The last two decennaries have seen turning importance topographic point on research in foreign linguistic communication acquisition. Recently, English pronunciations are acquiring considerable attendings non merely from English larning community but besides from pupils and instructor in general. If pupils can hold a specific manner in larning English pronunciations, get the hanging English spelling may non be such a tough work. Harmonizing to the study of the recent decennaries, English pronunciation is acquiring separate to those two of import parts, John Samuel Kenyon & A ; Thomas A. Knott phonic symbols ( K & A ; K ) and Phonetics.
Over the past few decennaries of research on English pronunciation, a figure of issues have appeared, some of which remain controversial in malice of reams of informations on English pronunciation between John Samuel Kenyon & A ; Thomas A. Knott phonic symbols ( K & A ; K ) and Phonetics. To separate which ways is more appropriate to pupils ‘ English surveies.
1.3 The intent of studyi?s
This research explores John Samuel Kenyon & A ; Thomas A. Knott phonic symbols ( K & A ; K ) and Phonetics in English acquisition, two issues that need to e solved in this respect are ( a ) whether we can measure the specific features of a given group of trial takers, and ( B ) whether we can integrate such information into the manner we teach linguistic communication acquisition.
Given the theoretical places taken for the survey and the position of the field as briefly reviewed above, the survey aimed to supply an reply to the undermentioned inquiries:
Which sort of English pronunciation is more appropriate for pupils in larning English pronunciation?
How can English scholars be motivated to larn this sort of English pronunciation?
1.4 Significant of studyi?s
In General, the easier the acquisition, the better a individual will larn a foreign linguistic communication. In order to get the hang a linguistic communication, which ways to erudite linguistic communication is non a one-sided factor to mensurate one ‘s proficiency.
The difference of two sorts of English pronunciationsi?s
The background of John Samuel Kenyon & A ; Thomas A. Knott phonic symbols ( K & A ; K )
John Samuel Kenyon & A ; Thomas A. Knott phonic symbols ( K & A ; K ) is the informal name for A Pronouncing Dictionary of American English, foremost published in 1944 by John Samuel Kenyon and Thomas A. Knott. It provides a phonemic written text of General American pronunciations of words, utilizing symbols mostly matching to those of the IPAi??The International Phonetic Alphabeti?‰ .
John Samuel Kenyon & A ; Thomas A. Knott phonic symbols ( K & A ; K ) use a wide written text instead than a narrow one. For illustration, the long o vowel of “ toe ” , which is a diphthong in unfastened syllables in most American speech patterns, is represented by the individual symbol [ o ] , instead than [ ou ] as it would be represented in a narrow written text.
One chief application of Kenyon and Knott ‘s system is to learn American English pronunciation to non-native talkers of English. It is normally used for this intent in Taiwan, where it is normally known as “ KK. ”
Many of the pronunciations in Kenyon and Knott seem antiquated today and lexicons such as Longman Pronunciation Dictionary, erectile dysfunction. John C. Wells, Longman Group Ltd. 1990, ISBN 0-582-05383-8, have replaced it, supplying more modern-day pronunciations.
The back land of Phonetic
Phoneticss is a field in linguistics that specializes in analyzing individual sounds within linguistic communication. Phoneticss concerns itself with how the sounds are produced, how they sound to other hearers and how the encephalon perceives the sounds. Like all lingual Fieldss, phonetics surveies all linguistic communications.
Around 750 A.D. , the Indian grammarian Panini studied and wrote about the regulations of articulation of Sanskrit. He besides wrote some of the first known plants on lingual theories in general. Many other Indian linguists followed in Panini ‘s footfalls.
17th and 18th Centuries
The find of how sidelong ( L sounds ) and nasal ( N and M ) sounds are made took topographic point during this clip. Besides, many speech synthesis machines were built and tested by scientists from all Fieldss.
19th and 20th Centuriesi‚·
By the late 1800s, the International Phonetic Association decided to make a phonic system in order to depict sounds from all linguistic communications. This is the alphabet that all those analyzing phonetics still use today. Called IPA for short, the system allows linguists to explicate the pronunciation of any linguistic communication with one composing system.
