The concern and economic environment in a state has been identified as one of the major determiners of the flow of foreign investings in and out of a state. Since no individual state is self sufficient, the flow of foreign investings in and out of a state represent non merely a beginning of economic development but besides a beginning of engineering spillovers, human capital formation, international trade integrating and a platform for more competitory concern environment ( United Nations ( UN ) , 2004 ) . For houses, enlargement abroad non merely have advantages but besides carries with it associated challenges and hazards. As Bartlett et Al. ( 2008 ) observe, houses, in doing the of import determination of puting and runing outside their place environment, some of import issues such as what market chances exist in the foreign market, resource advantage, associated foreign hazards and challenges, strategic deductions and manner of entry are of critical importance
A figure of surveies have attempted to explicate the factors that influence houses to put abroad and the manner of entry they choose to make this. Harmonizing to Ghauri ( 2000 ) , the facors that push houses to travel abroad can be loosely divided into two classs: the internal factors which includes the ends and aspirations of persons and the administration like resources, capablenesss and schemes, and the external factors which relates to environments at place and in the foreign markets such as revenue enhancement, ordinances, legal demands, possible net incomes, etc.
Bartlett et Al ( 2008 ) depict the MNE as a house with significant direct investing in foreign states and actively manages and respects these operations as built-in parts of the company, both strategically and organistionally. In this respect, the “ Multinational Enterprise ( MNE ) has been identified as the dominant vehicle of internationalisation in the planetary economic system ” ( Bartlett et al 2008 ) . The United Nations Conference on Trade and Development ( UNCTAD ) defines the MNE otherwise refered to as Transnational Corporation ( TNC ) as “ integrated or unincorporated endeavors consisting parent endeavors and their foreign affiliates. ” . ( UNCTAD website )
The purpose of this paper is to analyze the concern and investing context of Brazil as viewed from the planetary position, place state specific issues in Brazil as it relates to finding the entry modes to be used in come ining the market by Multinational Enterprises ( MNEs ) and propose the different entry manners that will accommodate the state ‘s concern context. The paper besides examines some theories of foreign entry manners by MNEs into emerging markets and proposes the suited entry manners for the concern context of Brazil.
To accomplish this aim, the paper is divided into four subdivisions. Following this introductory subdivision, subdivision 2 examines different literatures on the foreign market entry manners adopted by MNEs in come ining into foreign markets and how state specific issues has been a major determiner in doing this determination. In subdivision 3, an analysis of the macroeconomic conditions of Brazil is carried out. This subdivision focal point on the analysis of the macro, concern, political and investing environment in Brazil because of the function they play in accessing a state ‘s concern and investing hazards and besides the impact they have in the entry manner determinations made by MNEs. In subdivision 4, the paper concludes with specific recommendations for MNEs looking at spread outing into Brazil.
The pick of entry manner into foreign markets by MNEs have a considerable impact on the houses success in the host market, so careful analysis and consideration is required of direction when doing this major determination of internationalization. For houses, there are assorted determiners of the entry manner to be adopted when spread outing outside there place location, hence a careful analysis of the hazards and returns attached to each entry manner is needed inorder to take the optimum manner that best suits the host state concern context and the houses concern aims. Several factors like economic hazards, political hazards, investing hazards, institutional hazards affects the pick of entry manners into foreign market. The pick of a sub-optimal manner of entry into foreign markets by houses have considerable impacts on its resources which may sometimes do it to prorogue or call off its enlargement Cross ( 2000 ) .
Harmonizing to Root ( 1987 cited in Sharma. 2002 ) , entry manner is defined “ as an institutional agreement that makes possible the entry of a house ‘s merchandises, engineering, human accomplishments, direction or other resources into a foreign state. ”
The different entry manners available to MNEs in accomplishing their internationalization scheme in a foreign state includes ; exporting, franchising, licensing, foreign direct investing i.e greenfield investing ( set uping a entirely owned subordinate in the host state ) , come ining into a joint venture with domestic houses in the host state, unifying with or/and geting a domestic house in the host state.
