The United Nations Commission on Sustainable Development was created in to guarantee effectual followup of the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development ( UNCED ) to supervise and describe on execution of the Earth Summit understandings at the local, national, regional and international degrees. The authorization of the committee was reaffirmed by the World Summit on Sustainable Development held in Johannesburg in 2002. At its 11th session, the Commission on Sustainable Development decided that its multi-year programme of work beyond 2003 would be organized on the footing of biennial rhythms, with each rhythm concentrating on selected thematic bunchs of issues. CSD 11 farther bucked up states to supply national studies, on a voluntary footing, for every reappraisal session on the thematic bunchs of issues reflecting the overall advancement, tendencies and emerging issues every bit good as restraints and challenges. The CSD besides invited the Secretariat of the Commission to better on describing guidelines and questionnaires with the purpose of doing describing more efficient and less cumbrous on states and more focused on execution.
The United Nations Division for Economic and Social Affairs ( UNDESA ) has requested national focal points to subject state studies as a part to the Secretary General ‘s Report for CSD 14, which focuses on the thematic bunch of Industrial Development, Climate Change Air Pollution/Atmosphere and Energy for Sustainable Development
This study is the South African state study to the Commission, which reports on the advancement made in the execution of Agenda 21 with respect to the reappraisal, rating and monitoring procedures. It specifically focuses Industrial Development, Climate Change Air Pollution / Atmosphere and Energy for Sustainable Development. The cardinal elements of the CSD 12 Report include a contemplation on lessons learnt, best pattern, the designation of actions, chances and restraints to the execution of sustainable development and to the preparation of the NSDS.
This study was developed through a strict intergovernmental procedure coordinated by the Department of Environmental Affairs and Tourism with the support of the section of Trade and Industry, the Department of Foreign Affairs, the Department of Mineral and Energy and the Department of Health. The development of the study included audiences and legion written entries from representatives of major groups, organized concern and labor. This study is globally applicable within a national and even a local context and it was developed through a methodological analysis that does non merely follow with the petition from the United Nations but with and to beef up the Sustainable Development Agenda in South Africa.
Atmospheric Pollution and Climate Change
Concrete actions taken and advancement made in execution
Following South Africa ‘s re-acceptance into the international community ( both politically and economically ) and its acceptance of a progressive Fundamental law and Bill of Rights, the policy approaches to environmental ordinance and direction in South Africa have changed well. This has been undertaken with a position, inter alia, to giving consequence to sustainable development and to supplying some alliance with international tendencies.
The National Environment Management: Air Quality Act ( 2004 ) reformed the jurisprudence modulating air quality in order to protect the environment by supplying sensible steps for the bar of pollution and ecological debasement and for procuring ecologically sustainable development while advancing justifiable economic and societal development ; to supply for national norms and criterions modulating air quality monitoring, direction and control by all domains of authorities ; for specific air quality steps.
An of import criterion for air quality ( SANS 1929 ) was published in January 2005. SANS 1929 gives bound values for common air pollutants to guarantee that the negative effects of such pollutants on human wellness is prevented or reduced. Another criterion linked to air quality, albeit from an automotive regulative position, is SANS 20049, which is concerned with the emanations of pollutants from different classs of motor vehicles.
The Climate Change Response Strategy, launched in October 2004, outlines the model of how South Africa should react to climate alteration. Due to the crosscutting nature of clime alteration, DEAT has established two formal commissions where other authorities sections are represented. These are the Government Committee on Climate Change ( GCCC ) ; and the National commission on Climate Change ( NCCC, where all impacted and affected parties are represented ) . These two organic structures coordinate climate alteration issues, including the execution of the Climate Change Response Strategy, across all relevant authorities sections.
South Africa ratified the United Nations Framework on Climate Change in August 1997 and acceded to the Kyoto Protocol in March 2002 as a non-Annex 1 signer. Annex 1 states are committed to a 5 % overall decrease in the period 2008 -2012.
Although South Africa does non hold a national air quality job, a figure of air pollution “ hot musca volitanss ” exist around the state where terrible air quality jobs occur. The Air Quality Act contains specific commissariats to cover with these job countries – the alleged “ precedence Area ” commissariats.
Since the publication of authorities ‘s Integrated Pollution and Waste Management policy in 2000, authorities has been implementing the National Air Quality Management Programme 2000 – 2010 ( NAQMP ) . The programme is divided into four stages with each stage supplying the foundation and/or input into the following stage. The NAQMP provides a starting point for the development of the National Air Quality Management Framework required by the Air Quality Act.
Phase 1 has focussed on interpreting the Integrated Pollution and Waste Management Policy into a scheme and initial execution action program for air quality direction for the state.
The Phase II ( Transition ) is besides afoot and phase III ( Capacity development ) and Phase IV ( Maintenance and Review ) will follow.
Presently, industrial emanations are regulated by the Chief Air Pollution Control Officer ( CAPCO ) of the DEAT. Registration certifications for single industries are issued by CAPCO, which province the existent measure of particulate emanations that may be emitted every bit good as the degree of emanation allowed.
The White Paper on Disaster Management ( 1998 ) outlines authorities ‘s new thought in relation to disaster direction. In line with international tendencies and our national aims of efficient and effectual direction of our state ‘s resources, precedence is given in this new attack to bar.
The Department of Minerals and Energy ( DME ) , together with the DEAT, are presently working on a vehicle emanations scheme, which aims to command the emanations allowed from vehicles following on from the DME program for the stage out of leaded gasoline and the debut of lower sulfur Diesel from 2006. The DEAT will utilize the Air Quality Act to implement the vehicle emanation policy.
South Africa has about wholly phased out the usage of ozone-depleting substances such as CFCs ( CFCs ) and C tetrachloride.
Constraints and challenges
Fossil fuels remain the dominant energy beginning air quality administration has been comparatively moribund until 2000 and, as a consequence, there is an highly limited specializer air quality direction human resource base.
Although some research has been, or is being, carried out in regard of the impacts of fossil fuel combustion, detailed research to understand and turn to the specific part of industrial air pollution ( e.g. impacts of emanations from the petro-chemical industry ) has non been undertaken.
