Chapter I
Introduction
The key to acquisition is better reading accomplishments. But this reading skill need non be confined to English merely. The ability to read and compose in any linguistic communication or idiom is what is of import. From this “life-long learning” or “survival” accomplishment. one can develop the ability to “learn for life. ” These are of import elements for constructing single competency and accomplishment that can be translated in the hereafter into a competitory work force. In this survey. one of the bases for research work is the PHIL-IRI or Philippine Informal Reading Inventory will be used. This is an stock list tool that assists in finding the reading strengths and failings of an single scholar. It is of import for every instructor to cognize if their students can comfortably read the texts used in their category or if they need extra aid.

This is a speedy tool to assist place students who struggle with decrypting and/or comprehension with specific text stuffs. It can estimate as to how the grade school students can assail words in a short transition. how a kid rates in velocity and comprehension trial in unwritten reading. The research workers have observed that many of the students have jobs in reading due to inadequate vocabulary and hapless reading ability. Grades 1 to 3 are the critical in the child’s larning rhythm. At this phase. the basicss for literacy have to be established and the start of reading wont developed. Hence. this survey aims to find reading troubles and its relation to the academic public presentation of class two students of Tuyom Elementary School. Theoretical Model

Harmonizing to the General Factor Theory ( californium. Cronbach. 1970 ) . a pupil could larn about a aspect or procedure involved in the language-first through hearing and speech production. and so his/her apprehension could be used and manifested in reading and authorship. One familial set of linguistic communication sub-process undergirds as to student’s acquisition of different aspects of a “new” language-for illustration. phonemics. sentence structure. semantics. and pragmatics. A basis of this mentality is that linguistic communication bomber procedures are non attached to a peculiar “mode” ( reading. composing. hearing and speech production ) as they are learned. Rather. once a bomber procedure is learned. that understanding is available for usage in any procedure. Harmonizing to the Oral Precedence Theory. pupils should first develop some of optimum degree of unwritten proficiency in the new linguistic communication before larning to read and compose it.

To supply another unsmooth illustration. conceive of a kind of expansive ever-broadening theory of multilingual literacy was viewed as affecting multiple. interacting webs of factors including. for illustration. single knowledges and affects for and about language- unwritten and literate-in both native and new linguistic communication. the past and the present school and schoolroom environment of single. in the past and present household and community environments. Koda’s specifically connected theoretical webs turn toing native-language word reading and new-language word reading. Through analyzing word acknowledgment research on second-language scholars ( largely grownups ) who have already learned to read on their native linguistic communication. Koda suggested a “superordinate” ; Connectionist Theory of second-language word acknowledgment in reading. concentrating on the necessity of accounting for understanding of native- linguistic communication writing system. Psycholinguistic Theorists

About ten old ages ago. the “psycholinguistic model” of reading began to asseverate that contrary to this position of reading as a sequence of accomplishments which one could learn. reading is in actuality a procedure of foretelling intending based on the reader’s cognition of unwritten linguistic communication sentence structure. semantics. and phonological cues. In other words. based on the reader’s shop of information about how linguistic communication works from his cognition of unwritten linguistic communication. a reader already knows something about how words are ordered and what sorts of significance words possess in certain contexts. The early psycholinguistic theoretical account is chiefly a top down or conceptually driven theoretical account where the accent is on anticipation of significance. It is the constructs which generate a hunt for the information or words to corroborate these anticipations. ( Goodman ) Within this position Smith defines reading comprehension as doing sense out of what you read by utilizing what you know. or the theory of the universe which you have in your caput.

