A efficient conveyance web is the anchor of a healthy economic system. As SriLankans most of our productiveness is lost due to the inefficient and congested route web. One of the recent add-ons for traffic direction and to relieve congestion in colombo metropolis and its suburbs has been the debut of overpasss at of import intersections of the chief route corridors. The chief map of a overpass is the separation of conflicting traffic motions thereby minimising struggles by utilizing the perpendicular infinite. Therefore, it is assumed to do less impact to the next belongingss and the bing substructure. However, this depends on the type of overpass and the traffic form at the junction.

2. The efficiency of the late introduced overpasss in the suburbs of the metropolis of Colombo can be tested by comparing before and after conditions of of import traffic technology parametric quantities. It is besides of import to analyse the congestion degree at the intersection and its significance compared to the full route system. Basically the velocity and the system capacity can be compared as chief considerations to prove this at a peculiar location. Furthermore, the benefits and cost of a overpass against other sensible and options to obtain a similar consequence should be taken in to consideration and evaluated. In this research has attempted to compare the economic benefits of presenting overpasss against other short term and long term options. The possible solutions available both from traffic and conveyance facets are besides widely discussed in my research.

3. The first of the series of big graduated table overpasss introduced to Sri Lanka late are located across chief railroad lines in and around Colombo. The first of these was a concrete cantilever type overpass in Ragama. This was constructed in 1996 in order to avoid the hold caused by the railroad gate closings at the chief line. A 2nd overpass was completed along the baseline Road country.

Dematagoda which was besides across the chief railroad line in twelvemonth 2000 to forestall the stagnancy of vehicles on the Base line route. This was a 6 lane viaduct ( culvert ) type concrete construction. The 3rd overpass, which is a steel construction, was constructed in 2008 at Kelaniya within a record period of merely 66 yearss ; this was besides to avoid the hold from the chief railroad line across the colombo-Kandy Road. The chief intent for the building of all these overpasss was to cut down holds caused to vehicle traffic due to the closings of rail Gatess and decrease of accidents.

4. The latest overpass was constructed at Nugegoda junction in 2009. This is the first overpass at a route intersection, constructed in order to cut down intersection holds in Nugegoda. This excessively is a steel construction.

5. From the above inside informations we could fundamentally split overpasss in SriLanka in to two chief classs,

a. Those across railroad lines ( railroad flyovers ) and

b. those across route intersections ensuing in class separations.

6. The comparings of cardinal public presentation factors such as velocity, safety, and economic cost with or without the overpass can be analyzed for both classs. Besides, the economic viability of each class could be tested by comparing the cost and the benefits of the design life of each overpass. Choice of the type of overpass and its design are besides of involvement. In this regard, the comparing between cost, life clip, possibility of land usage, infinite use every bit good as the ocular and function impacts on the country would be considered as being relevant determination devising parametric quantities for the choice of the type of overpass.

Chapter TWO



The purpose of this research is to place and analyse the issues related the building of overpasss at the traffic jammed countries in colombo territory, How to better & amp ; finds the accomplishments and drawbacks being available in the overpasss.


2. The growing of population, economic system and as a consequence of the prevalent economic policy, the figure of motor conveyance is increasing daily but the route web has non developed in such a mode to provide for the increasing demand making a great impact on the growing of our economic system. Similarly the inefficiency of public rider transit combines together with this, as it is the manner of travel used by the general populace for twenty-four hours to twenty-four hours activities.

3. Furthermore Improvements to Public Transportation can cut down traffic congestion by pulling auto and other motorised users to bus and develop transit hence can lend to the economic system in long term by cut down fuel ingestion, efficient usage of route and vehicle fleet, reduced accidents, etc. Increasing of private motorized vehicles by widening and bettering more capacity to it will make farther jobs to the traffic environment in future. Hence, the concern of more revenue enhancement and quota system to cut down vehicle ownership will assist to cut down the vehicle growing rate. But at the same clip authorities should better public transit to satisfactorily for the convenience of all users.

4. On the other manus really expensive substructure will negatively impact to the economic system of a state as they lose the power for outgo to other of import demands at the same clip hence the rising prices rate would be intolerable if they are already have economic crisis. Therefore, injection of local support to immense substructure which will bring forth fringy benefits is a waste for a state. However, the overpasss besides can be constructed utilizing strengthened concrete constructions excessively at lower cost than steel construction presented at placed in Colombo these yearss.


