These objects are frequently overlooked and are no longer noticed for their form, coloring material or design as they have become mundane and hold blended into the background of mundane life. My purpose in set abouting this undertaking is to do people more cognizant of the objects around them. I will plan my street furniture to non be objects that are overlooked but objects in the street that people who take more involvement in and appreciate non merely what they are making at that place but the aesthetics of them. I will besides be researching into one of the longest ongoing arguments in design ; which is more of import, signifier or map? Timo Salli a interior decorator, and the Professor and caput of the Applied Art and Design maestro ‘s degree programme in the Aalto University School of Art and Design, believes that our places are saturated with objects that we no longer notice and his purpose is to make a more direct and meaningful contact between people and furniture ( Taschen, 2003 ) .


Street furniture is to do day-to-day activities of the public easier and more comfy, for illustration, street visible radiations to assist people to see at dark, coach Michigans so people can rest and remain dry when waiting for a coach, park bench to loosen up when walking in the park or to sit down and look up to a position, bins to avoid littering, bitts to command traffic flow or unafraid foot waies and other countries.

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I will be researching types of street furniture which are encountered mundane by critically analyzing and measuring the design of each object/product and so make up one’s minding whether the existent design of the merchandise has focused entirely on the map and non so much on the overall signifier or it.

“ There have been many tendencies in Industrial design. The most common is the strictly functionalist attack which exposed elements of the basic construction as the prevailing ocular subject, ensuing in an impersonal expression, a neutrality of look. ” ( Dondis, 1973, p. 170 )

By saying this Dondis ( 1973 ) believes that the signifier of a merchandise is overlooked and hence argues that the map is more of import. The Bauhaus school of design operated from 1919 to 1933 before its closing. Bauhaus had a great impact on the design universe so and to this twenty-four hours still influences many interior decorators in all facets of design from architecture to merchandise design and even to creative persons. The Bauhaus motion and design school became famously known for the phrase ‘function over signifier ‘ . This was believed in the design school and the interior decorators so started to radically simplify signifiers and focused on functionality so their designs could be machined which would so take to mass production. The phrase ‘function over signifier ‘ can be seen in many designed merchandises today and these designs will be about basic and to an extent really simplistic but will make their occupation or map absolutely. It may non look really good but will work really good. For me personally as a interior decorator I do like to believe about the map of something being more of import than the signifier but I do n’t believe I would utilize it for everything I design. I would utilize it where I feel it would be good to my design.


The signifier of an object or merchandise is something which is peculiarly of import to me as a interior decorator. I believe that the overall signifier of the merchandise is what makes it stand out from others. Bauhaus believed that map follows signifier. In an essay entitled ‘Tall Office Building Artistically Considered ‘ ( 1896 ) by American designer, Louis H. Sullivan wrote,

“ It is the permeating jurisprudence of all things organic, and inorganic, of all things physical and metaphysical, of all things human and all things super-human, of all true manifestations of the caput of the bosom, of the psyche, that life is recognizable in its look, that signifier of all time follows map. This is the jurisprudence. ” ( Heskett, 2005, p. 24 )

Sullivan wrote this essay before the Bauhaus design motion was formed and believed that signifier was more of import that the map of an object. In the same essay he besides states “ It could be argued that signifier must so follow map. ” ( Heskett, 2005, p. 24 ) . His thought was formed on Darwin ‘s theory of development and the procedure he called natural choice which is about the endurance of the fittest. Heskett ( 2005 ) believes that “ Sullivan ‘s construct became encapsulated in the pronouncement ‘Form follows map ‘ ; it is possible to talk of an alternate pronouncement: ‘Form follows fiction ‘ . ” ( p.25 ) . Heskett ( 2005 ) reiterates this by stating “ In other words, in contrast to the universe of nature, human life is often inspired and motivated by dreams and aspirations instead than merely practicality. ” ( p. 25 ) .

This subject ‘form over map ‘ or ‘function over signifier ‘ is a problematic subject throughout design and every individual interior decorator will be able to give you their sentiment of the most of import facet to see when designing or even that signifier and map are equal.

However there are nevertheless aesthetic grounds for leting interior decorators to make these merchandises as they are to go portion of the mundane environment for the populace that they must accommodate the environment, look good and be enjoyed. I believe that in my undertaking I will be planing my street furniture with no prejudice to organize or map but will make up one’s mind through my research and thought coevals which one would be more suitable to my designing. This will be decided on many factors such as the cost of planing and doing, the stuffs used, the place or placing of the street furniture, the complexness of the design and what point of street furniture I will really be planing.

Sustainable Design

In recent old ages ‘green design ‘ has moved from being a periphery topic to being one of the most to a great extent discussed and talked about countries in the design universe. I believe that as a hereafter interior decorator, sustainable design should be a cardinal portion of any interior decorators thought procedure non merely at the start of a undertaking but must remain in the interior decorators mind throughout the whole design procedure.

“ Green design can slackly be defined in footings of a set of aims: to cut down of usage of non-renewable resources, both in the fabrication procedure and in the finished object itself ; to minimise the environmental impact of the merchandise during and after its utile life. ” ( Fairs, 2008, p. 8 )

There are nevertheless restraints when planing street furniture these are the cost, stuffs used, location, planning, every bit good as the wellness and safety environing each piece of street furniture. These subjects are overlooked rather frequently but when you are planing for sustainability these subjects come to the head and should be greatly appreciated and treated with cautiousness. For case, the stuffs you choose to fabricate something from should be inexpensive to bring forth, hold a long life span, can and should be reclaimable with the possibility of being made into another merchandise or the same merchandise once more. In many instances planing for sustainability can besides hold its defects ; it can restrict the interior decorator to peculiar stuffs. This means that non merely the concluding result is green but the whole procedure of planing from the interior decorators initial thoughts to the research and development phases. Health and safety of my proposed designs are of precedence on my docket for this undertaking as I will hold to take into consideration a figure of points when planing such as ; the placement of each single piece of street furniture and where it is precisely traveling to be designed for. Other points which will be taken into consideration throughout the design procedure and research development are ; the stuffs used in my design ; how people may or may non interact with it ; the existent signifier of my design and whether or non it has crisp borders or points.