Many literatures have undertaken surveies of the different entry manners into foreign markets and the determiners of the entry manners adopted by MNEs. Cross ( 2000 ) , classified these entry manners into two wide classs ; non-equity manners and equity manners ; in order to explicate the grade of committedness adopted by MNEs in their internationalization scheme into foreign states. Harmonizing to him, non-equity manners of foreign entry involves the house undertaking its proprietary and technological cognize how to houses in the host state under some signifier of contract. Classified under this class is licencing, franchising, direction catching and proficient sercvice understandings. Ability to get the better of trade and investing barriers and low control of the licensee has been identified as the virtue and demerit of the non-equity manners of entry severally. The equity manners of foreign entry involves direct control by the house over its operations, merchandise quality, resources, knowhow in the foreign market. Falling into this class is direct investing ( FDI ) , joint venture, amalgamations and acquisition. Higher resource committedness and direct control over resources to maximize returns have been identified as the virtues of this manner while high hazard degree has been identified as a demerit.
Anderson and Gatigon ( 1986 ) in thier work categorised manners of entry into three harmonizing to the grade of control houses wish to hold on their forieign operations. For maximal control of foreign operations, high-control manners of entry that involves equity ownership like joint ventures, entirely owned subordinates were proposed. For meduim control, manners of entry like licensing, franchising and direction contracts were classified under this piece manners of entry like exporting was suggested for low control manners.
Due to the famine of literatures explicating the determiners of entry manner pick by MNEs into emerging markets, Zhang et Al. ( 2007 ) explained the pick of gradual FDI entry manners into emerging markets. The survey critiqued the sterotyped theoretical account of utilizing the same determiners of entry manner pick into developed states to make up one’s mind entry manner pick into emerging markets like China. It concluded that consecutive FDI entry manner pick adopted by MNEs in emerging markets is inline with the internationalization procedure theoretical account. An of import determination of the paper is that MNEs undertake experimental and gradual investings in emerging economic systems because of the sensed uncertainnesss in these emerging markets. This determination is absolutely in line with the Uppsalla theoretical account of internationalization which proposed gradual acquisition of cognition about a foreign market instead than a delibrate cognition acquisition.
A restriction of these surveies reviewed above is that they did non turn to possible entry manners available to MNEs that can be employed to get the better of the sensed uncertainnesss and hazards in emerging markets with unfavourable macro indexs although in this markets the chances available far outweighs the loss.
Sharma ( 2002 ) in his survey of how economic, concern, political environment and consumer market indexs determine the extent of committment and hence manner of entry to be adopted by MNEs into emerging markets in Latin America, classified the different manners of entry into two classs ; high resource committedness manners and low resource committedness manners. MNEs will come in states with positive and favourable economic and consumer market indexs on a high degree of resources committednesss utilizing entry manners like greenfield investing, joint venture and amalgamations and acquisition. On the other manus, houses view states with unfavourable economic indexs with sensed uncertainnesss and will prefer to come in this market on a low degree resource committment inorder to extenuate the hazards attached to internationalizing into this markets. Entry modes classified under low resource committedness manners includes exportation, franchising and licensing. In his survey, a positive correlativity was found between favourable authorities policies, big consumer size, high per capita income and high resource committedness manners while a positive correlativity was besides detected between unfavourable economic policies, political instability, hapless substructure and low resource committment.
The paper further argued that although some states in Latin America poses unfavourable economic and market indexs which requires house to come in on a low degree of committment to extenuate thier hazards, it is instead advisable to come in these states on a big resource committment degree as these states posseses greater and long term chances in footings of market size, foremost mover advantage, inexpensive labour, resources which will counterbalance for the sensed hazards and uncertainnesss in these states.
In line with these statement stated supra, this essay seeks to warrant the grounds for the acceptance of high resource committment entry manners to research emerging markets like Brazil that offers broad chances to MNEs even though uncertainnesss and hazards still exists in this economic system.
Brazil: A reappraisal of macroeconomic conditions
Harmonizing to the World Bank Country Brief on Brazil ( n.d ) , Brazil is an economic giant whose economic system ranked among the universe ‘s 10 highest Gross Domestic Product ( GDP ) in 2009 with a GDP of US $ 1,571 Trillion. Brazil, an upper middle-income degree state with a GDP per capita estimation ( in footings of Buying Power Parity ) of US $ 10,520, has been identified as one of four states ( Brazil, Russia, India, China ) whose economic systems could be a much larger force in the universe economic system by the twenty-first century ( Economic Intelligence Unit Report ( EIR ) , 2010 ; World Bank, 2010 ) .