Basically the reader is expected to utilize anterior cognition and experience with linguistic communication to acquire intending from print. A characteristic in the development of both the accomplishments and psycholinguistic theories of reading comprehension is the usage of paradigms or theoretical accounts from computing machine scientific discipline. ( Goodman ; LaBerge and Samuels ; Ruddell ) Rummelhart’s information processing theoretical account integrates both the top-down and bottom-up processing constructs into his synergistic theory of reading comprehension. In this position. while the reader is treating characteristics. letters. spelling glib terns. etc. . at the same clip he or she is besides go toing to general context. sentence structure. and the semantic and syntactic environment in which the words occur and from which an reading of significance is made. Maturationist Theory

School preparedness. harmonizing to maturationists. is a province at which all healthy immature kids arrive when they can execute undertakings such as declaiming the alphabet and numeration ; these undertakings are required for larning more complex undertakings such as reading and arithmetic. Because development and school preparedness occur of course and automatically. maturationists believe the best patterns are for parents to learn immature kids to declaim the alphabet and count while being patient and waiting for kids to go ready for kindergarten.

If a kid is developmentally unready for school. maturationists might propose referrals to transitional kindergartens. keeping. or keeping kids out of school for an extra twelvemonth ( DeCos. 1997 ) . These patterns are sometimes used by schools. pedagogues. and parents when a immature kid developmentally lags behind his or her equals. The immature child’s underperformance is interpreted as the kid necessitating more clip to get the cognition and accomplishments needed to execute at the degree of his or her equals. Conceptual Framework

The PHIL-IRI is an assessment tool that evaluates the reading proficiency degree of simple school students. It is the first validated instrument that presents the overall reading profile of public simple school nationally. The pupils’ word acknowledgment ability and comprehension accomplishments are informally measured quantitatively and qualitatively through unwritten reading of narratives. transitions. and dolch sight words. Informal steps are flexible. Because informal steps have non been standardized. instructors are free to do alteration in trial processs to the demand of the students.

The accent of the PHIL-IRI is on larning the accomplishments. abilities and demands of students to be after reading instructions. Therefore. the PHIL-IRI can supply pedagogues. policy shapers and instructors non merely with information about the pupils’ reading capablenesss but besides with what intercession may be provided for each reading degree. The PHIL-IRI is an enterprise of Bureau of Elementary Education Department of Education that straight addresses its push to do every kid a reader. It is anchored on the flagship plan of the section “Every Child a Reader Program” . the end of which is to enable every Filipino to pass on both in English and Filipino through effectual reading direction.

Reading troubles can be caused by many factors. some internal and some external. The more precise the description. the more likely it is to take to effectual proviso. In the position of many experts. most reading jobs rooted from decrypting comprehension or keeping. Decoding troubles is the procedure by which a word is broken into single phonemes and recognized based on those phonemes. Person who has trouble decryption and has trouble in reading easy may non hear and distinguish the phonemes. Signs of decrypting trouble are problem in sounding out words or acknowledging words out of context. confusion between letters and the sounds. Comprehension relies on command of decryption ; kids who struggle to decrypt happen it hard to understand and retrieve what has been read.

Because their attempts to hold on single words are wash uping. they have no resources left for understanding. A keeping trouble is a problem on retrieving or sum uping what is read. Retention requires both decrypting and groking what is written. This undertaking relies on high degree cognitive accomplishments including memory and the ability to group and recover related thoughts. As pupils advancement through class degrees. they are expected to retain more and more of what they read. It is so with the aforesaid constructs that the research workers will be using in carry oning this survey. Conceptually. the research workers will be finding the degree of reading troubles of Grade II pupils harmonizing to their academic public presentation. The independent variable of this survey which is the degree of reading troubles of grade four students can either influence or non act upon their academic public presentation.

There will be two indexs that will be provided in each facet of reading troubles viz. ; word acknowledgment and comprehension. Responses on the indexs given will be measured utilizing the classs of Independent Reader with a average ranging from 97-100 % in word acknowledgment. 80-100 % in comprehension. Instructional Reader with a average ranging from 90-96 % in word acknowledgment. 59-75 % in comprehension. Frustration Reader with a average ranging from 89 % below in word acknowledgment. 58 % below in comprehension. Academic Performance nevertheless will be determined establishing from General Average of grade two pupil’s from 1st and 2nd grading period of the Academic Year 2013-2014.

