrubs and there are shadows everyplace and there are police officers, and you ‘ll hold a atrocious walk, and you ‘ll see all the traffic and the noise of the traffic and you ‘ll see all the hotels, and you know you hate looking through all those swing doors, you hate it, to see all that, all those people in the visible radiations in the anterooms all speaking and traveling… and all the pendants…


You ‘ll merely desire to come place if you go out. You ‘ll desire to run place… and into your room…


Like all drawn-out monologues, the 1s in Old Times are directed at maintaining other characters soundless. Since Kate in general speaks less than the other two, Anna and Deeley ‘s addresss in this class are chiefly used to hush each other in order to put claim to Kate. Their different ways of speech production, exemplified by their usage of address beat, receive different responses from Kate. Along with the general feeling of the drama, Anna ‘s address rhythms more successfully associate to Kate and derive her involvement. Thus Anna ‘s employment of drawn-out monologue is more likely than Deeley ‘s to command Kate.

1.8 Decision

The wit in Old Times has the general map of exemplifying the power games between the characters. In peculiar Deeley shows marks of uncertainness towards the others. In his chase to rule the conversation, licking Anna, control Kate and forestall both of them from speech production, he uses schemes that are more aggressive and seem more evidently connected to his purposes. His amusing address beat uncover his ardor and insisting, and contrast him from the more sympathetic verbal interaction of the two adult females.

However, the adult females ‘s schemes are besides presented through address beat, as its amusing possible focuses the attending of the audience. When Deeley tries to take part in the re-enactments of the yesteryear, he breaks the sense of the past and draws the adult females back into the present. The adult females prosecute more readily in conversation with each other, while Deeley is occupied with understanding them, specifying them through words and thereby commanding them. When Deeley speaks to either of the adult females, their responses to him make non look every bit of import to him as his ain words. It is for case he who utters the most strikingly absurd and amusing lines, obviously in order to pull attending to himself

Although the adult females, and particularly Anna, besides draw attending to their words by the usage of beat, the adult females ‘s lines are more balanced than Deeley ‘s, and they are non so cagey in footings of raising laughter. It is surely true that Anna in her hunt for control utters lines that sound amusing and may ensue in laughter from the audience, but the nature of the amusing techniques are non as strikingly clear. This ambiguity is Anna ‘s strength. Anna ‘s linguistic communication creates a more grave feeling that may annoy Deeley and at the same clip understandings with Kate. Deeley ‘s amusing address marks him as unable to link to Kate ‘s yesteryear in the manner Anna can. In the terminal, though, Kate clearly denies the claims of both Anna and Deeley. Their demand for connexion and command both of the yesteryear and the present is dissatisfied and therefore sad. Audience understanding is nevertheless mingled with hilarity because they have witnessed the excitations with which Anna and Deeley have pursued their purposes.

The survey of amusing address beat is therefore an interesting attack for uncovering the differences and similarities between the characters ‘ involvements. Their schemes for success every bit good as the manner they try to get the better of the others have amusing relevancy that informs the reading of the subjects of the drama. The classs of address beat point to different facets of the schemes. The stylisation of lingual constructions and speech beat does non merely have amusing effects, it besides expresses how the characters relate to the constructs of control, domination and relationships, every bit good as to the function of memory in these constructs. The amusing potency of the stylisation is intertwined with these other constructs, as it illustrates and embodies them.