Industrialised Building System ( IBS ) began in early 1960s when Ministry of Housing and Local Government of Malaysia visited several European states, at the same clip evaluates their lodging development plan. ( Thanoon et al, 2003 ) . After their successful visit in the twelvemonth 1964, the Government had launched pilot undertaking on IBS to rush up the bringing clip and built low-cost and quality houses.

The first pilot undertaking was constructed at Jalan Pekeliling in Kuala Lumpur and about 22.7 estates of land was dedicated to the undertaking consisting four blocks of 4-storey flats and seven blocks of 17-storey flats and consisting entire about 3,000 units of low cost flats for the low and average income group and 40 units of store tonss. This public lodging undertaking was undertaken by Gammon/ Larsen Nielsen and this undertaking are utilizing the Danish System of big panels in a industrialised prefabricated system. The building for public lodging undertaking was complete from 1966 until 1968 ( around entire 27 months ) including the clip taken in the building of the around RM 2.5 million projecting pace at Jalan Damansara ( CIDB, 2006 ; and Thanoon et Al, 2003 ) .

In 1965, the Government of Malaysia launched a 2nd undertaking, is a three blocks of 18-storey flats and six blocks of 17-storey flats and consisting entire about 3,699 units and 66 units of store tonss along at Jalan Rifle Range in Penang. The public lodging undertaking was awarded to Hochtief/ Chee Seng and this undertaking are utilizing French Estoit System ( Din, 1984 ) . This public lodging undertaking was complete within 27 months.

If we are reference to the two pilot undertakings, a public presentation comparing between the IBS and the conventional system has been carried in footings of cost, productiveness, quality, and clip. Harmonizing to the research, the first pilot undertaking incurred 8.1 % higher costs than a similar edifice and utilizing conventional building method, while the 2nd pilot undertaking was lower. In term of entire building velocity, both of the public lodging undertaking required entire 27 months to finish the whole undertaking, inclusive of clip required to put up the rewording mills. The entire quality of edifice coatings was besides found to be better than the utilizing conventional building method.

Another earliest utilizing IBS in public lodging undertaking was at Taman Tun Sardon in Penang. These utilizing IBS in public lodging undertaking entire all about 1,000 units of 5-storey walk up level and this undertaking are utilizing IBS precast constituent and system. The IBS precast constituent and system in the lodging undertaking was designed to the low cost lodging by British Research Establishment and particularly for the low and average income group. Almost at the same clip at Edmonton in North London, there are utilizing similar system was constructed and entire sum about 20,000 BRECAST homes were constructed throughout UK from 1964 until 1974 ( CIDB, 2006 ) . The entire all edifice design was really basic and rather simple and may non see the facet of serviceableness such as the local or user demands to hold wet lavatory and bathroom ( Rahman and Omar, 2006 ) .

Many building in the undermentioned old ages utilised precast wall panel system. One can detect that IBS was engage at first topographic point in the building of low cost high rise residential edifice to get the better of the increasing demand for lodging demands ( CIDB, 2006 ) . However, the industrialization of building at the earlier phase was ne’er sustained. Failure of early closed fabricated system made the industry afraid of altering their building method. Some of the forgeign systems that were introduced during the late sixties and 70s were besides found non be suited with Malaysia clime and societal patterns ( CIDB, 2005 ) .

Newer and better engineerings were invariably being introduced than in the market. Wet joint systems were identified to be more suited to be used in our tropical clime and it was besides better to utilised the bathroom types which were comparatively wetter than those in the Europe ( CIDB, 2005 ) .

In 1978, the Penang State Government launched another 1200 units of lodging utilizing prefabrication engineering. Two old ages subsequently, the Ministry of Defense adopted big prefabricated panel building system to construct 2800 units of life quarters at Lumut Naval Base ( Trikha and Ali, 2004 ) .

During the period of early 80s up to 90s the usage of structural steel constituents took new bend peculiarly in high rise edifices in Kuala Lumpur. The use of steel construction gained much attending with the building of 36-storey Dayabumi composite that was complete in 1984 by Takenaka Corporation of Japan ( CIDB, 2003 and CIDB, 2006 )

In the 90s, demand for the new township has seen the addition in the usage of precast concrete system in high rise residential edifice. Between 1981 and 1993, Perbadaan Kemajuan Negari Selangor ( PKNS ) a province Government development bureau acquired pre-cast concrete engineering from Praton Haus International based on Germany to construct low-priced houses and high cost cottages for the new townships in Selangor ( CIDB, 2003 ; Hassim et Al, 2009 and National IBS Survey, 2003 ) . It was recorded so, around 52,000 lodging units was constructed utilizing Praton Haus system ( Trikha and Ali, 2004 ) . In this flourishing period of Malaysia building 1994 to 1997, intercrossed IBS application used in many national iconic landmarks such as Bukit Jalil Sport Complex, Kuala Lumpur Convention Centre ( steel beam and roof trusses and precast concrete slab: Victor Buyck Steel Construction ) , Lightweight Railway Train ( LRT ) , KL Sentral Station ( steel roof construction and precast hollow nucleus: RSPA – Bovis ) , KL Tower ( steel beams and columns for tower caput: Wayss & A ; Freytag ) , Kuala Lumpur International Airport ( steel roof construction: KLIAB – Eversendai ) and Petronas Twin Towers ( steel beams and steel decking for the floor system – Mayjus JV and SKJ JV ) ( CIDB, 2006 ) . It besides includes the development and building of new disposal capital of Malaysia ; Putrajaya and the first Malaysia cyber metropolis ; Cyberjaya.

