This study will analyze informations from Chaplin, Flatley and Smith on the British Crime Survey through a comparing of exploitation statistics within a specific offense type. These violent offense types consist of domestic, familiarity, alien and mugging. After looking at these specific types of offense, it will supply an overview on which grownup is most likely to be a victim of these types of offenses and why.

Literature Review

The Home Office have collected and published national statistics about offense in England and Wales since 1805. Initially, these merely included court-based informations about proceedings and strong beliefs. From 1857, informations about offenses reported to and recorded by the constabulary were added. Despite this long history of reported and recorded offense statistics being used to judge constabulary public presentation, such statistics have long been recognised as holding failings ( Smith, 2006 ) .

In 1982 the Home Office conducted the BCS, and it shortly became established as an alternate beginning of offense statistics, complementing those derived from constabulary recording of reported offense. The chief intent of the study is to mensurate the extent and nature of condemnable exploitation against grownups, aged 16 or over, and populating in private families in England and Wales. The BCS interviews a sample of 46,000 grownups, which provides a agency of gauging facets of family and personal offense. However, its coverage is restricted to ‘normal ‘ families and grownups, and it does non capture offenses committed against other victims including corporate victims, those under 16 old ages of age and single grownup victims shacking outside ‘normal ‘ families such as the homeless ( Smith, 2006 ) .

Flickers et Al. ( 1977 ) identified several grounds why the usage of victim studies are important. This is because such studies provide a comparatively accurate step of offense rates and enables them to be used as a ‘social barometer ‘ . This besides identifies the size of the spread between reported and unreported offense. Furthermore, they can assist direct attending to the victims and their experiences which may be ignored otherwise ( Cited in Newburn, 2007 ) .


Violence typology by the Home Office ( 2011 ) :

Domestic force – includes endangering behavior, force or maltreatment ( psychological, physical, sexual, fiscal or emotional )

Acquaintance force – assault and wounding incidents where the victim knew the wrongdoer ( s ) by sight.

Stranger force – assault and wounding incidents where the victim did non cognize the wrongdoer ( s ) .

Muging – comprising robbery, attempted robbery, and bit larceny.

Although 16-24 twelvemonth olds have the highest per centum this is from the lowest unweighted base, the unweighted base represents the figure of people/households interviewed in the specified group.

Percentages of this tabular array make non reflect the unweighted base. Among victims of alien force, while assorted race respondents show the highest per centum of 4.1 % this is from an unweighted base of 350 people. Whilst white victims accounted for merely 1.4 % but this is from an unweighted base of 42,991 people.

Although separated show the highest per centum for domestic, this is from the lowest sample size of 1,560. After taken into consideration the unweighted base, it shows that those who are individual had been more exploited of domestic with a sample size of 9,828.

Again, 3 hours less than 7 hours have an unweighted base of 12,858 whilst 19,903 respondents are out for 7 hours or longer. Take this into consideration it showed that those who are out the longest are more exploited of all force.

After looking at the unweighted base it shows that those who did non see a saloon in the last month were more exploited of domestic.

707 respondents visited a cabaret one time a hebdomad or more frequently. Taken into history the unweighted base it shows that those who did non see the cabaret a sample of 42,794 people had the highest sum of victims for all force.


The tabular array ‘All Adults ‘ shows that work forces are more exploited of familiarity, alien and mugging, whilst adult females are more exploited of domestic force. This supports old literature as the huge bulk of victim study grounds shows that work forces are more exploited than adult females of violent offense, though adult females are more wittingly victimised by domestic force ( Walklate, 2007 ) . Figures show that at least 1 in 4 adult females experience domestic force in their life-time. Domestic force against adult females by work forces is caused by the abuse of power and control within a context of male privilege ( Women ‘s Aid, 2009 ) .

The table ‘Age Band ‘ shows that 16-24 twelvemonth olds are the most exploited age group with the likeliness cut downing significantly with age. This is because of their life style and everyday activity theories, those who go out more frequently are more at hazard, much of which takes topographic point in or around where people have been imbibing ( Davies et al. 2005 ) . Young work forces are the most likely age group to pass leisure clip in public topographic points, such as bars and cabarets, and by and large are non afraid of these environments, therefore why they are more exploited than any other age group ( Walklate, 2007 ) . The BCS besides found that adult females between 16-24 old ages of age were more likely to endure relationship abuse than any other age group ( Home Office, 2011 ) .

In conformity with the Home Office ( 2004 ) black and minority cultural groups are at greater hazard of going victims of offense than white people. This is because of their age construction, their socio-economic features and the type of country they live in ( Cited in Walklate, 2007 ) . Phillips and Bowling ( 2002 ) claim that some offenses are specifically directed at cultural minorities and are described as racially motivated ( Cited in Davies et Al. 2005 ) . This grounds supports the findings in table ‘Ethnic Group ‘ .

Hindelang, et Al. ( 1978 ) suggests that married people can be expected to pass more clip within the place than individual people, particularly if kids are present. Besides, leisure activities outside of the place are more likely to take topographic point with both spouses ‘ nowadays, other married twosomes or with other household members. As a consequence of these factors, married people are less likely to be entirely in public, and can be expected to hold lower rates of exploitation than those who are individual. Painter and Farrington ( 1998 ) surveyed 1,000 people which showed that 24 % of married adult females and 59 % of divorced or detached adult females had been hit by their partners ( Cited in Davies, et Al. 2005 ) . This grounds supports the findings in the table ‘Martial Status ‘ .

The tabular arraies for ‘hours out of place on an mean weekday, figure of flushing visits to saloon in last month, and figure of visits to a cabaret in last month ‘ besides reflects the academic literature that those who go out more frequently are more at hazard, particularly if it takes topographic point in or around where people have been imbibing ( Davies, et Al. 2005 ) .


After analyzing the information it has become evident that despite the BCS sample size, the unweighted base for each class must be acknowledged ; this is because respondents of a low unweighted base can non stand for the grownup population of England and Wales. Therefore the per centums do non wholly supply us with a true image.

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