The need/plan to carry on intensive sector specific audience with the position to developing sector version programs and extenuation programs for cut downing nursery gas emanations.
Fiscal deductions associated with the complete phasing out of ozone-depleting substances, lead from gasoline and decrease of Diesel sulfur.
Although there has been some research in South Africa on the impacts of clime alteration on biodiversity, for illustration in the Western Cape, more research is needed to increase certainty on the scope of impacts that can be expected including on human wellness and ecosystems, peculiarly as new informations becomes available. This would besides help with the development of version schemes to get by with predicted alterations. There is a demand for a cardinal location for informations storage of all exposure, demographic and wellness informations every bit good as the demand to harmonise local authorities air quality supervising systems to guarantee compatibility.
Policies modulating air quality in South Africa
The primary statute law regulating air quality is the South African Constitution, specifically subdivision 24 which provinces that everyone has the right to an environment ( including ambient air ) that is non harmful to their wellness and wellbeing. Following South Africa ‘s first democratic elections in 1994, the Consultative National Environmental Policy Process ( CONNEPP ) was launched in 1995. To this twenty-four hours, this policy development procedure is regarded as being one of the most participatory national policy development processes experient both locally and internationally.
The terminal consequence of this policy development procedure was the White Paper on National Environmental Management ( 1997 ) . With this solid policy foundation, by 1998, authorities had published new statute law authorising it to implement the policy, viz. , the National Environmental Management Act ( Act No. 107 of 1998 ) ( NEMA ) .
Immediately following the publication of the National Environmental Management Policy, work started on specific policy associating to pollution and waste and the White Paper on Integrated Pollution and Waste Management was published in 2000. Since so, authorities has been driving the development of assorted pieces of statute law that will authorise authorities to implement this policy.
The National Environment Management: Air Quality Act ( Act No. 39 of 2004 ) ( AQA ) reformed the jurisprudence modulating air quality in order to protect the environment by supplying sensible steps for the bar of pollution and ecological debasement and for procuring ecologically sustainable development while advancing justifiable economic and societal development ; to supply for national norms and criterions modulating air quality monitoring, direction and control by all domains of authorities ; for specific air quality steps. AQA acknowledges that many countries of the Republic are non contributing to a healthy environment for people, the load of wellness impacts associated with contaminated ambient air falls most to a great extent on the hapless, air pollution carries a high societal, economic and environmental cost that is rarely borne by the defiler and atmospheric emanations of ozone-depleting substances, nursery gases and other substances have hurtful effects on the environment locally, regionally and globally.
AQA aims to:
( a ) Prevent pollution and ecological debasement ;
( B ) Promote preservation ; and
( degree Celsius ) Secure ecologically sustainable development and usage of natural resources
AQA replaces the out-of-date and uneffective 1965 air pollution statute law. In line with other environmental quality related statute law ( e.g. the Water Act ) , AQA takes the Constitution as its foundation by supplying for national quality and public presentation criterions. This attack ensures the holistic and incorporate direction of environmental quality.
AQA provides an objectives-based attack to air quality direction. The aims are set by agencies of assorted criterions including: national and provincial ambient air quality criterions ; national, provincial and local emanation criterions ; emanation criterions for peculiar industrial activities ( listed activities ) ; emanation criterions for contraptions and activities, including motor vehicle emanations ( controlled emitters ) ; criterions for planning, coverage, monitoring, etc.
An of import criterion for air quality ( SANS 1929 ) was published in January 2005. This standard trades with ambient bounds for common pollutants and is likely to replace the transitional criterions provided for in AQA.
Another criterion linked to air quality, albeit from an automotive regulative position, is SANS 20049. This criterion, an acceptance of the United Nation ‘s ECE R49, is concerned with the emanations of pollutants from different classs of motor vehicles, viz. rider vehicles, coachs and minibuses, and LDVs and trucks.
Status of South Africa ‘s confirmation of atmospheric pollution related conventions
The Kyoto Protocol was adopted at the 3rd Conference of Parties in 1997. The Protocol provides that developed states accept committednesss to restrict, or cut down, the emanation of green house gases harmonizing to different marks. South Africa ratified the United Nations Framework on Climate Change in August 1997 and acceded to the Kyoto Protocol in March 2002 as a non-Annex 1 signer. Annex 1 states are committed to a 5 % overall decrease in the period 2008 -2012.
The DME has established the Designated National Authority office. The DNA office has received 7 undertakings proposals for reappraisal to day of the month. These undertakings are in the undermentioned countries: landfill gas, hydroelectric power, and fuel shift and industrial energy efficiency. These undertakings, if implemented, will cut down 21 million metric tons of CO2 emanations by the twelvemonth 2012 and will bring forth gross of R618 million by twelvemonth 2012 from gross revenues of Certified Emission Reductions ( CERS ) .
The Climate Change Response Strategy, which was launched in October 2004, outlines the model of how South Africa should react to climate alteration. Cabinet approved the scheme in September 2004. For the fiscal twelvemonth 2005/6, the Department will be carry oning intensive sector specific audience with the position of developing sector version programs and extenuation programs. Due to the crosscutting nature of clime alteration, the section has four formal stakeholder commissions. These are:
The Inter-ministerial Committee on Climate Change affecting Curates from Environment Affairs and Tourism, Science and Technology, Agriculture, Water Affairs and Forestry and Minerals and Energy.
The Inter-departmental Committee on Climate Change that provides proficient support to the Inter-ministerial Committee.
The Government Committee on Climate Change ( GCCC ) ; and the National Committee on Climate Change ( NCCC, where all impacted and affected parties are represented ) .
These constructions inform and coordinate climate alteration issues, including the execution of the Climate Change Response Strategy.
In 1987, 46 states signed the Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer and, since so, more than 160 states have signed it. South Africa acceded to the Vienna Convention for the Protection of the Ozone Layer and the Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer on 15 January 1990. South Africa is presently developing an Ozone Layer Protection scheme that will bespeak response steps necessary to extenuate ozone bed depletion.
South Africa has about wholly phased out the usage of ozone-depleting substances such as CFCs ( CFCs ) and C tetrachloride. However, a little sum of legal Chlorofluorocarbons are imported and exported to make full asthma inhalators and air conditioners and electric refrigerators manufactured prior to 1996. The CFC methyl bromide ( used as a pesticide in the agricultural sector ) is still being imported and used. DEAT is explicating a full phase-out program but may be seek UN aid since the replacing merchandises are really expensive.