5. It is hypothesized that building of overpasss at the traffic jammed countries as this is the best redress for the issue, in this context there is no such demand for attention deficit disorder more kilometres to our route web.


6. This research paper examines the oversights in the route web, one of the most recent traffic direction methods, Improvements to Public Transportation can cut down traffic congestion and public rider transit at present, on its care and being, and how it affects the economic system of our state and the ways available to get the better of the job efficaciously.


7. The information for the research is collected both from primary and secondary beginnings.

Primary informations

The Primary information has been collected from 40 samples in colombo territory.

Secondary informations

The information required for the research collected from the secondary beginnings with relevant Books, RDA/UDA Specialized personals and the Internet utilised.


8. My Restriction is

Primary information was collected chiefly from questionnaires, it is assumed in the information is 100 % correct.

Forty consumer of overpass were selected for the survey. This besides is a restriction in the generalisation of the consequence.


9. This research paper is structured as follows.

a. Chapter 1 This is the introductory portion of the research paper and it consists of general background of the selected subject.

B. Chapter 2 Methodology


Statement of the job

The research hypothesis

Scope of the research

Method of informations aggregation

Restriction of the research

The construction of the thesis

c. Chapter 3. This chapter surveies current state of affairs of overpasss srilanka.

Analysis the current state of affairs of overpasss in srilanka

Global experiences with overpasss

Study country

Data aggregation


Overpasss at Road Intersection

New overpasss planned but lack proper prosaic paseos.

Movable Roadwork Traffic Signal System

Flyover Construction

d. Chapter 4. This portion provides a Major issues and troubles elating bing route web.

f. Chapter 5. This portion provides a descriptive analysis of informations obtained through questionnaire.

g. Chapter 6. This portion covers the decision inclusive with list of recommendations.

Chapter – Three



1. Overpasss have been assumed to be an ultimate solution for traffic congestion in the engorged metropoliss of developing states. Large figure of overpasss has been constructed in our state in last few old ages. However, the existent public presentation of such overpasss is problematic when sing the overall impact to other transport maps such as prosaic installations, ocular aesthetics and concern developments in the vicinity. There is a strong public perceptual experience that overpasss have solved or will work out traffic jobs in metropolitan areas.A Therefore, there is no evident opposition from the populace, media, politicians and decision makers when overpasss are constructed.A The lone opposition comes from the few that are adversely affected, for illustration, owners/tenants of concern constitutions, occupants and civil institutions.A In response they are frequently criticized for non being socially painstaking and for being anti-developmentA since they normally can non warrant their ain grounds from a professional point of position and there is no support for them even if 100s of 1000s may even endure from the inauspicious effects of such developments.A The place that the involvements and convenience of society at big over the incommodiousness or losingss to a few are frequently ignored in many countries.A There appears to be no counter to such statements since there is so some logic and truth to it.

2. It has in fact been shown that the convenience of a overpass chiefly occurs merely during the non-peak hours of traffic flow.A For illustration, during non-peak hours well-designed at-grade intersections like those in all present overpasss are making all right as it is merely in extremum hours that overpasss have a little advantage. The convenience is besides felt merely in 2 waies of traffic flow out of a possible 12 waies at an intersection.A These misconceptions have had a great influence on the populace ‘s head that overpasss so solve

all traffic jobs at intersections.A Merely in-depth analysis and technology calculations can counter this influence.A For illustration, our state and in developing states are analyzing possibilities of presenting toll systems to retrieve the immense cost of these overpasss. However there are troubles in implementing such methods due to the deficiency of infinite for toll booths and besides the trouble of enforcing this to the users who merely have fringy benefits from a individual installation within the overall route substructure.

3. The experience of our state and in developing states is that overpasss have non given the awaited benefits for developing metropoliss. Furthermore this has been considered as a menace to the urban architecture every bit good as the handiness within the metropolis. Common ailments sing overpasss are the carelessness of public conveyance, theodolite installations, and prosaic installations.


4. In the colombo suburban country there are four overpasss of recent beginning. The three ( 04 ) railroad overpasss viz. at Dematagoda, Ragama, Dehiwala and the late constructed at Pattiya Junction in Kiribathgoda are included in this survey Figure 01. The Nugegoda overpass is at a route intersection. This excessively is included to be discussed individually.