Today, phonetics is studied alongside phonemics, the survey of significance in the smallest units of sound. Because all of linguistics is interdisciplinary, it is hard to except the significance of the sound from the manner the sound is produced and perceived.
Situation in Taiwan in 2010
In the two decennary, a figure of surveies have shown the alteration of Kenyon and Knott ( K & A ; K ) and Phonetics. In Taiwan, phonetics is to transport out for over 15 old ages. Harmonizing to the research, phonetics is going the usher of larning English pronunciation.
Previous surveies of Phonetics & A ; Kenyon and Knott ( K & A ; K )
You can see this web site to cognize something about the Victor Borge Phonetic Pronunciation ( hypertext transfer protocol: //www.youtube.com/watch? v=lF4qii8S3gw )
As this reappraisal has shown, most sounds-based research on the extent to which form-based direction is good to Phonetics has been undertaken in the following paragraph.
As you know, the English alphabet is far from being a regular and consistent system of stand foring all the sounds in English. For case, think of the missive group ough. How many different ways can it sound like:
( in Standard American Dialect )
And as you can see, “ ough ” can bring forth a myriad of sounds apparently indiscriminately. In add-on, these terminations may rime different in other idioms of English as good. Therefore linguists can non trust on such capricious system to scientifically stand for sounds in a linguistic communication. The solution was the creative activity of symbols explicitly designed to stand for all sounds that worlds can bring forth. We call such systems “ Phonetic Alphabets ” .
Some of import points:
V+ denoted “ sonant ” , and V- is “ unvoiced ” . Voiceless and voiced merely intend that whether the vocal cords vibrate while doing a sound. If you put your manus on your pharynx and surrogate between stating “ pod ” and “ God ” , you ‘ll detect that “ god ” makes your vocal cord ( or voice box ) vibrates more. This is called voiced.
[ P ] , [ T ] , and [ k ] are unaspirated. For people who know Spanish good, they correspond to the sounds in ‘pelo ‘ , ‘te ‘ , and ‘cosa ‘ . Such sounds do non happen entirely in English, but largely after the harmonic [ s ] , such as in ‘space ‘ . Compare ‘space ‘ and ‘pace ‘ , and you ‘ll detect how the /p/ in ‘pace ‘ is stronger.
As merely mentioned, the sounds /p/ , /t/ , and /k/ in English occuring at the beginning of the word is aspirated, intending that more air is pushed out. In Linguistics they are transcribed as [ pH ] , [ Thursday ] , and [ kh ] . You may believe that is impossible to hold aspirated /b/ , /t/ , and /g/ , but Proto-Indo-European and Indic linguistic communications have them ( like in the name of the great Indian heroic poem Mahabharata ) .
The columns on the chart refer to points of articulation, that is, topographic points in your oral cavity where sounds are produced. Bilabial means both of your lips come together, and the sound comes out at that place ( you can experience the quiver between your lips if you try ) . Labio-dental between your upper lip touches your lower dentition. Inter-dental sounds are comparatively rare in the universe, and what you do is set your lingua between your two rows of dentitions.
Apico-alveolar agencies seting the tip of your blade right behind your upper row of dentitions. Apico-palatal sounds are besides called Retroflex. They are pronounced like the Apico-aveolar except with your lingua curled back a small. The most common illustration for an American English talker is the ‘r ‘ in “ route ” . Retroflex /d/ and /t/ occur in Indian linguistic communications ( both Indo-European and Dravidian ) .
Lamino-palatals are really much like apico-palatals but alternatively holding the tip of your lingua as the highest point the blade, the portion behind the tip, about touches the roof of your oral cavity.
Dorso-velar, or merely velar, sounds are produced between the dorsum of your lingua and the dorsum of your roof of the mouth. Its cousin, Uvular makes your uvula vibrates, like Parisian Gallic /r/ .
Glottal merely means your voice box.
The classs that form the bold rows refer to the type of articulation. Michigans are sounds that are maintained for a really short sum of clip. You ca n’t stretch no affair how hard you try. On the other manus, Fricative consonants can prevail for everlastingly. Compare between /t/ and /s/ .