Academic Performance in English
Grade Point Average ( GPA )

Academic Performance in English
Grade Point Average ( GPA )

I. Degree of Reading Difficulty
* Independent
* Instructional
* Frustration


I. Degree of Reading Difficulty
* Independent
* Instructional
* Frustration


Fig. 1. Conventional diagram exemplifying a hypothesized relationship of variables in the survey.

Statement of the Problem
This survey aims to find the reading troubles and its relation to the academic public presentation of the Grade- Two students for the school twelvemonth 2013-2014. Specifically. this survey will be able to achieve the replies to the undermentioned inquiries:

1. What are the degree of reading troubles of Grade II pupils when categorise harmonizing to: a. ) independent b. ) instructional and c. ) defeat?
2. What is the academic public presentation of Grade II pupils in English? 3. Is at that place important relationship between the academic public presentation and the degree of reading troubles of Grade II pupils when categorise harmonizing to: a. ) independent b. ) instructional and c. ) defeat? Statement of Hypothesis

Ho3: There is no important relationship between the degree of reading troubles and academic public presentation of Grade II pupils when categorise harmonizing to a. ) independent b. ) instructional and c. ) defeat. Scope of the survey

This survey will find the reading troubles and its relationship to the academic public presentation of Grade II pupils at Tuyom Elementary School for the School Year 2013-2014. Significance of the Study

This probe comes from the extreme desire of the pupil research workers to be of part to the development of the PHIL-IRI and to be of aid through the result that this survey may give more truth of some jobs and differences of the scholars to be able to make full in what readers experienced. Hence. the research workers see to it that this survey will be good to the undermentioned people and group of people: School Superintendent. Findingss of the survey may function as an eye-opener in fixing programs and plans particularly in assorted schools which have big per centum of non-readers. Besides. through the usage of PHIL-IRI as an intercession in get the better ofing reading troubles. the school overseer will be given an thought as the effectivity of this stuff and will happen ways and means to relieve the reading degrees of students. School Administrators.

This survey will steer administrators/principals and supervisors in this pursuit for quality instruction. because the findings of the survey will heighten their accomplishments in taking appropriate instructional stuffs. The findings will likewise function as a footing of the school decision makers in be aftering for more effectual reading plans to be implemented. English Teachers. The instructors will take more serious expression into the demands of kids who have troubles in reading. They can place the accomplishments where the Grade II students are weak. and strong. so that the instructors can supply the appropriate reading stuffs for the betterment of the child’s reading degree. This will besides animate them to execute the huge undertaking of assisting the kids specifically the hapless readers and happen their merited topographic point in school. Thus. doing every scholar become interested and even progress in their field of survey or involvement. Grade II Pupils.

The survey will assist the Grade II students develop their reading accomplishments both in word acknowledgment and comprehension accomplishments. Through the usage of PHIL-IRI stuff. their reading degrees will come on as they are exposed to varied and carefully chosen stuffs for reading. Parents. Parents will go cognizant of the possible causes of reading lacks and hapless comprehension of their kids. By cognizing their children’s degree of abilities. they can happen stuffs to accommodate their capablenesss and supply appropriate reading stuffs peculiarly on the subjects that will decrease. if non extinguish the reading troubles of their kids. Definition of Footings

The undermentioned key footings used in this probe are herewith defined conceptually and operationally so as for the reader to hold a good apprehension of this survey. Reading. Conceptually. the term means a mental procedure affecting 5thinterpretation of marks perceived through the sense organs Gertrude ( Hildreth. 2000 ) . Difficulties. Conceptually. this term means difficult to make. do or transport out. Accompanied with or necessitating attempt. Operationally. this is being defined as something that causes labour or complexness and requires accomplishments and doggedness in get the hanging. work outing or accomplishing a end. Reading Difficulties. Conceptually. the term means at which a individual lacks the accomplishments of a fluid reader. They read really small and do non like to read. Academic.

