The skilled labor in the building industry by and large refers to those who were being trained within a long period and they have brought some specialised proficient industry accomplishments in progressing the building undertakings. Normally the plants necessitating the labor who has high grade of manual accomplishment. The labor can be considered as a skilled labor if they are able to carry through the demand.

2.2 Types of Skilled Labour

Harmonizing to the Construction Industry Skill Standards, CIDB ( 1998 ) , there are many types of skilled labor. The undermentioned types are:

2.2.1 Concretor 2.2.2 Plasterer

2.2.3 Bar Bender 2.2.4 Carpenter

2.2.5 Tiler 2.2.6 Bricklayer

2.2.7 Scalffolder 2.2.8 Mobile Crane Operator

2.2.9 Tower Crane Operator 2.2.10 Earthwork Plant Operator

2.2.1 Concretor

A concretor builds the concrete constructions parts such as columns, beams, floors and walls. The concrete can be mixed by manus or in concrete sociable or use ready-mixed concrete. The responsibilities shall include the undermentioned:

Identify stuffs for concrete mixture

Pour concrete into formwork

Mix concrete

Topographic point and compact concrete

Perform hardening of concrete

2.2.2 Plasterer

The responsibilities of a plasterer at degree 1 are to use one coat of assorted sorts of plaster to walls as a coatings. The other responsibilities include the followers:

Apply cement plaster to flat wall

Apply cement render finish coat to flat walls

Apply cement plaster to internal and external angles

Apply finish coat to internal and external angles

At degree 2, they are necessary to use a protective and cosmetic covering of plaster or render to the surfaces of edifice. The other responsibilities include the followers:

Prepare overhead surfaces of stick oning

Repairing wire mesh to exterior surfaces before stick oning

Install plaster valance and moldings

Plastering to overhead surfaces

Apply granolithic or textured coating

2.2.3 Bar Bender

After cut and flex the support bars so saloon benders are try to repair them into the signifiers of concrete. They besides have to unite the bars together with wires or fasteners or by welding. After that, place the bars in signifiers and repair them in place of reinforces concrete with wire mesh. The others responsibilities include the followers:

Prepare tools and stuffs

Fabrication of steel

Install steel bars and wire mesh

2.2.4 Carpenter

The plants include “ edged, notching, deadening, sinking, pelleting, adjustment, paring, mitreing, halving, mortising, tenoning, dovetailing, scarfing and lodging and for all terminals, splayed borders, short lengths and impermanent supports. The others responsibilities include the followers:

Prefabricated the signifiers and repair them into the right place

Set out the right place for repairing the signifiers

Prepare any impermanent support for the signifiers

Dismantle the signifiers

2.2.5 Tiler

A tiler at degree 1 has to put tiles to come up walls and floors harmonizing to specified designs which may include the procedure of using plaster coat and cement howitzer bed. The tiles shall be laid in rows and tapped them into topographic point. Following, aline the rows of tiles by utilizing the spirit degree. He besides requires lying paving rocks, bricks, and wood blocks. The others responsibilities include the followers:

Apply finish coat to floor rendering

Apply screed to have tile

Prepare perpendicular backup surface for wall tiling

Set out and put tiles on walls and floors

Perform rendition and use endorsing surface to put the floor tiles

Set out and put paving on base

During degree 2, the undertakings of a tiler will be more complicated. The tiler has to put more complex mosaic panels on walls, prepare and sets marble blocks, installs and repairs the parquet flooring and applies terrazzo finish to floors. The others responsibilities include the followers:

Set out and put tiles to soffit

Set out and put parquet and polyvinyl chloride tiles

Set out and put cast unmoved terrazzo

Fix tiles to a curved wall

Spreading and levelling of howitzer mix

Cuting and paring units

Perform shining and grinding

2.2.6 Bricklayer

A bricklayer is responsible to put bricks and blocks ( except rocks ) by utilizing assorted sorts of bonds in order to organize the walls, dividers, arches and other constructions at degree 1. The others responsibilities include the followers:

Worksite readying

Construct gap of brick wall

Construct concrete masonry constructions

Concept attached and isolated wharf

They besides work for more complex cosmetic constructions at degree 2 which may include fix to bing brickwork. The others responsibilities include the followers:

Construct brick stairss

Construct glass block panel

Construct curved wall

Construct hollow block reinforced wall and column

Concept complex arch

2.2.7 Scaffolder

A general scaffolder performs his basic accomplishments and techniques for degree 1. A scaffolder is to raise and level assorted types of metal scaffolding such as platforms, unsloped and horizontal members. The others responsibilities include the followers:

Choice and review of equipments

Erection and dismantlement of scaffold

Care of scaffold

“ A tubing and coupling scaffolder at degree 2 is to erects and dismantle metal scaffolding which besides include the followers:

Cantilevered and spurred scaffolds

Cantilevered Crane burden platforms

Mast climbers

Extra comments:

This standard applies to every metal tubing scaffolding non transcending 40 m in tallness and prefabricated scaffolding non transcending 15 m in tallness.