Sometimes you can unify Michigans and spirants to acquire Affricates, which starts as a halt and turns into a continuant. The /ch/ in English “ church ” is merely an illustration of an affricative. It starts as a /t/ , and turns into a /sh/ sound.
Nasal consonants are, good, nasal. They make your fistula vibrates.
He have no thought why Liquids are called liquids. The sonant apico-palatal liquid /r/ occurs in American English “ ruddy ” and the sonant apico-alveolar liquid /l/ is like in English “ lock ” , non “ table ” .
The flap is the Spanish short /r/ , Internet Explorer in “ toro ” . Besides occurs in Italian, Nipponese, and American English in the signifier of the /dd/ in “ ladder ” or /tt/ in “ butter ” said quickly.
Semi-vowels are truly vowels that appear as the less-powerful portion of a diphthong. In other words, they are non-syllabic vowels.
Even though they look like English, do n’t be tempted to articulate the symbols as if they were English letters. For case, the symbol [ I ] truly sounds like the ‘ee ‘ in “ reed ” . The symbol [ e ] does n’t sound like the ‘e ‘ in ‘be ‘ , but more like French ‘etre ‘ .
When you say a vowel, you unconsciously change your lingua and lip into an alone constellation characterized by three properties:
Unrounded V rounded.
This characteristic applies to your lip. If you say [ u ] as like “ room ” , you ‘ll detect that your lips organizing a circle and you look like you ‘re about to snog person. On the other manus, if you say [ one ] as in “ pess ” your lips are consecutive. That ‘s why before you take a image in America you will state the people you ‘re about to capture on movie to state “ cheese ” , because [ I ] makes the lips expression like smiling.
High to moo.
You likely ne’er noticed this, but when you say a vowel portion of your lingua will raise toward the roof of your oral cavity while other parts will remain near the underside. The tallness of your lingua ‘s peak determines the vowel you say. The sound [ one ] like in “ pess ” forces your lingua higher up than, state, the sound [ a ] as in “ male parent ” .
Front, cardinal, and back.
This same extremum that I merely described above can besides alter in place in your oral cavity. When the extremum is closest to your dentitions, it is in forepart. Toward the pharynx is back. Between the two is, evidently, cardinal. With [ I ] , the extremum of the lingua is a small spot behind your dentitions, while with [ u ] the extremum of the lingua is at the dorsum of your oral cavity, near where the difficult roof of the mouth alterations to the soft roof of the mouth. If you ca n’t visualize it, seek experiencing around with your finger.
Vowels can be long or short.
A long vowel is denoted by a colon ( : ) after the vowel. The best illustration in English of long V short can be found in instances like “ sad ” ( long ) and “ sat ” ( short ) . Notice how the ‘a ‘ ( phonetically [ ? ] ) sounds longer in “ sad ” than in “ sat ” . So, “ sad ” is transcribed as [ s? : vitamin D ] while “ sat ” is [ s?t ] .
In many linguistic communications of the universe, tone plays an of import function in separating one morpheme from another.
Notice that tone is n’t the same as emphasis or modulation. All of these involve alterations in the pitch of the voice. Stress, sometimes besides known as speech pattern, is the rise and autumn of the pitch throughout the syllables of a word. In English, there is usally a highest emphasis in a word, like “ keyboard ” or “ exact ” , but besides in some instances two emphasiss, one higher than the other, occur, like “ uniqueness ” . Intonation is the rise and autumn of the pitch throughout the words of a sentence. Notice how the statement “ You are ill ” sounds different from the inquiry “ You are ill? ” In the statement, the words have more or less even pitches with regard to each other. On the other manus, the inquiry ‘s pitch extremums at the adjectival “ ill ” . Both contrasts with an ejaculation like “ You are ill! “ , which places highest pitches on “ You ” and “ ill ” .
Tone is slightly similar emphasis in that it besides is the rise and autumn of the pitch throughout a word. However, tone is used to separate words that have the same sounds which may hold unrelated significances, while emphasis is non. ( Actually, in a few instances, emphasis does function to separate different significances or version of the same word, but ne’er systematically as tone. )
Furthermore, the beginning pitch and the stoping pitch of a tone is cardinal to separating words. Slightly different get downing or stoping pitch means different words. On the other manus, the highest point in a emphasis can be any grade of pitch above the unstressed syllables. The difference does n’t count every bit long as the emphasis rises above the other syllables.