Overview of air quality surveies
The attack to air quality surveies has been fragmented and unsystematic in South Africa and although a figure of surveies have been completed, consequences are non incorporate and easy accessible. Despite this deficiency of information, South Africa ‘s air quality is regarded as being comparatively good on the whole, but there are a figure of air pollution “ hot musca volitanss ” around the state where terrible air quality jobs are experienced. AQA recognises this job and provides specific agencies by which these hot musca volitanss may be managed ( the alleged Priority Areas ) .
Frequently related to these hot spots is the larger job of indoor air quality. Research highlighted that although out-of-door beginnings frequently dominate air pollution emanations, indoor beginnings often dominate air pollution exposures, since exposure is a map of both the concentration in an environment and the person-time spent in the environment.
A figure of surveies have pointed out that the domestic sector, particularly domestic coal combustion, is responsible for high degrees of air pollution. Although this is true, the specific part of industrial air pollution and specifically the part of the petro-chemical industry has non been adequately addressed nor to the full understood. The impact of air pollution, particularly on human wellness is besides well-documented for the domestic and transport subdivisions but few surveies have taken full industrial air pollution impacts into history. This notwithstanding, an epidemiological survey related to hapless air quality in the South Durban Basin may make full some of the spreads in this respect.
5.2. Control of air pollution
Since 1965, the attack to air quality direction in South Africa was informed and driven by the Atmospheric Pollution Prevention Act ( Act No. 45 of 1965 ) ( APPA ) . For many old ages, this act was regarded as outdated for a figure of grounds. The publication in May 2000 of authorities ‘s Integrated Pollution and Waste Management policy ( IP & A ; WM Policy ) marked a turning point for pollution and waste administration in South Africa. From an air quality direction position, the new policy presented a complete paradigm displacement from the APPA attack. As such, a new attack to air quality direction was required.
With the publication of the IP & A ; WM Policy, authorities instantly set about developing a
Scheme and action program to implement the air quality direction constituents of the new policy. The first stage of this procedure was referred as the ‘definition stage ‘ as it defined the execution program and legislative model that was required to expeditiously and efficaciously implement authorities ‘s IP & A ; WM Policy. The program and legislative model was so subjected to a participatory procedure that informed, tested and fine-tuned the attack. The apogee of the definition stage was the announcement of AQA.
Government ‘s vision with regard to the NAQMP is that the programme will develop, implement and keep an air quality direction government that contributes to sustainable development and a mensurable betterment in the quality of life of all, by tackling the energy and committedness of all South Africans for the effectual bar, minimisation and control of atmospheric pollution.
The ends for the NAQMP are taken from the IP & A ; WM Policy wherein seven strategic ends are identified for, among others, accomplishing sustainable air quality direction as follows:
Goal.1: Effective Institutional Framework and Legislation
This end is defined as follows:
To make, develop, implement, maintain and continuously better an effectual, adequately resourced and harmonized institutional model and integrated legislative system and to construct institutional capacity. Government has already delivered a cardinal end product required to run into this end, viz. , the AQA. However, as AQA is mostly ‘framework ‘ statute law, much work is still required to guarantee an “ incorporate legislative system ” . This work will include, among others, the development of assorted ordinances, lists and agendas.
Furthermore, although much work has already taken topographic point in constructing an effectual, adequately resourced and harmonized institutional model for sustainable air quality direction in all affected domains of authorities, there is still a long manner to travel. In this respect, although AQA itself directs or implies the needed institutional model, the ‘resourcing ‘ of this model remains a challenge. As such, the staying old ages of the NAQMP will go on to turn to this constituent of the end.
Goal 2: Pollution Prevention and Impact Management
This end is defined as follows:
To advance holistic and incorporate air quality direction through pollution bar, minimisation at beginning and impact direction.
Although AQA straight links the Atmospheric Emission Licensing procedure to the environmental impact appraisal ( EIA ) procedure and provides assorted regulative tools aimed at advancing cleaner production, much work remains to be done to guarantee the effectual use of these tools.
Goal 3: Holistic and Integrated Planning
This end is defined as follows:
To develop mechanisms to guarantee that air quality direction considerations are efficaciously integrated into the development of authorities policies, schemes and programmes, all spacial and economic development planning procedures, and all economic activities.
AQA introduces an air quality direction planning government that fits seamlessly with bing be aftering governments. However, much work is still required to guarantee that this planning is decently implemented and to the full integrated with bing programs.
Goal 4: Engagement and Partnerships in Air Quality Management Governance
This end is defined as follows:
To set up mechanisms and procedures to guarantee effectual public engagement in air quality direction administration.
Although AQA provides formal participatory procedures, less formal, but structured engagement and partnerships must be established to guarantee that the AQA aims are met. This is particularly of import with regard to the development of the National Air Quality Management
Model required by AQA.
Goal 5: Authorization and Education in Air Quality Management
This end is defined as follows:
To advance the instruction and authorization of South Africa ‘s people to increase their consciousness of and concern for air pollution issues, and aid in developing the cognition, accomplishments, values and committedness necessary to accomplish efficient and effectual air quality direction.
This end will be a primary focal point for the staying old ages of the NAQMP.
Goal 6: Information direction
This end is defined as follows:
To develop and keep databases and information direction systems to supply accessible information to interested and affected parties that will back up effectual air quality direction.
Although AQA provides for a comprehensive national, provincial and local air quality information system, much work is required to develop, implement and keep this system.
Goal 7: International cooperation
This end is defined as follows: To develop mechanisms to cover efficaciously, and in the national involvement, with international issues impacting air and atmospheric quality.
Although AQA provides assorted ways in which South Africa is able to implement its committednesss and duties in regard of assorted air quality related multi-lateral environmental understandings, much work is still required in utilizing AQA efficaciously for this intent.
