I plan to finish a research paper about the Liquefied Natural Gas ( LNG ) industry. Unlike the coal and oil industries, the LNG industry is non well-known by the populace, but has seen recent rushs in growing within the last two decennaries. In add-on, and besides unlike its other petroleum-based opposite numbers, natural gas produces the least chemical by-products in proportion to its ability to bring forth energy. As a consequence, LNG is one of the “ cleanest ” and safest petroleum-based, non-renewable energy beginnings which power the universe ‘s turning energy demands.

The first subdivision will supply some proficient information and practicality of LNG. LNG is a signifier of natural gas, and that will be described as good.

The 2nd subdivision will sum up how LNG is extracted, refined and the logistics behind the operation.

This concluding subdivision will depict the progressively of import function of LNG to make full in the spread of meeting universe energy demands, while cut downing the amendss done to the environment.

The liquified natural gas ( LNG ) market is going progressively globalized and has seen rapid growing since the 1970s ( see fig.2 ) . There are two major grounds that attribute to this growing and one of them is the natural distances that separates the rich gas-producing states ( i.e. Russia and the Middle East ) , and the energy consumers ( i.e. USA and Europe ) . The other ground is that natural gas is a feasible and cleaner option, when compared to char and oil. ( Mazighi, 318 )

The investings needed to construct and run LNG installations and logistical operations have been diminishing due to take down upfront costs. For case, the ferocious competition between South Korean, Chinese and Nipponese shipwrights for LNG bearer contracts pushed the monetary value downwards on the order of 40 % . The addition figure of these oilers allows for faster conveyance of LNG, which accordingly consequences in larger processing workss with a relative larger graduated table of economic system. ( Brito, 4 )

The proficient proliferation and technological polish of LNG workss besides decreased initial capital investings, which are assisting to fuel farther growing of this market. The World Energy Investment Outlook ( IEA ) estimated that the liquefaction costs ( which are the largest operating costs of the LNG procedure ) have decreased 35-50 % over the past 10 old ages. ( Brito, 5 )

The LNG demand is lifting even faster than the overall demand for natural gas. The EIA information shows that the universe ingestion of natural gas grew at an one-year compounded rate of 2.7 % from 2000-2003, while the universe LNG cargos grew over the same period at 6.2 % . It is estimated that this tendency will go on to turn good into the hereafter due to the huge demand for energy from China and India. ( Brito, 6 )

LNG Defined: Logisticss

( Mazighi, 317 )

Liquefied natural gas is merely natural gas ( CH4 – methane ) that is super-cooled ( -126 grades C ) into a liquified province. The liquid province of natural gas occupies about 1/600th of the volume of gas, which makes it feasible for transporting big qualities of LNG across huge distances when there is no other option ( i.e. gas grapevines ) . ( California Energy Commission )

LNG is transported in double-hulled ships specifically designed to manage the low temperature of LNG. These bearers are insulated to restrict the sum of LNG that boils off or evaporates. LNG bearers are up to 320 metres long, and necessitate a minimal H2O deepness of 12 metres when to the full loaded. The armored combat vehicles can be either of spherical type, or the membrane type that conforms to the form of the ship ‘s hull. There are presently around 177 ships that transport more than 120 million metric dozenss of LNG every twelvemonth. ( U.S Department of Energy )

When LNG is received at terminuss, it is transferred to insulated storage armored combat vehicles that are built to specifically keep LNG. These armored combat vehicles can be found above or below land and maintain the liquid at a low temperature to minimise the sum of vaporization. If LNG bluess are non released, the force per unit area and temperature within the armored combat vehicle will go on to lift. The temperature within the armored combat vehicle will stay changeless if the force per unit area is kept changeless by leting the furuncle off gas to get away from the armored combat vehicle. This is known as auto-refrigeration. The boil-off gas is collected and used as a fuel beginning in the installation or on the oiler transporting it. ( Mokhatab, 2 )