This term refers to the institutional system of formal instruction within school. college or university ( Hawes. Gene R. & A ; Hawes. Lynne Salop ) . Academic Performance. Conceptually. this term refers to the existent achievement in the curricular offerings as distinguished from the possible ability. capacity or aptitude ( Good. 2003 ) . Operationally. this is being defined as the Grade Point Average of the respondents’ from1st to 2nd rating period of the Academic Year 2013-2014. Comprehension. Conceptually. the term means the act or fact of hold oning the significance or importance of understanding. The cognition that is acquired in this manner ; and the amount of significances and matching deduction inherent. Effectiveness. Conceptually. the term means a step of the capacity of a specific act and the ability or capacity to execute good.

Frustration Reading Level. Conceptually. the term means the reading degree that is excessively difficult for the reader. Word mistakes are over 5 per 100 word of text. Operationally. the term means that the comprehension inquiries are below 70 per centum truth. Independent Reading Level. Conceptually. the term means that a pupil could read it entirely with easiness. Operationally. in unwritten reading a kid would hold one or less word naming mistakes in 100 words of text. with 100 per centum truth on comprehension inquiries about the narrative.

Instructional Reading Level. Conceptually. the term means the best degree for the larning new vocabulary. Operationally. it requires the aid of a instructor or coach. The word mistake scope allowed while reading orally to the instructor is from 2 to 5 word naming mistakes per 100 words of text ( 95 % truth or better ) . with at least 80 percent comprehension on simple recall inquiries about the narrative. Non- Reader. Conceptually. the term means a individual who lacks the accomplishments of a fluid reader. They read below grade degree and battle with comprehensions. phonics and vocabulary. PHIL-IRI.

This acronym means Philippine Informal Reading Inventory. Conceptually. the term means an appraisal that evaluates the reading proficiency degree of simple school students. Operationally. it is the first validated instrument that presents the over-all reading profile of public simple schools countrywide. Recognition. Conceptually. the term means an consciousness that something perceived has been perceived earlier. An credence as true or valid. as of a claim.

Chapter II
Review of Related Literature
This chapter presents constructs and surveies which the research workers believed are utile to the present probe. A batch of surveies were conducted in the Philippines and abroad sing reading troubles among Grade II Pupils. hence. these surveies are related to the jobs under probe and have been used by the research workers. Conceptual Literature

Franci Bacon said. “Reading maketh a full man” . Indeed. reading extremely contribute to the development of single particularly in geting cognition and acquisition that will assist them in larning more competitory and linguistic communication literate. The procedure of larning to read is a drawn-out 1 that begins really early in life

Most immature kids with reading troubles have jobs developing eloquence. For these kids. identifying words take a batch of attempt. Their reading rate is slow. their word designation is hesitating. and they over rely on contextual cues for word designation. Because most of their cognitive or mental attempt is spent seeking to place words. their comprehension suffers. The chief bar and early intercession schemes for these kids are effectual readying for literacy and effectual schoolroom direction.

Many kids at hazard for reading troubles enter school with small or no phonological consciousness. Evidence is accruing that so such preparation can be of peculiar benefit to childs at hazard due to socio economic disadvantage and/or weak initial readiness in reading-related accomplishments. Among the grounds public attending has turned to the demand for systematic bar of reading troubles are the forms of reading trouble: failure to larn to read adequately is present among kids of low societal hazard who attend good funded school and is much more likely among hapless kids. among colored kids. and among non-native talkers of English. To get down our consideration of who is likely to hold reading troubles and how many kids we are speaking about. we outlined a figure of conceptual issues in placing and mensurating reading troubles in immature kids.

The major beginnings of grounds refering to these conceptual issues are several large-scale epidemiological surveies in which population-representative samples of kids have been examined to find the incidence. prevalence. features. continuity. and academic results of persons who have been identified ( by assorted standards ) as holding reading troubles. Prospective longitudinal surveies of sample studies and general populations allow us to find the natural history of a upset over clip. to find whether the job is transeunt or chronic. and how assorted hazard factors relate to results.

