Through this assignment I have done a batch of surveies and research about microeconomics. Microeconomicss helped us to derive cognition about conserving picks among options utilizations scarce resources. Beside that I have learned about how monopoly market plants. Monopoly is a market construction that holding a individual marketer and a really big sum of purchasers and selling merchandises that have no close permutation and besides have a really high entry and issue barrier. The features of monopoly are monopoly have the ability to keep a really unnatural net incomes in the long tally, monopoly merely exist when there is merely one marketer of the merchandise, merchandise from monopoly house have no close replacement, there are rigorous barriers to entry and issue in monopoly market and advertisement for imported luxury goods for monopoly.

I besides get to larn about the difference of the perfect competition market, the monopolistic competition market, the oligopolistic competition market and the monopoly competition market. Perfect competition have a big figure of Sellerss and purchasers, free entry and issue, homogenous merchandises. The monopolistic competition have individual manufacturer and marketer, no close replacement, rigorous barrier to entry and issue, non-price competition and merchandising cost. The oligopoly competition have few Numberss of house, homogenous or differentiated merchandise, common mutuality and barrier to entry. At last monopoly have the ability to keep a really unnatural net incomes in the long tally, monopoly merely exist when there is merely one marketer of the merchandise, merchandise from monopoly house have no close replacement, there are rigorous barriers to entry and issue in monopoly market and advertisement for imported luxury goods for monopoly.

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Table of Content

Introduction to Microeconomicss

Microeconomicss is about conserving picks among options utilizations of scarce resources. The picks are made up by the persons. concerns, and authorities units. Scarcity can be say as the cardinal of the economic theory. Economic analysis is basically about the maximization of leisure clip, wealth, wellness, felicity, these are all normally reduced to the construct of public-service corporation topics to restraints. These restraints or scarceness define a trade off. For illustration, we can hold more money by working harder, but less clip because there are merely so many hours in a twenty-four hours, so clip is a scarce. Microeconomicss, which deals with single agents, such as families and concern and macroeconomics that is considered the economic system as a whole, in which instance it considered aggregative supply and demand for money, capital and trade goods. In short, microeconomics is to analyze about the economic sciences behaviour of single consumers, houses, and industries and the distribution of production and income among them. It can be considers persons both as provider of labor and capital and as the ultimate consumers of the concluding merchandise. Beside that, it can be use to analysis both houses both as providers of merchandises and as consumers of labor and capital. Microeconomicss besides helps to seek analyze the market or the types of mechanism that set up comparative monetary values among the goods and services or allocates society ‘s resources among their many alternate utilizations. Microeconomics is a really of import cognition in the survey of economic theory, it has both theoretical and practical deductions. Microeconomics is a great aid that are efficient in pull offing the limited resources available in the state and it is helpful to understand the work of the free endeavor economic system where there is no cardinal control. Microeconomicss is the footing of public assistance economic sciences, it is used to build the economic theoretical accounts for the better apprehension of the existent economic phenomena. Microeconomicss besides explains how through market mechanism goods and services produced in the community are distributed. Microeconomicss is utilised to explicate the additions from international trade, balance of payments disequilibrium and the finding of foreign exchange rate.

Introduction to Monopoly

Monopoly is the market construction that exist a individual marketer and a really big sum of purchasers and selling merchandises that have no close permutation and besides have a really high entry and issue barrier. In our state, the illustration of monopoly market are the TNB, Indah Water, and Telekom Malaysia ( TM Berhad ) . If people want to subscribe place telephone services they merely can travel to the Telekom Malaysia ( TM Berhad ) , because Telekom Malaysia ( TM Berhad ) is a monopoly. The word monopoly is a Latin word, where ‘mono ‘ agencies individual and ‘poly ‘ means Sellerss. Monopoly have houses that it is the merely provider in the market, and there will be no close replacement towards the end product so monopoly have no dainty of competition.