Plan ( s ) to cover with terrible air pollution incidents
The White Paper on Disaster Management ( 1998 ) outlines authorities ‘s new thought in relation to disaster direction. In line with international tendencies and our national aims of efficient and effectual direction of our state ‘s resources, precedence is given in this new attack to bar. Unlike old policies that focused preponderantly on alleviation and recovery attempts, this White Paper underscores the importance of forestalling human, economic and belongings losingss, and avoiding environmental debasement. Preparedness measures for more efficient deliverance operations will stay necessary. But much greater attending must be directed to the debut of preventative schemes aimed at salvaging lives and protecting assets before they are lost.
Previously, scarce resources were diverted for catastrophe alleviation at the disbursal of growing and developmental chances, ensuing in the deterioration of the predicament of destitute communities. In line with authorities ‘s precedences, this White Paper pays specific attending to the pressing demands of hapless communities in relation to both natural and human catastrophes.
Control of exigency incidents ( where incident means an unexpected sudden happening, including a major emanation, fire or detonation taking to serious danger to the populace or potentially serious pollution of or hurt to the environment, whether immediate or delayed ) is besides specifically dealt with in Chapter 7, subdivision 30 of NEMA.
An illustration at a local degree is the Durban multi-point program. The following are elements of the multi-point program:
Health Risk Assessment Study ( HRA ) and Epidemiological Study To committee a Health Risk Study ( HRA ) every bit good as an Epidemiological survey to determine the extent of the impact of air pollution on human wellness in the country. The Epidemiological Study, will follow straight on the HRA, and will get down at Island View. This is because the information and scientific information gathered during the HRA will feed into the Epidemiological Study.
Phasing out of Dirty Fuel
To cut down the usage of coal and heavy furnace oil by industry in the country, as this contributes to high degrees of particulate affair in the ambiance.
To better measuring of fleeting emanations from Tank Farms and develop guidelines for cut downing the emanations
Revision of sulfur dioxide ( SO2 ) guidelines
To revise SO2 guidelines for the Durban South country with purpose of endeavoring towards World Health Organisation guidelines.
To place the spreads and better the ambient and beginning emanation monitoring of Sulphur
Dioxide ( SO2 ) , oxides of N ( NOx ) , and volatile organic compounds ( VOCs ) in the
Strengthening of Enforcement Capabilities, through preparation and enlisting of skilled
Programs designed to cut down indoor air pollution
Clean family energy scheme
The Department of Minerals and Energy ( DME ) embarked on the execution of an Integrated Clean Household Energy Strategy initiated to control coal-based indoor and out-of-door pollution and the attendant negative impact on wellness and the environment. The scheme identified three stages to turn to residential air pollution:
( 1 ) Popularization of the Basa Njengo Magogo ( BNM ) low-smoke fire illuming method ( immediate term ) ;
( 2 ) Fabrication and distribution of an acceptable, low-cost low-smoke fuel ( average term ) ; and
( 3 ) Promotion of lodging insularity and energy efficient lodging design ( medium to long term ) .
Low-Smoke Fuels Programme
This nine-stage plan was developed to turn to the wellness and environmental concerns of firing D-grade coal, which is normally found in the South African domestic market. This coal has a lower calorific value and on burning, releases the unburned volatiles as seeable fume. Natural low-smoke coals like hard coal and thin bituminous coal are besides found in South Africa. The intercession comes after two old efforts at look intoing the potency of low fume fuels during the 1960 ‘s and 70 ‘s. In the 1970 ‘s a low-smoke range was developed, but despite good gross revenues, this enterprise was mostly unsuccessful because it was reported that users modified the burning chamber ( to better combustion ) thereby contradicting the fume suppression characteristic of this contraption. More information is provided in the ‘Technology Standardization ‘ subdivision. The multi-stage plan included the undermentioned cardinal activities: Preliminary surveies, which would take to a synthesis study ; Formulation of criterions based on the synthesis study ; Trials of low fume fuels, which were available to find proficient factors of the low-smoke fuels, such as emanation and ignitability ; find the societal acceptableness of the fuel. Following the research lab and field trial, techno-economic ratings was to be undertaken to find whether the fuels tested conformed to criterions and whether they could be economically feasible. Macro-scale experiments were to be designed to determine whether the low-smoke fuel will do an appropriate part to the decrease of air pollution to an acceptable degree. Once the viability of the low-smoke fuel was determined, preparation of policy in footings of its publicity in townships was to follow. The execution stage will be followed by policy/legislation. In add-on, an instruction and promotion run was undertaken to raise consciousness about the coal usage and coal combustion processs.
The experiments undertaken in Qalabotjha and eMbalenhle informed the chief consequences of the
Plan since 1994 as follows:
Cost: a subsidy of R416 million ( US $ 60.4 million ) p.a. would be required ; nevertheless, this figure could be reduced if all other possible market intercession is considered. It is assumed that the province would profit through increased gross because of VAT ( value added revenue enhancement ) . If consumers can be persuaded to pay more, the subsidy could be bit by bit be phased out.
Desirability: Low-smoke fuels are non every bit desirable as ordinary coal, because of hapless ignition, or hapless heat keeping, and a inclination to crumple when transported. There is an added complication, viz. that of beging support from coal merchandisers.
Effectiveness in cut downing domestic air pollution: assorted consequences, but success is deemed possible if the merchandise is farther improved.
Phase of development: no low-smoke fuel is available for all-out execution.
Basa Njengo Magogo Method
The method was named after an aged lady who was able to show the ‘top-down ‘ or
‘Scottish method ‘ of firing coal in eMbalenhle. This method was foremost introduced by the Nova Institute, a South African NGO, to the eMbalenhle community to get the better of the debilitating impacts of unhealthy indoor air.
The Basa Njengo Magogo method has a direct impact on the burning procedure of the coal, which consequences in a important decrease in seeable fume and particulates. The procedure involves adding a little measure of coal on top of the coal, newspaper, and wood ( in that order ) once the paper and wood is firing good. The thought is that the fire Burnss from the top down, impacting the burning procedure of the coal in such a manner that the particulates in coal fume are combusted, thereby cut downing fume emanations and increasing the efficiency by which coal is burned.
