1. In 1500. the universe had all different societies. gatherers and huntsmans to imperiums. but it was different 2. Paleolithic Persistence a ) assemblage and runing societies ( Paleolithic peoples ) still existed throughout the universe but they had changed over clip B ) b. had new & A ; improved engineerings and thoughts. e. g. . outrigger canoes. fish maulerss. etc ( had non adopted agribusiness ) degree Celsius ) exchanged goods over 100s of stat mis and developed sophisticated sculpture and stone picture and northwest seashore of North America developed really otherwise 3. Agricultural Village Societies

a ) predominated in much of North America. in Africa South of the equator. in parts of the Amazon River basin and Southeast Asia B ) their societies largely avoided oppressive authorization. category inequalities ( forested part in contemporary southern Nigeria – 3 political ) degree Celsius ) Dahomey: centralised province ruled by a warrior male monarch. EwuareP vitamin D ) Igbo: heavy population and trade. and rejected kingship and province edifice vitamin E ) Yoruba. Benin. and Igbo peoples traded among themselves and beyond 4. Agricultural small town societies went through alteration in the centuries before 1500 a ) population growing. outgrowth of distinguishable peoples

B ) rise of warfare as cardinal to male prestige -creation of the Iroquois alliance degree Celsius ) some European settlers appreciated Iroquois values of societal equality and personal freedom ( even for adult females ) agribusiness. depose officeholders5.

5. Herding Peopless of the a ) Turkic warrior Timur tried to reconstruct the Mongol Empire ca. 1400 but ended up annihilating Russia. Persia. and India B ) his replacements kept control of the country between Persia and Afghanistan for a century degree Celsius ) Timur’s conquering was the last great military success of Central Asian nomads vitamin D ) the steppe nomads’ fatherland was swallowed up in spread outing Russian and Chinese imperium 6. African pastoralists -independent from imperiums ( Fulbe -West Africa’s largest pastoral society ) 7. migration after 1000 c. e. ( little communities among agriculturists ) a ) adopted Islam B ) some moved to towns and became leaders c ) jehads -created new provinces ruled by the Fulbe

2 ) Civilizations of the Fifteenth Century: Comparing China and Europe a ) bulk of the world’s population lived within a major civilisation. B ) China had been severely disrupted by Mongol regulation and the pestilence and recovered under the Ming dynasty ( 1368–1644 ) i. Confucian acquisition

1 ) Emperor Yongle ( r. 1402–1422 ) sum uping all the wisdom of the past and reestablished the civil service scrutiny system ( centralised authorities ) 2 ) Chinese crewmans and bargainers had become of import in the South China Sea and in Southeast Asiatic ports in the 11th century vitamin D ) Emperor Yongle commissioned a monolithic fleet ; launched in 1405 vitamin E ) Admiral Zheng ried to inscribe peoples in the testimonial system degree Fahrenheit ) no purpose of suppressing new districts. set uping Chinese colonies. or spreading civilization

3 ) Chinese authorities suddenly stopped the ocean trips in 1433 g ) Chinese merchandisers and craftsmen continued to settle and merchandise in Japan. Philippines. Taiwan. and Southeasterly Asia. ( without authorities support ) 3 ) European Comparisons: State Building and Cultural Renewal 1. a similar procedure of demographic recovery. consolidation etc 2. 2. European population began to lift once more ca. 1450 a ) province edifice fragmented -independent and competitory provinces 3. the Renascence: renewal of classical Greek traditions 4. began in the commercial metropoliss of Italy ca. 1350–1500 5. . greater involvement in the person and in accurate word picture of the worl 4 ) European Comparisons: Maritime Voyaging

1. Lusitanian ocean trips of find began in 1415
2. 1492: Columbus reached the Americas
3. 1497–1498: Vasco da Gama sailed about Africa to India 4. European ocean trips -small compared to Chinese 1s a ) unlike the Chinese ocean trips. Europeans were seeking wealth in Crusades against Islam 7. Chinese ocean trips ended ; European 1s kept intensifying a. no political authorization in Europe to stop the ocean trips b. competition between provinces = more geographic expedition

c. China had everything it needed ; Europeans wanted the greater wealths of the East 5 ) Civilizations of the Fifteenth Century: The Islamic World 1. Islamic universe +four major provinces or imperiums. Took procedure of within and beyond new provinces 2. In the Islamic Heartland: The Ottoman and Safavid Empires 3. Ottoman Empire lasted from fourteenth to early 20th century ( immense district ) A. grand Turks claimed the rubric “caliph” and the bequest of the Abbasids ( attempt to convey new integrity to the Islamic universe 4. Ottoman aggression toward Christian ( autumn of Constantinople in 145 -1529 besieging of Vienna ) Europeans feared Turkish enlargement 5. Safavid Empire emerged in Persia from a Sufi spiritual order -empire was established shortly after 1500 6. Sunni Ottoman Empire and Shia Safavid Empire fought between 1534 and 1639

1 ) On the Frontiers of Islam: The Songhay and Mughal Empires 1. 1. Songhay Empire rose in West Africa in the 2nd half of the 15th century a. Islam was limited mostly to urban elites. b. Sonni Ali ( r. 1465–1492 ) followed Muslim patterns. but was besides regarded as a prestidigitator with an invisibleness appeal ( centre of Islamic learning/trade ) 2. Mughal Empire in India was created by Turkic group that invaded India in 1526 b. over the 16th century. Mughals gained control of most of India.

3. The age of these four great Muslim imperiums is sometimes called a “second blossoming of Islam. new age of energy. prosperity. and cultural glare 4. spread of Islam to new countries. such as Southeast Asia 2 ) spread by going merchandisers. supported by Sufi holy work forces 6 ) rise of Malacca as a mark of the times—became a major Muslim port metropolis in the 15th centuryMalaccan Islam blended with Hindu/Buddhist traditions ( Islamic acquisition ) Civilizations of the Fifteenth Century: The America

a ) Both the Aztec and the Inca imperiums were established by once-marginal peoples who took over and captive older civilizations. ( Both imperiums were destroyed by the Spaniards ) B ) The Aztec Empire a seminomadic people who migrated due south from northern Mexico degree Celsius ) Aztec Empire was a slackly structured. unstable conquering province ( population of 5–6 million d. local and long-distance trade on a huge graduated table ( included slaves ) 1 ) professional merchandisers ( pochteca ) became rich a. human forfeit much more outstanding in Aztec Empire than in earlier Mesoamerica 2 ) b. Tlacaelel is credited with the of province giving human forfeit such importance Aztec Empire’s intent is to keep the cosmic order by providing blood for the Gods ocean trade in the West Atlantic/Indian Ocean picked up VII.

A Preview of Approaching Attractions: Looking Ahead to the Modern Era ( 1500–2000 ) A. No fifteenth-century connexions were genuinely planetary. 1. those came merely with European enlargement in the 16th century 2. 1500–2000: inextricable linking of the universes of Afro-Eurasia. the Americas. and Pacific Oceania B. “Modern” human society emerged foremost in Europe in the 19th century and so throughout the universe. 1. nucleus characteristic: industrialisation 2. accompanied by monolithic population addition C. The prominence of European peoples on the planetary phase grew 1. . Western Europe became the most advanced. 2. spread of European linguistic communications and Christian faith throughout the universe