As of Wednesday 20th October 2010 the new alliance authorities announced their four-year Spending Review to parliament. I have been taking a acute involvement in what consequence these disbursement cuts will hold on communities and local authoritiess and to see whether these cut will hold a damaging consequence on the support that councils will hold on my chosen undertaking country, street furniture.

I will besides seek to research into the companies who deal straight with the local governments and councils in providing the street furniture, the designing and fabrication of each single piece of street furniture and the general care of it. I am cognizant this may be hard in achieving this research and specific countries such as the cost of each single point of street furniture to the council and the cost to plan and fabricate each piece.

I have besides looked at the Department of Communities and Local Government ( DCLG ) which is the Government section responsible for the production and update of National Planning Policies. These are set out in Planing Policy Statements ( PPSs ) . I have read the Planning Policy Statement 1: Delivering Sustainable Development ( 2005 ) . This sets out the authorities ‘s planning policies and demand of high quality design. These policies are set out in three different degrees, a national degree, a regional degree and a local degree.

The planning of street furniture is something that many people do non even see as they the objects are merely at that place. These objects will hold been positioned the manner they have to enable the populace to acquire the best usage out of it as possible. For illustration the placement of street lighting will hold been a thorough program to see where the visible radiations should be positioned so they give the best visible radiation as possible to people either walking on pathwaies or driving along roads. This is the same for siting. The seats will hold been planned to be positioned where they are for a figure of grounds such as to be in a convenient topographic point for resting, a topographic point to sit and look up to a position or to acquire the individual siting on the place to look a specific manner.

Research methods

In order to make my concluding pieces of street furniture for the populace to appreciate I must foremost carry on research. I will besides guarantee that I have full ethical clearance prior to shiping my research. I aim to utilize the undermentioned methods nevertheless, with all little graduated table research theoretical accounts there is much to see and take into history ; such as prejudice, observer/interviewer affect, qualitative vs. quantitative informations, representation and sampling, and cryptography of the informations collected.

A reappraisal of relevant literature will show recurrent subjects which will so organize the footing of inquiries for usage in questionnaires and semi-structured interviews with professionals in the field. Questionnaires will be a combination of unfastened and closed inquiries. I aim to fly the questionnaires in order to clear up the inquiries asked and to avoid inquiring any prima inquiries. The sample for the questionnaires will be members of the populace at random. The questionnaires I will be bring forthing will be of sound ethical pick and will be anon. for the privateness of all participants.

I besides aim to aim the younger coevals and perchance accommodate a questionnaire so it can be aimed at school kids from the ages 9-16. This will besides give me a wider scope of positions and sentiments on my chosen subject and would so assist me to foster my research and besides give me an advantage when planing as I will hold considered the following coevals whilst planing. In order to manus the questionnaires out in a school schoolroom will necessitate a CRB Criminal Record cheque. This is a drawn-out procedure which will besides be money to finish this background cheque and by making this may keep up my undertaking so as a consequence of this the questionnaires will be handed out by instructors that I personally know. I will besides hold to acquire parental consent from each kid who will be taking portion in my questionnaire. I will type a missive and give transcripts to the instructor so he/she can personally give these out to the kids in the schoolroom or even manus them straight to the parent or defender of every kid in their category. These instructors are two primary school instructors and a secondary school instructor. By utilizing kids from different age groups and degrees of ability this should give me a broad scope of research and possible thoughts and inspiration for planing for the following coevals.

I aim to interview a figure of people, for illustration ; furniture interior decorators, merchandise and industrial interior decorators, local councils and/or governments and the makers of street furniture. The interviews will follow a set of inquiries nevertheless, due to the nature of a semi-structured interview these may non be asked in sequence or in their entireness. Furthermore experimental research will take topographic point in the signifier of exposure of current street furniture and conceptual designs. These exposures may be used as inquiry prompts during interviews and/or questionnaires.

When analyzing the information collected it is imperative to retrieve that it is an reading of the informations by a individual individual and non a representation of the sentiment of the populace at big. This is due to the nature of this little graduated table research theoretical account. For illustration when coding the responses to the interviews and questionnaires to avoid prejudice, and uphold the unity of the research. Coding besides supports the cogency and dependability of the informations collected.

The anticipated subthemes which may happen as a consequence of the above research could be: linked design countries ( for illustration ; interior, industrial, furniture and architecture ) , design tendencies and popular civilization, Local Authority support to the specific country in visible radiation of recent governmental alteration and proposed fiscal cuts within the public sector and commissioned designs.


Overall my chief purpose in this undertaking is to do pieces of street furniture more interesting so that they stand out and can be admired for their signifier every bit good as being successful at their map. I aim to alter the sentiments of the populace so that they appreciate both signifier and map of mundane street furniture around them. These should non been known as ‘objects ‘ but as sculptures or single pieces of graphics for the populace to hold entree excessively and to look up to and appreciate the occupation that they are making. My designs will non be suited for the 21st century and would non look out of topographic point in a street today. I hope that by utilizing different research methods and techniques it will give me the information I need in order to plan and fabricate pieces of street furniture which will hold non merely my thoughts in the design but will be planing with the general populace ‘s involvements at bosom excessively. My designs will non be entirely based on what I think street furniture should be like but what the general populace ‘s thoughts of what street furniture should be like.