The pilot undertaking conducted, by Palmer Development Consulting, in the Orange Farm country in late 2003 held over 300 presentations for about 19.5 1000 families. Over 98 % of those present adopted the method and 99 % of that sum was still utilizing the method after one month. Over 75 % of the occupants of Orange Farm noticed well less fume after one month of usage. Interestingly, over 65 % of family besides noticed less fume in the streets which may bespeak that the traditional method of illuming coal fires was taking to neighborhood pollution as good. These figures indicate that hands-on presentations are a really effectual tool for conveying about behavior alteration and thereby cut downing exposure to indoor air pollution.
Assorted stakeholders have expressed strong involvement in the undertaking, and the Department of Mineral and Energy is presently in the procedure of developing a plan at the national degree. This plan will O.K. specific undertakings and supply preparations, workshops, criterions and
Son for marketing attempt.
Policy steps taken to better the quality of fuels
On 3 March 2005, Cabinet approved a cleaner fuels scheme for South Africa with consequence from January 2006 ; this will see an terminal to take being added to petrol and lower sulfur criterions for Diesel. This determination by Cabinet is portion of a procedure that will see freshly formulated fuels being introduced, which will lend to the betterment of urban air quality.
Policies advancing cleaner transit steps and engineering
The Department of Minerals and Energy, together with DEAT, are presently working on a vehicle emanations scheme aimed at modulating emanations from road-going vehicles. The immediate purpose of the scheme is to present Euro 2 emanation criterions on all new vehicles coming into the South African market as of 2006. The at hand stage out of leaded gasoline by 2006, initiated by DME will travel a long manner in heightening the aims of the scheme as this will pave the manner for the installing of emanation control engineerings such as catalytic convertors in new vehicles. The scheme besides provides for the stage out of the usage of lead-replacement metallic additives by 2010. The development of the scheme was informed by the demand to turn to air pollution from all beginnings in order to run into the constitutional authorization of guaranting air quality that is non harmful to the wellness and wellbeing of the South African population.
Specific policy steps designed to cut down the degree of lead in gasolene
A co-ordinate scheme has been established to turn to the issue of bettering urban air quality by agencies of the debut of vehicle engineering to cut down harmful vehicle emanations and the debut of fuels with improved specifications, which will enable this, improved vehicle engineering to work optimally. For this intent, a grouping has been set up, consisting the Department of Minerals and Energy, the motor makers, the oil industry and environmental involvement groups, to explicate a scheme that will ensue in the decrease of harmful vehicle emanations. This has resulted in marks being set, which include the remotion of lead from all gasoline go forthing our refineries and the decrease of sulfur in Diesel from the current 3 000ppm to 500ppm by 1 January 2006.
This enterprise means that lead will no longer be emitted to the ambiance from vehicle fumess from that clip. This will hold the consequence of well cut downing the exposure of this heavy metal to urban populations. The handiness of leadless gasoline besides enables the widespread debut of catalytic convertors on vehicle fumess. These accelerators cut down the release of other harmful emanations, such as unburned hydrocarbons, N oxides and C monoxide, by up to 90 % . The decrease in sulfur will besides cut down the release of particulates and sulfurous compounds, ensuing in farther betterments in air quality.
The remotion of lead from gasoline and the decrease in sulfur, has other advantages, apart from the environmental benefits. Unleaded gasoline can ensue in the lowering of service costs through extended fumes and flicker stopper life and drawn-out oil alteration intervals. The decrease in Diesel sulfur can besides take to improved drive public presentation, the debut of more sophisticated engine engineering and drawn-out oil alteration intervals.
However the remotion of lead and decrease of sulfur comes at a cost. To accomplish the 2006 Clean Fuels marks, the South African refineries are expected to pass in the order of R10 billion for equipment ascents and procedure alterations – a considerable cost which can non be straight recouped by the oil companies.
Another issue is the care of a suited octane class construction without the usage of lead.
As from 1 January 2006, oil companies may market the leadless octane classs of 91, 93 and 95 both inland and at the seashore. The classs really marketed in the different parts will depend on the demands and market demands in each part. The National Association of Automobile Manufacturers of South Africa ( Naamsa ) , will, together with Sapia, be printing a list of vehicles presently on South African roads. The list will name the octane classs that each theoretical account can utilize and which octane class best suits each theoretical account, so that automobilists will be able to make up one’s mind which octane class to purchase. Government has indicated that it intends to present an extra levy on 95 octane unleaded gasoline in the inland countries to promote automobilists non to utilize a class higher than the 1 they need. Each vehicle theoretical account is designed to utilize a certain octane class scope, and the usage of a higher class will non better public presentation.
The Naamsa/Sapia ( South African Petroleum Industry Organisation ) list of vehicle theoretical accounts will besides bespeak which theoretical accounts need to utilize lead replacing gasoline ( LRP ) . There is no uncertainty that the remotion of lead from gasoline and the decrease of Diesel sulfur to 500ppm, together with the improved engine engineering, will ensue in a important decrease in harmful vehicle emanations. Further betterments in the fuel specifications are presently being discussed for 2008 and 2010. These farther fuel alterations will non hold such a dramatic consequence on bettering urban air quality as the 2006 marks but will however help the motor makers to utilize improved engine engineering and enhance engine efficiency.
Economic and market-based inducements to run into national air quality ends
The Integrated Pollution and Waste Management ( IP & A ; WM ) policy refers to market base instruments while AQA lineations two specific instruments, viz. acknowledgment programmes and trading strategies. Last, National Treasury completed a treatment papers turn toing air pollution levies in which user charges and emanation revenue enhancements are provided.
Nature and impacts of transboundary air pollution
International duties and understandings are covered in chapter 6 of NEMA and besides chapter 6 of the NEM: Air Quality Act. South Africa has acknowledged its good neighbourly purposes by subscribing and adhering to international understandings.
The Air Pollution Information Network for Africa ( APINA ) has been established to turn to issues related to air pollution. APINA is a regional web of scientists, policy-makers and nongovernmental organisations in southern Africa. Similar webs have been established in Asia ( APINAP ) and Latin America ( APINLA ) . These activities form portion of a Programme on Atmospheric Environment Issues in Developing States coordinated by the Stockholm Environment Institute ( SEI ) and funded by the Swedish International Development Cooperation Agency ( Sida ) under a undertaking entitled “ Regional Air Pollution in Developing Countries ( RAPIDC ) . The chief function of APINA is to organize a strong nexus between the air pollution scientific community and policy shapers at national and regional degrees. APINA acts as a conduit of Knowledge and informations derived in scientific programmes and bing research to influence policy and decision-makers in affairs related to air pollution. APINA aims to move as a nexus between different webs and programmes on air pollution in Africa.