With an mean GDP growing rate of 4.8 % per twelvemonth between 2004 – 2008, falling by 0.2 % in 2009 and a growing prognosis of 5.9 % and 5 % in the following few old ages, the economic system of Brazil has been identified as an of import 1 in the Latin American part ( Banco Central do Brazil, BCB ( n.d ) ; BBVA Research ( 2010 ) . The economic growing in Brazil is driven by private ingestion, public disbursement, investing and external demand ( BBVA Research, 2010 ) . The high economic growing rate in Brazil has been facilitated by the pursuit of stable economic policies by the Brazilian authorities. To excite the economic system, expansionary financial and pecuniary policies like addition in public outgos, decrease in revenue enhancement rates, flexible exchange rate, increased accessibilty to credits from public Bankss were introduced. In controling rising prices which increased from 3.6 % to 5.7 % between 2007 and 2008 ( mention to Table 1 ) as a consequence of the expansionary pecuniary policies introduced before, rising prices aiming pecuniary policies like decrease in the involvement rates was introduced taking to a decrease in the rising prices rate to 4.9 % in 2009. Harmonizing to the EIU Report ( 2010 ) , the 12-month consumer-price rising prices rate as at September 2010 stands at 4.49 % , merely 0.01 footing points less than the Central bank ‘s mark rate of 4.5 % in 2010. This strong basicss of the economic system is currenttly been reflected in the grasp of the Brazilian Real against the US Dollar.
The foreign militias of Brazil as at 2009 stood at US $ 238,539 Trillion, a 32 % and 23 % addition from the 2007 and 2008 balance severally. With this solid modesty, the state can adequately back up its balance of payments place ( BOP ) and smothen any volatility in the value of its currency, the Brazilian Real. Analysing Brazil ‘s soveriegn recognition hazard evaluation showed that it has increased well with a foreign modesty that is 15 % of GDP, this reflects that Brazil can to the full serve its external debt ( Garcia-Herrero, 2009 ) . The state ran a modest current history shortage of 1.5 % of GDP in 2009 but external solvency is non a hazard in the short term as the foreign militias provides equal buffer. Harmonizing to The Economist ( 2009 ) , Brazil is one of the first Latin American economic systems to emerge from the recession. The speedy recovery can be attributed to the strong domestic demand and handiness to credits that existed in the economic system which was facilitated by authorities ‘s acceptance of expansive financial and pecuniary policies utilizing the big militias as a agency. Besides, Brazil operates a good diversified economic system with the service, fabrication and agricultural sectors accounting for 68.5 % , 25.9 % and 6.1 % of GDP severally.
Table 1: Economic indexs of Brazil
GDP ( US $ Billion )
GDP Growth ( one-year % )
GDP per capita
Entire Militias ( US $ Billion )
Exports of goods & A ; servces ( % of GDP )
Imports of goods & A ; servces ( % of GDP )
Current history bal ( US $ Billion )
FDI cyberspace influxs ( US $ Billion )
Infaltion, consumer monetary values ( one-year % )
Beginning: World Bank DataBank
Harmonizing to Sacerdoti et Al. ( 2005 ) , the quality of establishments in an economic system plays an of import function in explicating its economic public presentation. The goverment of Brazil can be said to hold a strong weight on the economic system as observed in its high degree of intercession in the economic system. Despite the fact that the state operates a democratic system of authorities with a fundamental law that has been in consequence since 5 October 1988, the politcal clime in Brazil can be said to be reasonably unstable holding a history of absolutism and authorities intercession in the economic system. Although, the current disposal of President Lula district attorney Silva has been credited for keeping policy credibleness, political stableness, a strong macro-economy and improved domestic investing clime, the noticeable rise in financial disbursement and the strong inventionist function of the govenment in the economic system has been a major concern ( EIU Report 2010 ) . The authorities still operates restrictive investing policies in some sectors, as it ‘s actively involved in the direction of the state ‘s cardinal sectors having important bets in the oil, fiscal and energy sector thereby curtailing private investings in these sectors. Besides, the behavior of a successful election in October 2010 has boosted Brazil ‘s political clime as seen from the planetary position.
Brazil operates a legal system based on the Roman codifications and is yet to accept the International Court of Justice ( ICJ ) legal power. The legal procedure in Brazil is really breaucratic and cumbrous thereby hindering private concern development and executing of legal contracts. In all, contracts in Brazil can be said to be unafraid as the bench and civil tribunal services are just but the breaucratic processs hamper thier ability to do rapid judgements ( EIU Reports ( 2010 ) .