Figure 01: Locations of Overpasss in Srilanka


5. The information for the research is collected both from primary and secondary beginnings.

Primary informations

The Primary information has been collected from 40 samples in colombo territory.

Secondary informations

The information required for the research collected from the secondary beginnings with relevant Books, RDA/UDA Specialized forces and the Internet utilised.


6. The analysis is carried out under two classs viz. flyover public presentation at route intersection and overpass across the railroad lines.


7. The travel clip informations of all the turnings including the through traffic on the overpass at Nugegoda intersection were used to cipher the norm ( day-to-day norm ) velocity and hold at each attack of route links ( Figure 02 ) .

Figure 02: Travel Time Survey at Nugegoda Intersection with Flyover

8. The mean two manner traffic flow velocity on each 100 metres section of all four route attacks ( up to 2km ) of the Nugegoda overpass. The mean velocity of route links other than on the overpass includes the signal hold excessively.

9. It was observed from the above analysis that overpasss at railroad crossings give higher benefits when compared to that of route intersections. The comparing of basic values indicates that concrete overpasss are better than that of steel constructions. This is apparent when the life clip and the care of the two types of overpasss are compared. Even though the economic analysis was done for 20 old ages, the concrete constructions can last for more than 50 old ages without many fixs on it. Therefore the benefits of concrete constructions are much more than those indicated in this analysis.

10. The overpass at Nugegoda intersection designed for 20 old ages. Harmonizing to the travel clip study informations, this overpass indicates the lowest nest eggs. It besides has the highest per lane kilometer cost. However, the signalisation with betterments to near links of the intersection as an option to the overpass indicates really good.

11. It was observed that the overpass or signalisation entirely does non work out the traffic congestion at an intersection but that it besides needs capacity betterments of attack links for an betterment at that intersection. It can be observed that most of the intersection attacks are frequently blocked by parked vehicles and other activities such as uncontrolled prosaic motions and impermanent concerns on the paseos. Therefore it is frequently seen that the bing route substructures in urban countries are non decently utilized. The capacity of route links and the intersection can be improved by enhanced traffic direction schemes.


12. It has come into the notice of the Srilanka that in order to better the conveyance system the Srilanka authorities has planned plentifulness of modus operandis. Integrated multimodal conveyance system, will play a outstanding portion in offering an effectual public conveyance service and hopefully will cut down private vehicles.

13. All in all, the chief focal point is on the development of more roads and more effectual mass transit. Though, there is no accent on the common man- the pedestrian- and his demand for safe job free motion infinite.

14. There is no uncertainty in my head that with steady addition in the Numberss of autos and pathwaies, prosaic infinite in the colombo metropolis has become progressively marginalized. In other word, the pathway was meant to be a topographic point for the common adult male to walk upon and did non belong to the proprietor of secret plans bordering the entree route.

15. Theoretically talking, roads have been widened in Srilanka and overpasss have been built in all the major metropoliss of the state without offering safe and convenient installations for prosaic to traverse over. The demand for equal prosaic infinite is an absolute must particularly in topographic points where big figure of people gets together such as in vicinity markets and shopping centres specially Dehiwala.

16. Unfortunately, here besides, the focal point seems to be on supplying for the motion of vehicles and the parking of autos. Shoppers dodge their manner around traveling autos, three-wheelers, bikes and accidents are frequent and common. Despite this bargainers have continued to defy the pedestrianisation of shopping streets fearing loss of concern.



Low-cost traffic signal system for one-way alternating traffic.

Easy to command, clearly organized at a glimpse.

Universal in usage with power overseas telegram, Telephone overseas telegram and others.

All signal caputs uniformity and simple.


Automatic fixed clip manner

Automatic green clip extension

Automatic viridity on demand

All-red in overseas telegram and wireless manner

Manual operation from every signal caput possible in overseas telegram and wireless manner


17. Recent traffic counts have shown that there are in surplus of 30,000 vehicles utilizing the traffic circle daily at colombo country. The straight-through motion between the E and west sides off the South Ring Road was the highest recorded traffic motion at the traffic circle and represents about 40 % of the entire traffic utilizing the traffic circle. There was an pressing demand for grade separation.

18. Effective traffic direction throughout the continuance of the undertaking was critical as the same volume of vehicles used the traffic circle during building as they did before building. From public sentiment, traffic direction was put in topographic point efficaciously and major holds were rare.