An LNG storage armored combat vehicle is a specialized type of storage armored combat vehicle used for the storage ofA Liquefied Natural Gas. LNG storage armored combat vehicles can be found in the land, above land or inA LNG bearers. The common feature of LNG Storage armored combat vehicles is the ability to hive away LNG at the really low temperature of -161A°C. LNG storage armored combat vehicles have dual containers, where the inner contains LNG and the outer container contains insulation stuffs. The most common armored combat vehicle type is the full containment armored combat vehicle which is approximately 180 pess high and 250 pess in diameter. ( Mokhatab, 3-4 )

When natural gas is needed, the LNG is warmed to a point where it converts back to its gaseous province. This is accomplished utilizing a regasification procedure in LNG receiving terminuss. Conventional LNG regasification processes by and large require an external heat beginning. LNG vaporization is an energy intensive procedure. ( U.S Department of Energy )

Left: LNG loading/offload Center: LNG Storage Tank Right: Cut-out of LNG bearer

LNG and the environment

Natural gas in its liquid province is colorless, odorless and non toxic. It is besides non flammable and will non burn when contacted with fire. Besides, in comparing with coal and oil, it is a well “ cleaner ” energy beginning as it burns wholly and does non go forth chemical byproducts ( i.e. Green houses gases – GHG ) . In about 30 old ages of operations, non a individual LNG bearer had any important accidents or major leaks. The exclusion was the Algerian LNG complex accident in 2004. Contrast this with the recent 2010 Deep Horizon oil spill ( the largest in history ) and we can reason that LNG is comparatively “ safer ” . ( Center for Liquefied Natural Gas )

However, natural gas is a finite resource and depends on the production and demand rhythms of the market. The rush in economic growing in China and India is a immense factor in the hereafter monetary values of the LNG market, as competition additions for dwindling resources. Since most LNG receiving systems do non politically or economically command the production installations or energy Fieldss, it can take to future struggles. ( Mazighi, 315-316 )

LNG, as a sub- ” entity ” of the natural gas industry really pollutes more than its counter-parts. When one factor in the intensive energy required to liquefied natural gas and changeless infrigidation to maintain the gas in its liquid province, about 10-12 % of its energy content is already used up. There is besides the energy emitted ( i.e. GHG ) to transport LNG across continents and so the needed energy to “ boil ” the liquid back into the gaseous signifier. Within the full procedure, there is besides the opportunity of gas loss through natural vaporization, imperfect technology of pipes and values, and other causes. Therefore, potentially up to 25 % of the net sum energy LNG bringing will be lost or used up during the logistical procedure. ( LNG Pollutes )

Constructing all the important and necessary constituents of an LNG industry is still highly expensive. From liquefaction workss, to regasification workss, and the LNG bearers itself ; these are all capital-heavy investings which would take old ages to refund itself through net incomes. In the interim, this important capital will be diverted from clean options such as renewable energy ( i.e. solar, air current, and hydro-based solutions ) . ( LNG Pollutes )

In decision, LNG has it ‘s pro and cons, but it is a necessary constituent for fuelling the progressively demanding universe. States that have limited entree to natural gas will see LNG as a feasible option. Despite the obvious ruins and inefficiencies of LNG, it is still considered more eco-friendly than firing coal or oil. As renewable energies are still in its babyhood, LNG and other alternate agencies must play a equilibrating function between environmental debasement and pure necessity.


Brito, Dagobert L. , and Peter R. Hartley. “ Expectations and the Evolving World Gas Market. ” Energy Journal 28.1 ( 2007 ) : 1-24. Business Source Complete. EBSCO. Web. 13 Dec. 2010.

Mokhatab, Saeid, and Michael J. Economides. “ Process choice is critical to onshore LNG economic sciences. ( cover narrative ) . ” World Oil 227.2 ( 2006 ) : 95-99. Business Source Complete. EBSCO. Web. 13 Dec. 2010.

Mazighi, Ahmed El Hachemi. “ An Examination of the International Natural Gas Trade. ” OPEC Review: Energy Economics & A ; Related Issues 27.4 ( 2003 ) : 313-329. Business Source Complete. EBSCO. Web. 13 Dec. 2010.

About LNG. Center for Liquefied Natural Gas. 14 Dec. 2010. www.lngfacts.org

LNG Main Page. The California Energy Commission. 14 Dec. 2010. www.energy.ca.gov

What is LNG? . U.S Department of Energy. 14 Dec. 2010. www.fossil.energy.gov