Today in the Malayan building industry, the usage of IBS as a method of building is germinating. More local makers have established themselves in the market. Many had acquired plenty cognition through engineering transportation to construct up ain capacity in IBS engineerings ( PKNS Engineering, Setia Precast and Global Globe ) .

The local IBS makers were mushrooming, although yet to run in full capacity. The current IBS system used in Malaysia lodging undertakings are big panel systems, steel frame, precast frame and formwork system. The IBS system is mostly used for private residential undertakings in Shah Alam, Wangsa Maju and Pandan ( Sarja, 1998 ) , Dua Residency, KL, Taman Mount Austin and Tongkang Pecah, Johor ( CIDB, 2006 ) .

It was reported that at least 21 industries and providers of IBS are actively advancing their systems in Malaysia. IBS move to the following measure of the development through the constitution of IBS Centre at Jalan Chan Sow Lin, Cheras, Kuala Lumpur. The duty to implement IBS serves both to better public presentation and quality in building, every bit good as to minimise dependence on unskilled foreign labor in the building market.

2.2 Categorization of Building System

There are four types of edifice system in Malaysia harmonizing to Badir – Razzli edifice system categorization. The edifice system can be are namely Conventional Column-beam- slab frame system with lumber and plyboard ; Cast unmoved system with steel or aluminum as formwork ; Prefabricated system and the Composite edifice system is shown as below. Each edifice system is represented by its building engineering, functional and geometrical constellation. There from the four systems, are identified as IBS excepting conventional edifice system.

Building System

Conventional Column-beam- slab frame system with lumber and plyboard.

Cast unmoved system with steel or aluminum as formwork.

Composite edifice system

Prefabricated system

Table Form

Tunnel Form

Panel system

Frame system

Box system

2.2.1 Conventional Construction Method

Conventional edifice method is defined as constituents of the edifice that are prefabricated on site through the procedures of lumber or plyboard formwork installing, steel support, and cast in-situ. Conventional edifices are largely built of strengthened concrete frames. The traditional building method uses wooden formwork. It is much more dearly-won for building which includes labor, natural stuff, transit and low velocity of building clip.

2.2.2 Cast In-situ Construction Method

This system is suited for a state where unskilled labor is limited. There is no heavy machinery or high engineering involved. The system is technically applicable to about all types of edifice. Formwork is used as a mold where moisture concrete is poured into a impermanent system. The impermanent system besides acts as a impermanent support for the constructions.

The aim of an unmoved method is to extinguish and cut down the traditional site-based trades like traditional lumber formwork, brickwork, stick oning and to cut down labour content. A carefully planned unmoved work can maximize the productiveness, velocity and truth of prefabricated building. Cast unmoved method utilizations lightweight prefabricated formwork made of steel / fibreglass / aluminum that is easy erected and dismantled. The steel support is placed within the formwork as they are being erected and concrete is poured into the mold. When the concrete is set harmonizing to the needed strength, the molds are dismantled. The workers can be easy trained to raise the molds and put the steel support. Its advantages over the traditional building method include, low accomplishment demand, rapid building, low care, lasting construction and less cost.

2.2.3 Composite Construction Method

The aims of composite building method ( partly prefabricated ) are to better quality, cut down cost, and shorten building clip. The construct of partial industrialized system is derived from the composite nature of full industrialization, and is used to depict a fabrication or production scheme that selectively uses some industrialising facets, while avoiding or proroguing the usage of others. The prefabricated building method is combined in such a mode that the characteristics applied could be conspicuously demonstrated, particularly composing assorted plants such as impermanent installations, edifice frames, edifice coatings, and equipments.

2.2.4 Prefabricated Construction Method

In this method of building, all elements can be standardised are prefabricated in the mill. Normally, this method would affect the assembly of precast elements such as floor slabs, in-filled walls, bathrooms, stairwaies, and etc. into topographic point for incorporation into the chief units, columns and beams. This method of building has reduced the sum of site labors involved in edifice operations and increased the productiveness of the industry. Precast constructing systems can cut down the continuance of a undertaking if certain conditions are met. The last three building methods are considered as non conventional building methods. These types of building are specifically aimed at increasing productiveness and quality of work through the usage of better building machinery, equipment, engineering and stuffs.

2.3 Categorization of IBS and Apply to Public Housing

Harmonizing to Badir et Al. ( 1998 ) , IBS can be classified harmonizing to several facets: –

Categorization harmonizing to structural system.

Categorization harmonizing to stuff.

Categorization harmonizing to comparative weight of constituents.