In placing. analyzing. and handling reading jobs. two chief sorts of reading troubles have traditionally been distinguished. Reading disablement. besides called “dyslexia” and “specific reading deceleration. ” was at first considered to be a qualitatively and etiologically distinguishable status that an person either had or did non hold. The status was viewed as holding a biological and possibly familial footing. as being invariant over clip. and as impacting a little group of kids. chiefly boys. In this traditional conceptual theoretical account. hapless readers who do non run into the standards for a reading disablement are characterized alternatively as holding garden-variety reading jobs ( or “general reading backwardness” ) . originating from such causes as hapless direction. low intelligence. and weak motive. Research Literature

Foreign Surveies
The Expert Panel in Ontario. ( 2003 ) on their survey “ Early Reading Strategy –Help for Children With Reading Difficulties” . opens with a steadfast strong belief ; “ That a child’s success in school and throughout life depends in big portion on the ability to read. ” Educators have the profound challenge of doing reading a world for all kids. Many immature kids see some sort of trouble larning to read. For many kids. reading troubles can be identified in Kindergarten or Grade 1 and can be prevented or to run into really clear: kids who continue to see troubles in Grade 2 seldom catch up in subsequently classs.

The effects are good documented. These kids are at hazard of neglecting school and dropping out. and they may hold limited calling chances in maturity. Therefore. it is of import to hold the conditions and resources – including clip. manageable. category size. stuffs. and larning chances that enable instructors to run into the challenges of guaranting that all kids learn to read. The foundations of good reading are the same for all kids. All readers. regardless of their age. gender. or aptitude. demand to develop eloquence. comprehension. and the motive to read in order to go successful readers. Children who experience reading troubles are no exclusion. They excessively must develop the basic foundations for reading. and they require the same types of larning experiences to make so. In Oakland University. Rochester. Michigan. USA: John E. Mceneaney. Mark K. Lose. Robert M. Schwartz in their survey “ A Transactional Perspective On Reading Difficulties And Response to Intervention” . disclosed that scholars with serious reading troubles are those whose troubles are non resolved by the intercessions.

Three advantages of an RTI attack include that kids need non wait to neglect ( Vaughn & A ; Fuchs. 2003 ) to be eligible for support. RTI avoid jobs associated with process-deficit and disagreement theoretical accounts and RTI is instructionally grounded. heightening the ecological cogency of the diagnostic procedure and more clearly anchoring it in subsequent direction. We excessively have reserves about its premises related to reading troubles. because these premises have deductions for the ways we conduct and interpret research reacting to the demands of fighting readers. Although literacy pedagogues and particular pedagogues draw on common historical roots. even in the mid-1970 when particular pedagogues settled on a on the job definition for reading disablements based on factors internal to readers. literacy pedagogues had begun to travel toward a broader transactional position that views reading troubles as situated in variable societal and cognitive constructs.

The survey of “Reading” serves as our tools of larning in every topic countries and class degree where we teach from. Thus. students in grade four must take the hazard of duty and might act upon reading as their major concern in traveling to higher degree of acquisition.

And hence. if the students guided and trained decently at this phase. we can bring forth scholars that have a broad apprehension and comprehension that consequence to an outstanding academic public presentation. Pascual said that the success in the development of comprehension among people depends mostly on the strategic and instructional stuffs utilized by the instructor. The teacher’s competency in learning with the proper use of instructional stuffs plays a major function in the development of comprehension among students. The students entirely dependent upon the teacher’s ability to pave the manner to full apprehension or to visualising. or to acquiring the existent image hidden behind the printed reading stuffs

From the findings of the research conducted by Bacal. unwritten reading troubles of students can be corrected by supplying different activities suited to the pupils’ degree. using different techniques for redress and intensive supervising of instructors. parents and school decision makers. The teacher’s creativeness. resourcefulness and diligence count most in the success of the plan and undertaking. The pupil’s involvement in reading can be developed and enhanced by prosecuting in different reading stuffs. Use of varied and appropriate instructional stuffs can ease pupil’s apprehension of what he is reading. Finding the right stuffs is peculiarly of import for a pupil who experiences reading troubles ( Bacal. 2005 ) .