Chapter FOUR


Supply AND Demand


1. Congestion can be reduced by either increasing route capacity ( supply ) , or by cut downing traffic ( demand ) . Capacity can be increased in a figure of ways, but needs to take history of concealed demands otherwise it may be used more strongly than anticipated. Critics of the attack of adding capacity have compared it to bring oning demand that did non be before. Reducing route capacity has in bend been attacked as taking free pick every bit good as increasing travel costs and times.


Adding more capacity at constrictions ( such as by adding more lanes at the disbursal of parking/harden type shoulders or safety zones, or by taking local obstructions like span supports and widening tunnels )

Adding more capacity over the whole of a path ( by and large by adding more lanes )

Making new paths

Traffic direction betterments

Decrease OF Demand CAN INCLUDE:

Vehicle parking or non parking limitations.

Vehicle park or no parking ( Ride ) installations leting parking at a distance and leting continuance by private and commercial conveyance or selected lane.

Decrease of route capacity to coerce traffic onto other ways and manners.

Road come ining fees ( Southern highway ) bear downing money for entree onto a road/specific country at certain times, congestion degrees or for certain route users.

Road modesty country, where regulative limitations prevent certain types of vehicles from driving under certain fortunes or in certain countries.

Rule/Policy attacks, which normally attempt to supply either strategic options or which encourage greater use of bing options through publicity, subsidies or limitations.


2. Global placement system ( GPS ) devices are used to find planetary locations points, which are measured and recorded as Longitude ( E ) , Latitude ( S ) , and Elevation/Altitude ( metres above sea degree ) . Anyway before beginning of a GPS study must be required checklist.

Traffic monitoring, via wireless, GPS or perchance nomadic type phones, to rede route users.

Fluctuate type message installed along the roadway, to rede route users.

Navigation or clear identifying system perchance linked up to automatic traffic coverage.

Traffic supervising / analysing for good installed, to supply real-time traffic counts.

Road traffic monitoring/Analysis, to supply information on main road.

Computerized main road system, a hereafter thought which could cut down the safe interval between autos ( required for braking in exigencies ) and increase main road capacity by every bit much as 100 % while increasing travel velocities.

Parking country and counsel with information systems supplying dynamic advice to automobilists about free parking.

Active vehicle commanding ( Critical state of affairs ) system difficult country ( Parking, coach arrest ) as an excess traffic lane, it uses CCTV and supervise the traffic ‘s usage of the excess lane.


3. Other associated are,

School clip ( Start/End ) arranged to avoid busy clip traffic.

Driving behavior publicity and enforcement furthermore impulsive patterns, frequent lane such as security or school hour etc alterations can cut down a route ‘s capacity and exacerbate jams.

Visual/Sound barriers such as horn CGR gate bell pealing etc ; to forestall drivers from decelerating down out of wonder.

Condition of velocity decreases, demoing velocity bound, bulges etc with lower velocities leting autos to drive closer together, this increases the capacity of a route.

4. Furthermore where space-efficient vehicles, normally motor motorcycle, three-wheels and autos ride or drive in the allocated infinite between autos, coachs, and trucks specially peek hour. This is nevertheless illegal in many states as it is perceived as a safety hazard.


Acceptable and accepted – merely rail borne manners can in pattern get people out of autos.

Smooth – no violent motions vertically, laterally, or backwards/forwards.


Re-assuring – ropeway lines ( New proposal twelvemonth 2009 but non succeeded ) give assurance that service operates.

Safe – many times safer than vehicle travel.

Speedy – short journey times can be achieve.

Compatible with walkers in pedestrianised countries.

Clean and green – enhances the environment – no emanations at street degree.

Avoids traffic congestion – through segregation and precedence.

5. Roadss including main roads with grade separation by and large allow traffic to travel freely, with fewer breaks, and at higher overall velocities ; this is why velocity bounds are typically higher for grade-separated roads. In add-on, less struggle between traffic motions reduces the capacity for accidents. Motorways, though holding higher mean velocities, normally have much lower accident rates per distance traveled than roads which are non grade separated.

6. However, grade-separated junctions are really space-intensive, complicated, and dearly-won, due to the demand for big physical constructions such as tunnels, inclines, and Bridgess. Their tallness can be noticeable, and this, combined with the big traffic volumes that grade-separated roads pull, tends to do them unpopular to nearby landholders and occupants. New grade-separated route programs can have important resistance from local groups for these grounds.