APINA has a Memorandum of Understanding with the Environment and Land Management
Sector ( ELMS ) of SADC to supply support on assorted issues refering air pollution in SADC. The programme elements of the Memorandum of Understanding between APINA and SADC are as follows:
1. Appraisal of air pollution in southern Africa:
Collate information of emanation degrees, impacts, monitoring activities, develop appraisal theoretical accounts
List of ongoing and historical information on monitoring
2. Development of SADC air pollution guidelines and criterions through engagement of stakeholders:
National workshops of stakeholders
Policy Development: Facilitate development of national and regional statute law guidelines on transboundary air pollution
4. Develop capacity in southern Africa on monitoring and extenuation of transboundary air pollution:
Training of SADC subjects in issues of air pollution
Acquisition of relevant equipment and package for usage in air pollution monitoring, impact anticipation and related activities
5. Promotion of national action programmes to battle air pollution:
Generating information on air pollution from motor vehicles, indoor cookery ( utilizing wood ) and making consciousness
National stakeholder workshops
6. Information Dissemination:
Structures to be used in informations and information sharing e.g. web site, newssheet,
Creation of assorted databases
7. Networking: Associate up with relevant persons, establishments and administrations at national, Regional and international degrees involved in issues of air pollution Greenhouse gas emanations and their part to planetary clime alteration are an of import transboundary air pollution issue. Although the bulk of the universe ‘s nursery gas emanations are emitted by industrialised states, the impacts of clime alteration are predicted to fall disproportionately on developing states and the hapless in peculiar. South Africa is clearly vulnerable to a scope of clime alteration impacts including H2O scarceness, biodiversity loss, agricultural and wellness impacts. Therefore it is indispensable that version schemes are developed to get by with these assorted impacts in locally appropriate ways.
Eskom has contributed to research conducted in southern Africa on the thermodynamic construction of the ambiance and regional graduated table air flows. The haze bed, which often occurs over the southern African part, is comprised of the emanation merchandises from flora fires and Aeolian dust, frequently being transported into South Africa from neighboring states, blending with the burning derived sulphur aerosols from the industries located on the South African Highveld.
This stuff can re-circulate over the full southern African part and, under certain fortunes ; it is besides transported to remote parts of the African continent and beyond. Although the industrial constituent is important, however, even in its absence the transboundary migration of air pollution would still happen often.
Capacity-Building, Information, Research and Development
NGOs play an of import function in raising public consciousness on clime alteration issues in South
Africa. SACAN in peculiar has worked with the media and others to construct a broader apprehension of this issue both by the public and policy shapers. More can be done to recognize synergisms with authorities activities and to guarantee that NGO and authorities attempts are reciprocally reenforcing, particularly including carry throughing committednesss to taking stakeholder input in the development of public information and educational stuffs on board.
Handiness of informations refering: a ) the impacts of air pollution on human wellness and ecosystems ; and B ) the degrees of pollution in different industries.
The demand for a cardinal location for informations storage of all exposure, demographic and wellness informations is important in South Africa every bit good as the demand to harmonise local authorities air quality supervising systems to guarantee compatibility.
Although there has been some research in South Africa on the impacts of clime alteration on
Bio-diversity, for illustration in the Western Cape, more research is needed to increase certainty on the scope of impacts that can be expected including on human wellness and ecosystems, peculiarly as new informations becomes available. This would besides assists with the development of version schemes to get by with predicted alterations.
Under ICLEI ‘s ( International Council for Local Environmental Initiatives ) Cities for Climate
Protection enterprise, a figure of local authoritiess ( for illustration, Johannesburg, Cape Town, Ekurhuleni, Ethikweni ) is take parting to accomplish mensurable decreases in the emanations that cause air pollution and planetary heating. To take part in the Cities for Climate Protection, local authoritiess commit to accomplish 5 mileposts:
Conduct baseline stock list and emanations forecast ;
Set emanation decrease end ;
Develop action program ;
Implement emanation decrease steps ;
Monitor consequences achieved.
The quantification of externalized costs of the energy supply system must still be addressed.
Capacity to transport out air scattering mold.
Although there is some capacity in research establishments to transport out air scattering mold, sufficient accomplishments are limited.
Programs designed to increase citizens ‘ consciousness about the impacts of
indoor air pollution
The multi-cultural dimension of the South African society represents a peculiar challenge to develop culturally appropriate wellness publicity messages for implement intercession execution. A important 4.6 million South Africans aged 20 old ages and older have no formal schooling with an extra 4.1 million holding some primary school instruction ( Statistics South Africa, Census 2001 ) . More than 8 million South Africans may therefore non be able to profit from wellness publicity stuff that is designed for the more educated population.
See subdivision 1.4.3 on the Basa Njengo Magogo method.
R & A ; D programmes in the countries of: atmospheric conditions ; air quality direction ; air pollution control engineering ; clean fuels engineering ; environmental economic sciences ; environmental impact appraisal ; and remote detection.
South Africa launched its National Cleaner Production Centre ( NCPC ) at the WSSD in 2002. For farther item, see subdivision C4, 4,1 in the Industrial subdivision.
The Ethekwini ( Greater Durban ) Municipality is sing utilizing gas from three of its landfill sites to bring forth electricity for the metropolis. The undertaking, which seeks to tackle biomass energy in order to cut down harmful emanations into the ambiance, is in line with South Africa ‘s confirmation of the Kyoto Protocol and its support of the execution of a Clean Development Mechanism. The undertaking is expected to bring forth up to 10 Megawatts of electricity, or plenty fuel to light 9 000 places, from the three landfill sites at Bisasar Road, Mariannhill and La Mercy. Electricity generated by the landfill sites could be injected straight into the municipality ‘s power grid and aid cut back on the sum of coal burnt at power Stationss that serve the metropolis. Equally much as 80 000 dozenss of coal could be saved per twelvemonth, which would otherwise hold been burned and added to the nursery gases that are already emitted to the ambiance.