Commission on Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education ( CBASSE ) . USA. on “Preventing Reading Troubles in Young Children “ ( 1998 ) . Americans want their kids to get down school ready to larn. a end that includes readiness for reading direction. Children who are peculiarly likely to hold trouble larning to read in the primary classs are those who begin school with less anterior cognition and accomplishment in certain spheres. most notably missive cognition. phonological sensitiveness. acquaintance with the basic intents and mechanisms of reading and linguistic communication ability. The procedure of larning to read is a drawn-out 1 that begins really early in life. Given the importance identified in the research literature of get downing school motivated to read and with the prerequisite linguistic communication and early literacy accomplishments. the commission recommends that all kids. particularly those at hazard for reading troubles. should hold entree to early childhood environments that promote linguistic communication and literacy growing and that reference a assortment of accomplishments that have been identified as forecasters of subsequently reading accomplishment.

Preschools and other group attention scenes for immature kids frequently provide comparatively destitute linguistic communication and literacy environments. in peculiar those available to households with limited economic resources. As of all time more immature kids are come ining group attention settings pursuant to outlooks that their female parents will fall in the work force. it becomes critical that the preschool chances available to lower-income households be designed in ways that support linguistic communication and literacy development. Even with first-class direction in the early classs. some kids fail to do satisfactory advancement in reading. Such kids will necessitate auxiliary services. ideally from a reading specializer who provides single or small-group intensive direction that is coordinated with high-quality direction from the schoolroom instructor. Children who are holding trouble larning to read make non. as a regulation. necessitate qualitatively different direction from kids who are “getting it. ” Alternatively. they more frequently need application of the same rules by person who can use them like an expert to single kids who are holding trouble for one ground or another.

By Grade II. all schools should hold in topographic point for kids a procedure that allows for the timely execution of direction following diagnostic appraisal. Once a instructor recognizes that a kid is sing reading troubles. the instructor and the kid must hold entree to diagnostic appraisal services. specialised intercessions. and appropriate direction. The strength or continuance of the intercessions should be based on comprehensive diagnostic appraisal. There should be seamless continuity between regular schoolroom direction and intercessions. and a high grade of cooperation among qualified staff who are functioning the same kids. The staff should pass the huge bulk of their clip planning for and presenting direction straight to kids. In the Netherlands. explicit get downing reading direction normally starts in class one.

The kids learn grapheme-phoneme correspondences. blending. and phonemic analysis. However. some kids experience troubles in get downing reading that the bing educational processs are non equal to decide. One possible solution being implemented is the Prevention of Reading Difficulties Project. which precludes reading troubles by foretelling the at-risk kids. measuring their expected troubles and learning reading in such a manner that reading troubles do non happen. Local Surveies

A State of Nonreaders
by Juan Miguel Luz. Thursday. June 7th. 2007.
Why is it that despite our purportedly high literacy rate. many Filipinos can hardly read and compose? Why haven’t we been able to develop a reading wont among Filipinos? Straight forward inquiries about something so cardinal. Yet there are no easy replies to such a complex job. Worse. the job of nonreading prevarications at the bosom of why the Philippines is so uncompetitive in the universe economic system and why so many of our people continue to populate in poorness or hardly escape it. Person one time remarked that we are non a state of readers ; we are a state of narrators. Ours is a civilization of unwritten history passed on by word of oral cavity non through the written word. Possibly that is why most of the information people receive today is gathered from telecasting ( 62 per centum ) and wireless ( 57 per centum ) . Newspapers and magazines are read by merely 47 per centum and 36 per centum of the population severally. harmonizing to a 2003 authorities study.