Features of Monopoly

There are some features of monopoly market. Monopolies have the ability to keep a really normal net incomes in the long tally. As with all houses, net incomes are maximized when Fringy Cost ( MC ) = Marginal Revenue ( MR ) . In overall, the net income degree are good depend upon the grade of the competition in the market, which for a pure monopoly is zero. At the net income maximization, MC = MR, and the end product is Q and the monetary value is P. Given that the monetary value ( AR ) is above ATC at Q, supranormal net incomes are possible ( country P, A, B, C ) . Monopoly exists when there is merely one marketer of a merchandise. Monopoly is the house that merely be in the industry selling a merchandise that has no close permutation. Monopoly market is the topographic point where the monopoly house operates. In short, there is no difference between a house and an industry in monopoly as there is merely have one marketer. A monopolizer is a monetary value shaper, monetary value shaper are defined as house which has the market power to command the monetary values. Since there is merely one marketer or manufacturer so they have the power to command the monetary value of their merchandises in the market. Monopoly house merely sell merchandise that has no close replacement, so that consumers or purchasers could non happen any replacement for the merchandise that they require. For illustration, electric supply from our state can merely establish in TNB which has no close replacement for it. But if the purchaser can happen other replacement for electricity such as solar energy resources, so the merchandise is no more in monopoly house. In other words, merchandise that has competition or any utility merchandise will non be in the monopoly house. In the monopoly market, there is besides some rigorous barriers to the entry of new house. Barriers to entry are most likely natural or legal limitations that restrict the entry of new houses into the industry because it is really high cost to come in a market that can back up merely one concern illustration: TNB, Indah Water and Telekom Berhad. So a monopolizer faces no competition because of the barriers of entry because other manufacturer cant compete with them due to they do n’t hold the resource at their disposal. Business in monopoly house may hold the right of first publication for its ain merchandise so it will be illegal for other manufacturer to double its merchandise. In short, barriers to entry are designed to barricade possible entrants from come ining a market productively because barriers to entry are to protect the monopoly power of existing houses and therefore it keep the supernormal or unnatural net incomes in the long tally. The types of barriers to entry are structural barrier, strategic barrier and legal barrier. Ad in monopoly market are depend on the merchandises that the manufacturer sold because if merchandises are luxury goods such as imported auto, so the monopoly needs some advertizement to advance their goods so that the consumers are informed about it. Local public public-service corporations such as H2O, electricity and place phone services do non necessitate advertizement because consumers will cognize where to obtain it because there is merely one to acquire the merchandises.

Introduction to The perfect competition

Perfect competition is a type of market where there are big figure of purchasers and Sellerss, the Sellerss sell indistinguishable or homogenous merchandise. There is besides free entry and exists of the houses. Both of the purchasers and Sellerss have perfect cognition of the market. In short, perfect competition can be defined as a market in which there are many purchasers and Sellerss, the merchandise are homogenous and Sellerss can easy come in and issue from the market. Agricultural goods are largely included in the perfect competition market. Example of the agricultural goods in perfect competition market are veggies, fruits, rice wheat and some primary trade goods.

Features of The perfect competition

There are some necessary conditions or demands in order to be in a perfect competition market. Bing with the perfect competition market, there is an of import characteristic of perfect competition is the being of the big figure of purchasers and Sellerss. The market is so little compared to the overall industry where a individual marketer sells in the market. For illustration, in the domestic fowl industry, there are 1000s of duck manufacturers in Malaysia and each house produces merely a little fraction of the entire domestic fowl industry. Even if a steadfast addition its production by 150 % or 300 % , it does non impact much on the overall industry. Therefore, no individual house or marketer can act upon on the market monetary value of a good. So in the perfect competition houses are monetary value takers which is single gross revenues volume is comparatively little compared to market volume. Another conditions for perfect competition market is that the house must sell homogeneous or standardised merchandise because the purchasers do non distinguish the merchandises of one marketer to another marketer. For illustration, the purchasers ca n’t distinguish about the ducks that is selling in the Firm A and Firm B. Hence, the house ca n’t bear down different monetary values for the same merchandise in the market. Once the purchasers notice the difference of the quality, packaging, coloring material or design of different Sellerss, so this market is no more in the province of perfect competition market. Even the merchandises are similar but if there is a difference in footings of the packaging and quality so the merchandise is non a homogeneous or standardised merchandise any longer. Under the perfect competition market, there is no limitation on entry of new houses to the industry or issue of the houses from the industry. A house can come in the perfect competition easy and go out the perfect competition anytime if the house wants. For illustration when he/she has the necessary factors of production like land, labor and capital so he/she can run the concern already. If the house suffers from losingss it can go forth the industry without any regulations and ordinances or limitations.

Introduction to The monopolistic competition

Monopolistic competition is a market construction that have big Numberss of little Sellerss selling differentiated merchandises but these are close utility merchandises and besides have a easy entry into and issue from the market. Compare to hone competition, monopolistic competition market produce different and sold different but the goods are close replacements for one another. There are many merchandises in the universe represent monopolistic competition such as apparels, places, books and other points.