7. Rail-over-rail grade separations take up less infinite than route class separations, because shoulders are non needed, there are by and large fewer subdivisions and side route connexions to suit ( because a partial class separation will carry through more betterment than for a route ) , and because at-grade railroad connexions frequently take up important infinite on their ain. However, they require important technology attempt, and are really expensive and time-consuming to build.

8. Rail-over-road grade separations require really small extra infinite because no connexions need be built, but require important technology attempt and are expensive and time-consuming to build above.

9. Many closings from 1990 to 2010 happened, and many people thought that it was the beginning of the Colombo, Galle, Kandy vehicles, but the state of affairs changed after 1990. Large figure of cars started making pollution and smog. High rise of gasoline & A ; Diesel in international market besides thought people that gasoline running car is far worse than electricity driven street rail.


10. Under this subject route substructure can be better under this conditions,

Grade or type separation, utilizing Bridgess ( or, less frequently, tunnels ) liberating motions from holding to halt for other traversing motions.

congested motorway-type roadway.

Reducing junctions

( 1 ) Supplying through lanes that bypass junction on-ramp and off-ramp zones ( Except highway entree )

( 2 ) A grade entree route, roads that bound the type and sums of manner along their lengths.


11. Sing the twenty-four hours today, certain subdivisions of main road operate in the opposite way on different times of the twenty-four hours or yearss of the hebdomad.

Separate LANES

12. Separate lanes for specific user groups,

Public coach ways,

Pedestrians ( High tenancy vehicle lane )


13. Urban planning and metropolis planning ( UDA/NHDA planning ) patterns can hold a immense impact on degrees of future traffic congestion, though they are of limited relevancy for short-run alteration.

Grid type program ( Interconnect system ) including route web geometry, instead than tree-like system which cut down local traffic, but increase entire distances driven and deter walking by cut downing connectivity.

Zoning Torahs that encourage development under assorted type, which reduces distances between residential, commercial, and recreational finishs ( and promote cycling and walking )

The development is residential and commercial countries designed to maximise entree to public conveyance.


14. A well-developed transit system plays a great function for any state of the universe to develop and it remains so for our state besides. The state has developed up to a certain extent throughout the clip but the transit has non, to provide for the increasing demand. On our journey for development this has to be the primary country to be considered. It is non merely a duty of the authorities but besides depends on the attitude of the people. The authorities besides has the duty to set a echt attempt for this other than traveling merely for political accomplishments and thereby should give precedence for the development of this country.

15. When I made the interview RDA and UDA expertness they are said that “ we have done researches and given most economical and the executable methods to develop this country but we do n’t cognize how it is traveling to be done due to non handiness of financess and installations ”

16. The above economic analysis is carried out sing merely the volume of conveyance nest eggs based on a travel clip study at each overpass location. A comprehensive survey could hold been carried out to prove the state of affairs more accurately if the several information beginnings had been available.

17. However, this is a good scheme for extinguishing the hold at railroad crossings as a long term consideration. Besides the concrete overpasss across railroads are more economical than the steel Bridgess constructed in a really short period.

Chapter FIVE


1. My Analysis was done in the country of Nugegoda, one of the closest towns to the Colombo metropolis. Questionnaire was prepared and distributed among all age groups. The sample size is 40 forces and all responded with their individuality.

Figure 01

2. My 2nd observation was made to happen out how many people ( from 40 forces sample ) are utilizing overpasss and how frequently they use it. Harmonizing to Figure 02 it has been observed that more than 65 % individuals are utilizing overpasss daily and they feel the difference between the old and the current state of affairs of the clip economy.

Figure 02

3. My 3rd observation was made to happen out who are the bulk utilizing this overpasss. It has been observed that there is more than 60 % forces are the users of public conveyances. Following inside informations in Figure 03 were taken harmonizing to the observations made.

Figure 03

4. My following observation shows in figure 04 and Figure 5, Average functioning clip per a journey Vs individual. Harmonizing to chart it says that the existent clip period is really less comparing before state of affairs. Harmonizing to research 90 % clip saved. As a consequence air pollution, Diesel/petrol ingestion, Police adult male power, Vehicle wastage etc minimise proportionately.

Figure 04

Figure 5

Finally, during the research, my hypothesis was proved, because the bulk stated that building of overpasss where the traffic jammed countries are the best redress for the issue.