In the modern epoch. nevertheless. this is excessively low a figure. And how did this happen when we pride ourselves as being a extremely literate people? Then once more. are we truly? To get down with. let’s set up the difference between literacy and reading. They are related. but literacy is a degree of competency. while reading is a accomplishment. One can be literate but non needfully a reader because reading. as a accomplishment. requires the development of a wont that must be exercised daily if it is to be retained and enhanced. If left unexercised. the accomplishment becomes rusty and can even be lost. We begin this treatment with literacy. for which there are two steps: simple and functional. Simple literacy is the ability of a individual to read and compose with understanding a simple message in any linguistic communication or idiom. Functional literacy. interim. is a significantly higher degree of literacy that includes non merely reading and composing accomplishments. but besides numeracy ( the ‘rithmetic that completes the ‘three Rs’ ) . which leads to a higher order of thought that allows individuals to take part more meaningfully in life state of affairss necessitating a sensible capacity to pass on in a written linguistic communication.

The simplest. most direct step of functional literacy is the ability to follow a written set of instructions for even basic undertakings. Therefore. functional literacy is the more of import index of competency when it comes to grownups in the work force. For decennaries. the Philippines has reported a simple literacy rate in the mid-to-high 90s. In 2003. the simple literacy rate was really lower at 93. 4 per centum for the full population at least 10 old ages of age. Girls show a higher rate of simple literacy than male childs ( 94. 3 per centum versus 92. 6 per centum ) . Not surprisingly. Metro Manila reported the highest rate at 99 per centum ; the Autonomous Region in Muslim Mindanao ( ARMM ) had the lowest at 68. 9 per centum ( and falling compared to the 1994 rate of 73. 5 per centum ) . Over the last 10-year period ( mensurating simple literacy is portion of the national nose count taken one time a decennary ) ; there has been a distressing happening. Nine of 15 parts ( under the old regional constellation ) showed a little diminution in simple literacy from 1994 to 2003. These included two of the three Visayan parts ( VII and VIII ) and all of the Mindanao parts. Overall. simple literacy for the full state fell by 0. 5 per centum from 1994 to 2003. Deped: National reading accomplishments appraisal to go on this twelvemonth MANILA. Philippines – The Department of Education ( DepEd ) will once more administrate a reading accomplishments assessment trial to public simple school pupils to find their reading proficiency or deficiency of it.

Education Secretary Armin Luistro said that the disposal of the Philippine Informal Reading Inventory ( Phil-IRI ) to Grades 2 to 6 students will go on this school twelvemonth. Luistro said that it was of import to measure the reading capableness of pupils because reading is the foundation of all academic acquisition. “If a student fails to get the hang basic reading accomplishments at the beginning. it will be a changeless battle for them to acquire through other subjects successfully. therefore striping them of the opportunity to go literate and productive persons. ” he added.

For Grade 1 students nevertheless. Phil IRI will non be used until such clip that a national reading appraisal in female parent lingua have been implemented. Hence. all schools are encouraged to beef up the locally-developed. school-based appraisal in support of the Mother-Tongue-Based Multi-Lingual Education Based on DepEd Memo No. 143. series of 2012. instructors are still required to carry through the pupil’s single reading profile and consolidate studies for the schools profile. The information culled from the appraisal shall function as one of the bases in doing determinations for be aftering an appropriate school-based instruction and larning direction every bit good as a reading plan to better the public presentation of the students. The appraisal consequences shall besides be considered in the readying of the school betterment program. Literacy betterment is a high precedence of the DepEd and the national authorities. Chapter III

Methodology

This chapter deals with the method of research that the research workers will be utilizing in the survey are as follows: Research design. respondents of the survey. informations garnering instrument. cogency and dependability of the informations assemblage instrument. informations assemblage process and information analysis. Research Design

In this probe the descriptive method of research will be used. Harmonizing to Ardales ( 2008 ) . the descriptive design is peculiarly appropriate in the behavioral scientific disciplines. The grounds for this is the fact that behavior of involvement to the research worker can be consistently examined and analyzed as they happen in its natural puting the place. the schoolroom. the recreational centre the workplace such as an office or mill. One drawback though is that the research worker has less control of the status that prevails in the natural scene. The research worker can non set up or pull strings state of affairss. or if he can. he still expects people to act in their natural manner. Respondents of the Study

The topic of this probe focal point on finding the reading troubles and its relation to the academic public presentation of class two students of Tuyom Elementary School holding a entire population of 153 students. Data Gathering Instrument

In order to garner informations needed in connexion with the specific aims of the survey. the research workers will utilize of the PHIL-IRI ( Philippine Informal Reading Inventory ) .