2.3.1 Classification Harmonizing to Structural System

Harmonizing to Abraham Warszawski ( 1999 ) , IBS can be classified harmonizing structural systematic facets. IBS can be classifies into three classs as: –

Linear system or frames ( beams and column ) .

Panel system.

Rectangular or Boxes system or three dimensional systems.

Figure 1, 2, and 3 shows the construct of the system as classified above.

Figure 2: Panel System

Figure 3: Box System

Figure: Frame System

2.3.1.1 Frame System

Frame system is system that use column and beam as the chief construction member where column and beams support all the edifice weight. The walls need to be light and easy to put in and concrete panels are introduces as flooring component.

2.3.1.2 Panel System

In panel system, tonss are distributed through big floor and wall panels where walls support the edifice weight. This system is applicable to edifices which functionally require a big figure of walls such as flat house, hotel and infirmary. This system is non applicable to edifices with big spans or many narratives.

2.3.1.3 Box System

The box system include those systems that employ three dimensional faculties or boxes for fiction of habitable units that are capable of defying burden from assorted waies due to their internal stableness.

2.3.2 Classification Harmonizing to Material

2.3.2.1 Timber

There are two types of prefabrication of lumber which is ready-cut plus shop fiction of articulations ( column and beam ) and structural panels where there are merely walls and floors without column and beam.

2.3.2.2 Brick and Block work

Puting of brick or block are carried out in a mass at mill and transported to site or on site beside the edifice under building in the signifier of panel and so erected.

2.3.2.3 Steel

Steel building basically contains factors of prefabrication which is one of the standards of IBS. Elementss are jointed by welding, concentrating or bolting on site. The big proportion of the strength to the weight allows a long-span or high-rise edifice.

2.3.2.4 Reinforced Concrete

Reinforced concrete has high grade of handiness, low stuff cost, lastingness, and fire opposition. There are two basic waies in development of strengthened concrete IBS constituent which is panelised constituents such as walls and floors and precast frame members such as columns and beams. Jointing at site is the cardinal issue of this system.

2.3.3 Classification Harmonizing to Relative Weight of Component

The IBS constituents can be classified harmonizing to their comparative weight as in Table 1 below. Relative to weight of constituent should be used as a basic for constructing categorization due to the factor of weight has important impact on the transportability of constituents and has influence on the production method of the constituents and their hard-on method on site.

No

General System

System

Production Material

1

Frame

System

Light weight frame

Wood, light pot metals

Medium visible radiation weight frame

Metal, reinforced plastics, laminated wood

Heavy weight frame

Heavy steel, concrete

2

Panels

system

Light and medium weight panel

Wood frame, metal frame

and composite stuff

Heavy weight panel

( mill produced )

Concrete

Heavy weight panel

( tilt up-produced on site )

Concrete

3

Box system

( faculties )

Medium weight box

( Mobile )

Wood frame, light pot

metal, complex

Medium weight box

( sectional )

Wood frame, light pot

metal, complex

Heavy weight box

( mill produced )

Concrete

Heavy box

( tunnel produced on site )

Concrete

Table 2: Building system categorization harmonizing to comparative weight of constituent. ( Majzub, 1977 )

Harmonizing to CIDB ( 2001 ) , the IBS is a building procedure that utilizes techniques, merchandises, constituents, or edifice system which involve prefabricated constituents and on-site installing. Base on the construction facets of the system, IBS can be identified into five major groups: –

Precast Concrete Framing, Panel and Box Systems.

Precast concrete elements are the most common type. There are precast concrete column, beam, slabs, walls, lightweight precast concrete, and lasting concrete formwork. Besides that, it is besides consist of 3D constituents such as balconies, stairwaies, lavatories, lift chamber, garbage Chamberss and etc.

Steel Formwork Systems.

They by and large involve site casting, and hence subjected to structural quality control. So, it is considered as the “ low degree ” or “ least prefabrication ” IBS types. However, this system does offer high quality coatings and fast building with less site labor and material demand. These include tabular array signifiers, tunnel signifiers, tilt-up systems, beam and columns molding signifiers and lasting steel formworks like metal decks.

Steel Framing Systems.

This system normally used with precast concrete slabs, steel columns and beams have ever been the popular pick and used extensively in the fast-track building of skyscrapers. Recent development in this type of IBS includes the increased use of light steel trusses. It is dwelling of cost-efficient profiled cold-formed channels and steel portal frame systems as options to the heavier traditional hot-rolled subdivisions.

Prefabricated Timber Framing Systems.

The merchandises are including timber edifice frame and timber roof truss. While lumber roof truss system are more popular, timber edifice frame system besides have its ain niche market where it is offering interesting designs from simple brooding units to edifices necessitating high aesthetical values such as chalets for resorts.

Block Work Systems.

By utilizing this effectual alternate system, the boring and time-consuming traditional brick laying undertakings are greatly simplified. The building method of utilizing conventional bricks has been revolutionized by the development and use of meshing concrete masonry units ( CMU ) and light weight concrete blocks.