However, infrastructural development has been a challenge to the economic growing of Brazil. The overutilized airdrome, hapless route and rail web and congested port has contributed to the addition in logistics costs to MNEs and haltering international trade. Besides the one-year addition in electricity ingestion has put a force per unit area on the energy capacity of the state thereby asking an enlargement of the energy substructure. In deciding the substructure job, the authorities has initiated a Public-Private Partnership to promote investing in substructure. Besides, it has invested one million millions of dollars to better its rail web.
The net influxs of FDI into the state over the old ages has been overpowering. The net influx of FDI into the state increased from US $ 15 Trillion in 2005 to US $ 45 Trillion in 2008 stand foring a 200 % addition over the 3 old ages period. However this fell by 42 % in 2009 as a consequence of the planetary fiscal crisis. The stock of FDI and flow of FDI accounted for 20 % and 1.65 % of GDP severally. Brazil, a member of the World Trade Organisation ( WTO ) has been identified as the third-most-attractive state for future foreign direct investing, behind China and India ( World Investment Prospects Survey 2010-12 ) . To promote foreign investings, the authorities has implemented favourable trade policies like the sign language of major bilateral trade understandings with states like the USA, Argentina, Chile to advert a few. This understanding has led to a major decrease in the import duty on the agricultural merchandises and automative merchandises.
The trade patners of Brazil have been identified to be the Netherlands accountting for 20.6 % of FDI influxs during the first half of 2010, the US ( 15.5 % ) , Spain ( 10.8 % ) , Germany ( 7.8 % ) and France ( 6.8 % ) .
Harmonizing to the 2011 World Bank Ease of Doing Business Report, the state slipped 3 topographic points from 127th place in 2009 to 129th topographic point in 2010 among 183 economic systems in footings of overall easiness of making concern. As shown in Table 2, the procedure of registering new concerns, belongingss, acquiring credits, shuting concerns is cumbrous and breaucratic. Furthermore, companies ‘ operations are subjected to a high revenue enhancement load and a stiff labour jurisprudence which impedes the enforcement of employment battle contracts. Although the official langauage in Brazil is Lusitanian, the normally used concern linguistic communication is English. Registered foreign companies in Brazil are treated every bit with thier domestic patners when command for contracts although the authorities still adopts policies that restrict investings in its air power, media communicating and the rural agribusiness.
Table 2: Brazil ‘s Ease of Doing Business ( DB ) Ranking
Dubnium 2011 Rank
Dubnium 2010 Rank
Get downing a concern
Covering with building license
Trading across boundary lines
Closing a concern
Beginning: World Bank Databank
Brazil is the largest state in country and population in Latin America and the Caribbean with a population size of 193.7 Million in 2009. It is bordered by the Atlantic Ocean and portion common boundaries with every South American state except Chile and Ecuador ( World Bank Country Brief ; CIA Factbook ( 2009 ) thereby doing it an import and export gateway to other Latin American states. As a major trade good export state, the entire exports of Brazil accountted for 13 % of the GDP figure in 2009, a 7 % diminution from the 2008 figures while entire imports accounted for 13 % of the GDP. Rising international monetary values for agricultural and excavation trade goods and lifting demand from Asiatic markets has been identified as an of import driver of Brazil ‘s economic growing ( EIU ( 2010 ) . The value of exports is expected to increase by 12.8 % year-on-year in 2010.
Brazili offers a really big consumer and attractive labour market for foregn houses. The state ‘s human development indexs have been impressive over the old ages with the proportion of the population populating below poorness line cut downing from 1.8 % to 1.3 % between 2006 and 2007 and a grownup literacy rate of 90 % was recorded over the two twelvemonth period ( Refer to Postpone 3 ) . Public disbursement on instruction as a per centum of GDP increased from 4.5 % in 2005 to 5.2 % in 2006. Brazil recorded a entire labour force of 99 million in 2009, a 2 % addition from the 2008 figure while the 2008 unemployment proportion of labour figure declined to 7.9 % from 9.3 % in 2007. There has besides been a noticeable decrease in the income inequality spread in Brazil. This can be attributed to the upward tendency in the existent household income degree as reflected in the GDP per capita figures over the old ages. As shown in Table 1, in per capita income footings, the GDP grew by 72 % between 2005 – 2010 reflecting an addition in the income and buying power of an mean Brazilian. As a consequence of the rush in the figure of cyberspace users in Brazil, the state ‘s e-commerce activities has besides increased significantly hiking the already bouyant service industry in Brazil.