It will find pupil’s believing procedure every bit good as the reading public presentation. It is an informal step that can measure the pupil’s comprehension. vocabulary and word acknowledgment accomplishments. Validity and Reliability of the Data Gathering Instrument

The cogency of the research instrument. Philippine Informal Reading Inventory ( PHIL-IRI ) . was established by the course of study shapers of the Bureau of Elementary Education Department of Education. All instruments were DepEd approved signifiers. No proof and dependability is farther needed. Datas Gathering Procedure

The research worker will non administrate the trial but alternatively will utilize the secondary informations taken by the instructors of class two students of Tuyom Elementary School. They will inquire blessing from the chief Mrs. Paulita M. Acha. The respondents will utilize the entire population of grade two students of the said school. Data Analysis

To analyse the informations specifically. the research workers will utilize the Frequency Percentage to reply the nonsubjective figure one ( 1 ) and two ( 2 ) . Formula: Word Recognition
WR= E/N= % of Tocopherol
100 % – % of E = % of miscues
Where:
WR= word acknowledgment
E = figure of mistakes
N= figure of words
Formula:
Comprehension ( CR ) = No. of incorrect responsesNo. of inquiries x 100= % of WR Table 1. Degrees of Reading Troubles Criteria
Degree of ReadingDifficulties| Word Recognition ( WR ) % of Miscues| Comprehension ( CR ) % of incorrect responses| Frustration| 97-100 % | 80-100 % |
Instructional| 90-96 % | 59-79 % |
Independent| 89 below| 58 % below|










Table 2. Degree of Reading Troubles in Areas of Word Recognition and Comprehension Skills

Word Recognition| Comprehension| Level of Reading Difficulties| Independent| Independent| Independent|
Independent| Instructional| Instructional|
Independent| Frustration| Frustration|
Instructional| Independent| Independent|
Instructional| Instructional| Instructional|
Frustration| Instructional| Frustration|
Frustration| Frustration| Frustration | Non-reader| Listening Capacity| Non-reader|





For nonsubjective no. 2. the obtained classs will be interpreted utilizing the undermentioned graduated table: Average Average Point| Verbal Interpretation|
95-100| Outstanding|
90-94| Very Satisfactory|
85-89| Satisfactory|
80-84| Average|
75-79| Poor|
74 below| Very poor|





Objective no. 3 which purposes to find if there is a important relationship between the academic public presentation and the degrees of reading troubles of class II pupils. the Pearson’s R will be used by the research workers. Pearson’s R Formula

Where:
n= entire figure of answering x= variable y= variable x2= x- squared

y2= y-squared
xy= merchandise of x and y

Study Variables and Indexs
Variables| Indicators| | Categories|
| Word Recognition| Comprehension| |
Degree of Reading Difficulties| 97-100 % | 80-100 % | Independent| | 90-96 % | 59-75 % | Instructional|
| 89 % below| 58 % below| Frustration|
Academic Performance| Academic Grades| | |
| 95-100 % | | Outstanding|
| 90-94 % | | Very satisfactory| | 85-89 % | | Satisfactory|
| 80-84 % | | Average|
| 75-79 % | | Poor|
| 74 % below| | Very poor|









Bibliography
Books
Ardales. Venancio B. Basic Concepts and Methods in Research. Iloilo City: 3rd Edition 2008. Bacal. Eufrencia M. Bettering the Oral Reading Ability of Pupils. Metro Manila: September 2005.
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