Financing for related programmes from bilateral or many-sided beginnings
The South African Government has ratified the Kyoto Protocol and subscribes to the ideals of the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change as mentioned in assorted National Communications to the UN. The UNFCCC urges concerted attempts by interested Parties to the Convention in order to positively address clime alteration via its political plenary the Conference of the Parties, which utilizes the acceptance of the Kyoto Protocol as its execution instrument. The Kyoto Protocol is an international instrument that provides for specific concerted mechanisms that can be used to accomplish the emanation decreases required in the developed states. One of these, the Clean Development Mechanism ( CDM ) , allows developed and developing states to work together to accomplish the aims of the Protocol.
Attracting CDM investing is regarded as a competitory procedure, which mirrors attempts of pulling Foreign Direct Investment ( FDI ) . Beyond the environmental aims of the Convention, the CDM nowadayss South Africa with an chance to help in run intoing varied domestic aims. The cardinal countries of involvement for South Africa associating to CDM are to use the CDM to leverage foreign investing ( and therefore create employment chances ) in the sectors that may be able to accomplish emanation decreases, use CDM investing to advance assorted policy enterprises that could besides lend to emission decreases, use the CDM to leverage the transportation of engineering that could underpin the accomplishment of policy aims associating to increased fight and value add-on.
Incentives have a function to play in assorted countries of CDM execution. These include lowering costs associated with the Undertaking Activity Cycle such as set uping baseline methodological analysiss, new methodological analysiss, monitoring costs, proof and confirmation, undertaking enrollment, environmental impact appraisal. These costs could be offset by strategies such as the fight heightening inducements and grants included in the chief financess such as the Competitiveness Fund ( CF ) , & A ; the Sector Partnership Fund ( SPF ) . These strategies are designed to help houses better their fight by using better environmental patterns or better their advanced ability via engineering development. Ongoing costs for monitoring could besides be offset by these strategies. The current preparation grants can be provided to services sector houses via the services Skills Education & A ; Training Authorities ( SETA ) for the acquisition of new accomplishments by houses seeking to come in new countries of service e.g. for DoE ‘s to get accomplishments.
Many policy countries that advocate subsidies, which could with investing support strategies improve the fringy nature of many CDM undertakings. The investing incentives that could be accessed include those targeted at investings under R100m such as the SMME Development Programme, or the Strategic Investment Project strategy for undertakings bigger than this, which meet standards set out for eligible undertakings. Other discriminatory funding theoretical accounts available from IDC and DBSA ( particularly PCF funding ) offer chances for investing finance. The being of strategies such as the Umsobomvu Youth Fund, Risk Capital Facility, and NEF ventures funding can besides be targeted by CDM undertakings. Accessing engineering and heightening support is possible via strategies such as the Technology Innovation Schemes ( Support Program for Industrial Innovation ( SPII ) , Partnership for Industrial Innovation ( PII ) , Technology Human Resource in Industry Programme ( THRIP ) , & A ; Innovation Fund ) . These strategies would therefore be available for undertakings involved in advanced engineering activities in the CDM sphere. The Export Marketing Investment Assistance strategy can be utilized to help in export support activities for CDM undertakings could besides take down dealing costs.
The Danish Government through Danida is supplying significant support for the National Air
Quality Management Programme ( specifically phases 2 but besides committed significant support for stage 3 ) . The Norse Government through Norad supports the Multi point program in Durban and USAID have supplied limited support.
Attempts to set up or take part in regional, many-sided or bilateral understandings to turn to transboundary air pollution concerns
Certain international understandings impose specific demands on South Africa. Besides see subdivision 1.7 discoursing the Air Pollution Information Network for Africa ( APINA ) , which has been established to turn to issues related to air pollution.
Some of the international pacts to which South Africa is a party relate specifically to the pollution of H2O, air and land environments ; others are of a cross-cutting nature and impact on all three environmental media. To day of the month, 26 international understandings ( 17 conventions, 4 protocols, 3 pacts and 2 understandings ) pertain to integrated pollution and waste direction, 19 of which have been acceded to or ratified by South Africa.
Case survey of a successful national atmosphere/air pollution Programme / scheme
The job or issue addressed:
The South Industrial Basin is the economic heartland of the Durban Metropolitan Area ( DMA ) . It contributes over 40 % of Durban ‘s gross geographic merchandise and occupies over 50 % of the industrial land in the metropolis. It is besides environmentally degraded, sing air pollution and waste disposal jobs, and the loss of of import natural resources The South Durban Basin is a to a great extent industrialised country with some important air pollution jobs. There are more than 100 mills in the country, many of which emit important volumes of emanations. South Durban has the largest concentration of petrochemical industries in the state, and it refines about 60 per centum of South Africa ‘s crude oil.
Apart from being overwhelmed with petrochemical companies, the South Durban industrial basin is besides place to blow H2O intervention works, an airdrome, a paper fabrication works and a figure of chemical procedure industries. This state of affairs has undermined the quality of life of residential communities in the country. It has besides negatively impacted on the fight of the concern environment. The close interface between residential and industrial activities in the country has besides created tensenesss between residential communities, local authorities and industry sing future development in the country.
Name of the programme:
South Durban Basin Multi-point Plan
The program is aimed at supervising the concentration of air pollution mostly in the South Durban industrial basin. When the program was foremost implemented in 2000, merely four monitoring Stationss were put up and soon there are 16 that screen non merely the refinery vale in south Durban, but other industrial countries, the metropolis Centre and a few outlying countries.
Year started: 2000
Ongoing, since October 2000
The chief aims of the Durban Multi-Point Plan are to decide the air quality issues in the basin through:
Developing a comprehensive air quality monitoring system in the basin, a wellness survey and an air quality direction program to inform the planning and development blessing procedure and aid to decide some of the air quality jobs in the country.
To supply an improved and incorporate determination devising model for air pollution direction at local authorities degree.
To accomplish improved quality of life for the local communities and travel towards decrease in air pollution to run into wellness based air quality criterions.