There are several ways of stand foring tones in Romanization. Pinyin ( for transcribing Mandarin ) and Vietnamese utilizations diacritics. Some phonic written texts use individual figure Numberss. So 1 in Cantonese is the high falling tone, 2 is the low falling tone, and so on. Neither system straight indicates the tone.
There are two other systems that do straight exemplify the tonic alteration. One uses a perpendicular saloon to denote a graduated table, and horizontal or diagonal lines to stand for the alteration in pitch.
Since I am a native talker of Cantonese, I ‘ll utilize its tonic system for presentation. In traditional Cantonese, there are 9 basic tones, but in my idiom ( Hong Kong ) the high rise and low lifting tones have become identical. Besides, the high falling tone has become really similar to the high-ranking tone ( which does n’t technically be in Cantonese but can be found in Mandarin ) . I will seek to reproduce all the separating inside informations in these tones, but do n’t take my pronunciation as canonical. The remainder are comparatively close to world.
[ ma53 ] “ female parent ”
AU | WAV
[ ma31 ] “ benne ; hemp ”
AU | WAV
[ ma35 ] ? ? ?
AU | WAV
[ ma13 ] “ Equus caballus ”
AU | WAV
[ ma33 ] “ inquiry marker ”
AU | WAV
[ ma11 ] “ to call on the carpet ”
AU | WAV
[ pok55 ] “ to hit ” ( rather onomatopeic )
AU | WAV
[ pok44 ] “ to fight ( restlessly ) ”
AU | WAV
[ pok22 ] “ thin ”
AU | WAV
To separate the phonic, there have another information for the ancient research.
Phonemic consciousness refers to the ability to concentrate on and pull strings phonemes in spoken words. It is repeatedly found that phonemic consciousness direction exerts a strong impact on early reading and spelling ( Ball & A ; Blachman, 1991 ; Byrne & A ; Fielding-Barnsley, 1993 ; Davidson & A ; Jenkins, 1994 ) . It is further indicated that phonemic consciousness can significantly bridge the critical spread between unequal readying for literacy and success in get downing reading ( Bernstein & A ; Ellis, 2000 ) . Children ‘s phonemic consciousness could be improved through assorted ways of pattern: phoneme isolation, individuality, classification, blending, cleavage, omission, add-on, and permutation ( Ehri, Nunes, Willows, Schuster, Yaghoub-Zadeh, & A ; Shanahan, 2001 ) .
Among them, intermixing and cleavage are more wildly adopted and discussed ( Ball & A ; Blachman, 1991 ; Davidson & A ; Jenkins, 1994 ; ChangI, 2001 ) . Juel and Minden-Cupp ( 2000 ) shared the same thought: The lingual unit that is by and large emphasized in phonics is the phoneme, and the instructional scheme is to sound and intermix the consecutive letter-sound. Yet, a phoneme is a little unit of address that corresponds to the letters of the alphabet, and the set of phonemes consists two classs: vowel sounds and harmonic sounds ( Kelly, 2000 ) .
Some researches use phonological consciousness for Phonemic consciousness. Stanovich ( 1993-94 ) defined “ phonological consciousness ” as the ability to cover sound explicitly and segmental with smaller units than the syllables. He besides noted that research workers “ argueintensely ” about the significance of the term and about the nature of the undertakings used to mensurate it. Harris and Hodges ( 1995 ) presented a brief essay on phonemic consciousness. Another often-cited beginning ( Adams, 1990 ) used “ phonemic consciousness ” about entirely. Phonological consciousness sometimes refers to an consciousness that words consist of syllables, “ oncomings and frosts, ” and phonemes, and so it can be considered as a broader impression than phonemic consciousness. Each term is widely used and possibly used interchangeably. In fixing this Digest, both footings were used to seek the ERIC database. For the intents of this Digest, each writer ‘s usage will be followed.