Table 3: Human development indexs
Poverty spread at $ 1.25 a twenty-four hours
Entire labour force ( million )
Unemployment ( % of entire labour force )
Adult literacy rate
Beginning: World Bank Data Bank
In Latin America, Brazil ‘s economic system is an of import economic system in the part because of its intimacy to the US market and its ownership of a well developed agricultural, excavation, fabrication and service sector ( CIA Factbook, ( 2009 ) . Owing to its macro economic and politcal stableness over the old ages, its profusion in natural resources like oil, excavation and agricultural resources and huge local market, Brazil has become an attractive finish for foreign direct investing ( FDI ) among emerging-market economic systems ( EIR ; 2010 ) . As a consequence of Brazil ‘s designation as a prospective regional economic driver in the Latin America, many MNEs are utilizing the state as a base for their operations in Latin America. Examples include General Electric, Hyundai, GE Healthcare.
Analysis of the macroeconomic indexs of Brazil showed that the state offers a basket of chances for MNEs every bit good as smattering of hazards. Interms of favourable indexs, the state offers big consumer market with buying capacity, natural resources, handiness of educated and skilled labour and in general enlargement into the Latin America part for MNEs. While the unfavourable indexs identified includes strong currency grasp against the US dollar impacting the fight of goods exported from Brazil, high authorities intercession in the economic system, reasonably unstable political clime, hapless infrastructural installations which increases the cost of making trade, restrictive trade policies, cumbersome and bureaucratic procedure of making concern.
While wieghing these indexs against each other, it is apprehensible if the being of the smattering of hazards in Brazil discourage MNEs and in extenuating these hazards, they prefer to research the chances on a low degree resource committedness. This is non advisable as the chances far outweighs the hazards and MNEs researching the market on a low resource degree will free out to rivals. It is recommended that MNEs explore the market on a high resource committedness degree as the existing hazards can be mitigated by following the optimum entry manner that suits the concern context of Brazil.
Moreso, these smattering of hazards being can be said to shorterm in nature as seen in the recent betterments in the unfavourable indexs identified while the favourable indexs offers an array of longterm benefits to the MNEs.
However, in following the high degree resource committedness manner of entry, this essay will recommmend entry into Brazil by MNEs via foreign direct investing ( FDI ) utilizing specifically entry manners like joint ventures and direct acquisition of local houses. By come ining into joint ventures ( JV ) with domestic houses in Brazil who already possess the experience and cognition of the market, MNEs can maintain thier options open as a manner of extenuating their hazards. They can get experience from spouse houses in the joint venture and the success or failure of this patnership can assist find the following degree of resource committedness to be undertaken. The success of the joint venture can motivate the house to get the patner in the joint venture by purchasing more equity bets and deriving maximal control while the failure of the patnership will motivate the house to sell its retentions to the patner and issue the state. In make up one’s minding whether to increase or cut down thier degree of resource committednesss, MNEs can besides reexamine success or failure of thier operations in the Brazil by the betterments or the impairment of the antecedently identified unfavourable indexs. Besides, by come ining into a JV, MNEs can command their degree of resource committedness as the JV understandings are normally for a given period of clip and sharing of hazards and returns are based on the ratio of shareholding of the patners involved. This entry manner besides offers MNEs the chance to get the better of the restrictive trade and investing policies in Brazil as come ining into a JV with a domestic house in Brazil offers that synergic benefits like the JV being treated as a local house and basking same benefits as local houses.
The demerits of the JV manner of entry is the divergency of involvements and aims of the parties in the venture and the uncomplete control and ownership of resources.
Besides, MNEs can come in the Brazilian market by straight geting little domestic houses that are making really good. This offers the advantage of speedy entry into the market as jobs associated with geting information about the local market and acquiring new client base is overcomed. This entry manner provides easy handiness to local cognition of the new market and acquisition of the domestic company ‘s client base, distribution webs and market portion. High hunt costs, overestimate of assets and integrating of acquired house into the larger house has been identified as the disadvantages of this entry manner.
In decision, by come ining the market on a high resource committedness degree, the MNEs can place themselves for planetary market opportunites every bit forecasted to go on in Brazil and Latin America in the hereafter. Besides, it offers to MNEs the advantage of maximal control over operations, technological know and resources and optimum geographic expedition of chances that exists.