A wellness hazard analysis and epidemiological survey to measure extend of impact of air pollution on human wellness ;
Phasing out soiled fuel by cut downing the use of coal and heavy furnace oil ;
Improve measuring and control of fleeting emanations from armored combat vehicle farms and develop guidelines for local execution ;
Revision of national sulfur dioxide ( SO2 ) guidelines with the purpose of endeavoring towards World Health Organization criterions to be besides applied at local degree ;
Identify spreads and better the ambient and beginning emanation monitoring of sulfur dioxide
( SO2 ) , oxides of N ( Nox ) and volatile organic compounds ( VOC ‘s ) in the country ; and
Strengthening of the enforcement capablenesss.
Other execution agreements and stakeholders involved
The CSIR has been commissioned by the eThekwini Municipality to look into National and
International best patterns in Air Pollution Management. This will be used for the development of local by -laws on Air Pollution Management.
Community and Industry Stakeholders take part in capacity edifice enterprises.
DEAT has developed statute law ( AQA ) meant to put air pollution criterions.It is besides set uping the National Framework for Air Pollution Management every bit good as criterions for vehicle tail pipe emanations.
DEAT is involved with the South African National Standards Body to suggest bound values for the precedence air pollutants.
Norse Institute for Air Research, the Norse Pollution Control Authority and the
Canadian Sustainable Cities Initiative
The consequences achieved
The South Durban Basin, located on the eastern seaside of South Africa, has a mix of heavy industrial activity and residential colonies in close propinquity. In response to many decennaries of battle for cleaner air, an inter-governmental procedure established the air quality monitoring web as one of many strategic undertakings within the Multi-point Plan for the basin. The program is aimed at bettering air quality to run into wellness based standards. The chief aim of the web is to supply a quantitative step of air quality and supply a agency of confirmation for the scattering mold system. The web was designed by an adept squad from the eThekwini Health Department under the proficient counsel of NILU, the Norse Institute for Air Research.
The push of the Multi-Point Plan ( MPP ) is the development of the Air Quality Management System ( AQMS ) which finally will demo the linkages between emanations and ambient concentrations ( i.e. pollution degrees on the land ) . This is being achieved by an air-dispersion mold system and an air quality monitoring web. Once the linkages have been established, the AQMS can be used as a planning tool to pull off air quality. A successful air quality direction program constitutes two indispensable elements: equal quality controlled informations to stand for air quality tendencies and an enforceable regulative system. If the air quality degrees are above the air quality objective or criterion, so it would be imperative to set up an AQMS as in the instance of the South Durban Basin. Through a system of target-setting, measurings and coverage, it is intended to drive down pollution degrees within the model of an environmental direction system and utilizing a uninterrupted betterment attack.
The eThekwini Municipality now has a working air quality monitoring web as a concrete result of the Multi-point Plan. The web began bring forthing information in December 2003. Since March 2004, real-time information entree has been possible in the eThekwini Health Department through dedicated information lines and the Envidas informations acquisition system. This development represents a quadruple addition in supervising capacity. Further, the handiness of informations to authorities in existent clip is a important betterment as it facilitates efficient decision-making. Raw information is subjected to assorted degrees of quality control to guarantee truth is maintained and the system operates optimally. Durban has now become a learning Centre in the development of an integrated air quality web, and thoughts are now being conceptualized to associate the air quality information system to the regulative system such as in the design of licenses and directives.
The entire undertaking budget for the MPP is R29.8 million, the subscribers being industry ( R10 million, proposed ) and three grades of authorities ( R17.7 million ) . Over the six months to November 2004, about two-thirds of industry ‘s support was secured. However, 24 companies have agreed to lend R9.4 million, with the staying R0.6 million expected to be sourced from assorted little to medium emitters in the basin. Each company ‘s part was in LOCATIONS OF AIR MONITORING AND METEOROLOGICAL STATIONS proportion to the sum of precedence pollutants that they are breathing, and the extent that this could hold a wellness impact. Geting local industries to co-fund the execution of the program and the procedure of prosecuting with top direction in industry are seen as of import discoveries for the program.
In footings of capacity edifice, a dedicated squad of people within the eThekwini Health Department is working on the assorted facets of the air quality direction system. Work countries include constructing up emanation stock lists, trying for benzine and H sulfide, runing the AirQUIS package, supplying IT support and developing theoretical account licenses. These developments have been possible due to coaction with the Norse Institute for Air Research, the Norse Pollution Control Authority and the Canadian Sustainable Cities Initiative. The purpose within authorities is to hold this cognition base applied to other air pollution hot musca volitanss in the eThekwini Municipality and to portion it with other municipalities in South Africa. An emerging focal point in edifice capacity to better environmental quality is to look to cleaner production methods to cut down emanations and costs, and better environmental public presentation.
Monitoring schools: Seven primary schools, four in the South Durban Basin and three in the northern suburbs of Durban, have been selected for intensive pollutant and bio-medical monitoring. Until November 2004, there had been three intensive informations aggregation tallies at each of the schools ; each tally runs for a period of two hebdomads. In add-on to the monitoring, there are student and parent interviews, indoor air monitoring and specialised monitoring for toxics such as dioxins, furans and a scope of volatile organic compounds.
A new internet-based coverage system has been developed to ease public entree to information about air quality. Designed by eThekwini Health and the Norse Institute for Air Research, NILU, the system publishes air quality informations for the different pollutants measured at the different Stationss. The populace can do an appraisal of air quality by sing user-friendly graphical shows of concentration tendencies against air quality guidelines and a comparative appraisal can besides be made between different Stationss. The system besides generates concentration profiles over clip and produces a colour-coded index on the province of air quality. The reference for the municipality ‘s air quality web site: www2.nilu.no/airquality/
The relationship of the programme to internationally hold ends and marks
Relation to the Johannesburg Plan of Implementation, subdivision 4 paragraph 39 which calls for provinces to heighten cooperation at the international, regional and national degrees to cut down air pollution, including transboundary air pollution, acerb deposition and ozone depletion, bearing in head the Rio rules, including, inter alia, the rule that, in position of the different parts to planetary environmental debasement, and subdivision 6 paragraph 56 naming for the decrease of respiratory diseases and other wellness impacts ensuing from air pollution, with peculiar attending to adult females and kids.