Features of The monopolistic competition

The features of monopolistic competition market are rather similar with the perfect competition. Similar to hone competition, there are big Numberss of Sellerss and purchasers under the monopolistic competition market. There are big figure of houses bing in the monopolistic competition market but it is less every bit compared to the perfect competition market. Since the size of the houses are little, there is no single house can act upon the market monetary value. But, if each house in monopolistic competition market produces different or alone merchandises so they will hold some control over the monetary values. Hence, each house follows an independent price-output policy. For illustration, in wax industry, the monetary values of a 100ml wax scope among trade names such as gasby, mudwax, spiky and other houses as good. Product distinction means that the merchandise in the house is selling or bring forthing are non indistinguishable. In monopolistic market competition, the houses that bring forthing the goods are different from its rival. Each marketer will utilize different methods to distinguish their merchandise from other Sellerss to pull the purchasers and consumers. Product distinction will gone through the packaging, design, labeling, advertisement and trade name name. For illustration, if the house sold eggs that is in the unfastened shelf, so the eggs will category in perfect competition market. But if the house packaged their egg in a packaged box and labeled as “ Best Protein Egg ” , so this egg is in the monopolistic competition market. In monopolistic competition market, there is no entry and issue barriers in monopolistic competition. However, the entry and issue into the monopolistic competition market is non every bit easy as the perfect competition market because of the merchandises distinction. If any new houses that enter the industry, they have to happen some distinction with the bing trade names. For illustration, if “ Chicken A1 ” wants to come in the soup industry, so the house must happen some difference in term of quality, gustatory sensation, labeling, and packaging in order to be in the monopolistic competition market. In the monopolistic competition market, there will be stiff competition with other houses for their merchandises and non for the monetary value of the merchandise. Monopolistic competitory houses do non vie utilizing the monetary values because of the merchandises in the market are holding a batch of replacements. So, the manufacturers or Sellerss uses assorted methods to pull the clients to purchase their merchandises. Types of non-price competition patterns in monopolistic competition market are advertizements, publicity, price reductions, free gifts, after-sales service and others. In monopolistic competition market, everyone houses are seeking to advance their ain merchandise to consumers through different types of outgo on advertizement, which would incur extra cost. The cost of the streamers, media advertizement, hoardings, booklet and others are some of the outgos incurred to pull consumers towards the peculiar trade name. These outgos are called as merchandising cost, where it needs to be covered with the production cost.

Introduction to The oligopoly

Oligopoly is the market construction that there are merely a few houses selling either standardized or differentiated merchandises and it is really restricted to come in the entry and issue from the market. Under the market construction, some or all the houses in the industry can gain unnatural net incomes in the long tally. This is because of the entry of new houses is hard or impossible. The oligopolistic houses can enforce barriers to the entry in footings of patents or entree to a certain engineering in the market. The intent of it is to command extra the production of end product, which is unprofitable for the oligopolistic houses. The illustration of the oligopoly markets are coffin nails, cars, electrical equipment and cement.

Features of The oligopoly

The features of oligopoly market are holding few Numberss of houses. Under oligopoly, the figure of houses is little but the size of the houses is big. The market portion of each house that is big plenty to rule the whole market. Few houses control the overall industry under oligopoly. But there is besides no specific Numberss to command the market before going oligopolistic. The chief of import standard to go oligopolistic is to hold common mutuality between these houses. Under the state of affairs like this, houses will considered the reactions of its challengers in determination devising to make strategic mutuality. There will be strong mutuality among all the houses in the oligopolistic market as the figure of the houses will go smaller. But if the figure of the houses become larger, so the mutuality between these houses will decrease. In oligopoly market, a merchandise that is sold under oligopoly can be either a homogenous or a differentiated merchandise. Example, cement or electrical contraptions produced by one house are indistinguishable to another house. From the other manus, cars produced by major car manufacturers are different in term of design, engineering, public presentation and monetary values. Firms that is in oligopolistic market ever see the reaction of other house challengers when both are taking monetary value, gross revenues mark, publicizing budgets and other concern policies. This is the of import feature of an oligopoly house that differs from other market constructions. Because of the figure of houses is little, alterations in monetary value or end product by one house can hold direct consequence on another house. Under the state of affairs of oligopolistic market, there are plenty barriers to entry that is similar to monopoly. The oligopoly houses have restricted new entrants into the markets. The barriers are to command the certain resources, ownership of patent and right of first publication, sole fiscal demands and other legal barriers. In short, big houses may take drastic actions in order to forestall the entry of new houses by deluging the market. These big houses will bring forth the end product at extra production capacity, which would drive the monetary value down. That means new houses that is freshly set up will non last because sometimes the monetary value are set by these big houses is below the cost monetary value. Once the new houses are out of the market, the big houses will cut down the production capacity and increase the merchandise monetary value.

Introduction to The monopoly