Chapter SIX


1. In order to minimise the metropolis traffic congestion, the governments have merely smattering of options. The extremely effectual solutions pattern in other states as follows..

a. Controling traffic utilizing methodical visible radiation system,

B. Directing traffic through one way of the full carriageway.

c. Controling traffic with the assistance of authorised forces ( police work forces ) d. Construction of overpasss.

In Sri Lanka the several governments has constructed six overpasss at extremely congested countries in Colombo suburbs. These locations were selected harmonizing the statistical studies carried out by the experts in this field. However, it is inevitable that this attempt has non succeeded in few locations as awaited. Hence, during this research, I developed an statement to warrant that the building of overpasss are the best redress for this issue by obtaining the sentiment from the general populace as my mark group. This is the mark group for early studies carried out by the RDA in concurrence with University of Moratuwa to warrant the building of overpasss in Colombo suburbs every bit good.

2. A well developed transit system plays a great function for any state of the universe. The state has developed up to a certain extent throughout the clip but the transit has non sufficient to provide for the increasing demand of Road web. The building of many overpasss in our most needful country, duty of the authorities but besides depends on the attitude of the people particularly all drivers and walkers. The besides should give their fullest support to the current regulations and ordinances.

3. During the research, my hypothesis was proved, because the bulk stated that building of overpasss where the traffic jammed countries are the best redress for the issue.

4. After transporting out a study and analysing the information, the following are the inside informations of identified benefits and summarized as follows.

Avoids traffic congestion – through segregation and precedence

Speedy – shortens journey times

Smooth – no violent motions vertically, laterally, or backwards/forwards


Compatible with walkers in giving pedestrianised countries

Reduces the capacity for accidents

5. Furthermore in this study and analysing the information, the few restriction and barriers identified as follows ;

Complicated, and dearly-won, due to the demand for big physical constructions and for care

Their tallness can be noticeable.

c. Require a important technology and time-consuming to concept.

6. It has come into the notice of the urban planing machines that in order to better the conveyance system a multi average attack should be made. All in all, the chief focal point is on the development of more roads and more effectual mass transit. Precedence should be given to the commuter and his demand for a safe job free motion infinite.

7. Finally, harmonizing to collected primary/secondary informations. Following actions can be taken to minimising traffic jammed. Without any hold some facts are soon available and non to standard.

Banning of All On-Street Parking for Vehicles in City Limits

Traffic Signal Lights

Introduction of Substitute Roads to Main Roads

Widening of roads

Restriction of Slow Moving Traffic and Heavy Vehicles During Rush Hours

Separating Pedestrians from Active Traffic Flow

Proper care of roads- specially culvert and showery period route state of affairs required rapidly mending system

Making driving subject – soon available new driving license card come ining system

Execution of New Highways Connecting Main Cities of The State

Electronic Traffic Monitoring Systems for Main Cities – specially existent route jammed individuals regulations violated individuals capturing portion

Detering Individual Vehicles Entering Cities ( Peak hours container, tractor etc )

Bus Stands ( Required up lift and move to chief route )

Construction Work ( Required combined worked force ( RDA/UDA/CEB/NWS & A ; DB )

8. During the last decades the state has developed vastly ; therefore the alternate methods to command traffic congestion are extremely indispensable because of the increasing of the vehicles. The authorities besides has the duty to set a echt attempt for this other than traveling merely for political accomplishments nevertheless much hard it is, the importance should be identified and thereby should give precedence for the development of this country. There are adequate methods and rational thoughts, which can be utilized to accomplish this. Constructing overpasss for some intersections where the traffics are occurred during the peak hours is the best solution for this. But unluckily this is an country considered least during the last decennaries. However, figure of overpasss has been constructed during last few old ages and commuters are acquiring benefits alternatively of blowing clip in traffic congestions. Not merely does it assist to cut down the clip wastage but besides helps to increase the productiveness of private and public sectors and the economic system of Sri Lanka.

9. It can be concluded that the overpasss are good solution for traffic congestion for an intersection unless the capacity of the attack links are upgraded by agencies of traffic direction steps. This can be accepted as an effectual solution for traffic congestion in suburban countries where all links are of similar importance. However, this is a good scheme for extinguishing the hold at railroad crossings.

10. The continuance of the current tendency of building overpasss will prolong future planning and designing of incorporate networked traffic direction schemes, thereby lending to the economic system by salvaging one million millions of Rupees to the state every bit good.