A Professional Engineer ‘s confirmation is necessitating for the design and building of scaffolding beyond those highs.

Competence as general Scaffolder is an extra demand in order to follow with these criterions

2.2.8 Mobile Crane Operator

A nomadic Crane operator operates crane mounted on wheel or paths which can be driven under his ain control. The others responsibilities include the followers:

Pre-operational cheque

Post operational cheque

Keep the operation and care of Crane

2.2.9 Tower Crane Operator

As a tower Crane operator needs to run the Crane that consists of a turning metal tower which moves on tracks and equips at the top with a nomadic or fixed jib. Normally the Crane is supported the hoisting equipment. The others responsibilities include the followers:

Pre-operational cheque

Post operational cheque

Operation and care of the Crane

2.2.10 Earthwork Plant Operator

An earthwork works operator has to transport out the power driven machine mounted on wheels or sycophant paths equipped with all the movable shovel, grad pail and etc. This machine is used during the digging and gesture of the Earth, stone, and sand. The others responsibilities include the followers:

Pre-operational cheque on machinery

Ensure the operation of the equipment

Factors that caused Labour Shortage Problem

2.3 Introduction

The job of labour deficit has being existed since 1970 ‘s. Harmonizing to the Master Builders Association Malaysia ( MBAM ) , with the execution of 9th Malaysia Plan ( 9MP ) and the letters of purpose has been awarded to acquire undertakings under manner, Malayan building industry has began to come up job of labour deficit. We must pay more attending on the serious impacts that caused by this jobs and appropriate actions must be taken at one time in order to work out this job efficaciously.

2.4 Factors

There are several factors that influence to the hapless engagement of labor in building industry. The strong growing of the economic system, hapless image, deficiency of preparation system, big figure of foreign labors were contribute to the deficit of labor in building industry. Those factors are being listed below and adopted from the MBAM study, old newspaper and the articles.

3.2.1 Working Conditionss and environment

Most of the labor in the building industry are worked in full clip, and sometimes the on the job hours are more than 40 hours in a hebdomad. In 2008, there are about 18 % of labor have worked 45 hours or more per hebdomad. They have to work until midnight if there are under particular status. They have no remainder twenty-four hours in weekends or even public vacation. The building labour normally does non acquire paid if they are unable to work due to the inclement conditions.

There are less people willing to take part in the building works because of the working environment and the status. Harmonizing to MBAM study, the working environment for the skilled labor in the building industry can be considered as non good plenty. For case, the location of the building site is unstable and many of the edifices are merely use for impermanent intent. So, they have to frequently travel their dwelling topographic point once the building undertaking has been completed. Therefore, the environment of the site is acquiring the terrible air pollution and it will impact our wellness. In add-on, some of the building site is located at undeveloped country that deficiency of basic comfortss. Other than that, bulk of labors are work direct unmasking to the Sun in the building site. There are non so many people that capable work under this environment.

3.2.2 Poor Welfare in Construction Industry

Poor public assistance is one of the factors that caused job of labour deficit. This job will happen when there are irresponsible contractors omitted to take out public assistance such as SOCSO or EPF. Basically, public assistance shall supply to the labor in conformity with the demands. For illustration, contractors should supply comfy impermanent adjustments for the labor who works at outpost, but the contractors ne’er fulfil their duties and therefore supply them a dirty and little topographic point.

Most of the people will take care what are the public assistance they can acquire from the company. Once they ca n’t acquire any protection from the company, they are non willing to fall in the building industry.

3.2.3 Government Policy in restricted the figure of foreign labor

Furthermore, authorities policy in restricted the Numberss of foreign labour articulation into building industry is besides one of the factors that caused the labour deficit job happen. Harmonizing to the Human Resources Minister Datuk Dr Fong Chan Onn said in Star Newspaper on 19 July 2000, the Malaysia planned to cut down the figure of foreign labour drastically over the coming following few old ages.

As a authorities policy that conformity with Berita Harian authorities policy on 29 February 2000, Deputy Prime Minister, Datuk Seri Abdullah Ahmad Badawi, it stated that one company non allowed engaging foreign labor which more than one tierce of their entire figure of company staff and each labor will non necessitate to work more than eight old ages in Malaysia.

So far harmonizing to The Sun on 1st July 1999, Prof. Datuk Abdul Rahman Abdullah, main executive of Construction Industry Development Board ( CIDB ) , there are non much Malaysian are interested to fall in in building industry and about 75 % labors are come from other states.

Further to this, harmonizing to Deputy Prime Minister Tan Sri Muhyiddin Yassin on 20th May 2010, Malaysia will raise the levy on foreign workers in 2011, after holding deferred the execution last twelvemonth.

He said that the quantum of addition would change based on the particular sectors which employ the foreign workers. After that, the policy is to cut down our dependence on foreign workers and this will be done in phases in the long tally.

Harmonizing to the 2006/2007 Economic Report released on September 2006, Malaysia aims to cut down the figure of foreign workers in the state from 1.84 million to 1.5 million by 2010. It is envisaged that by that clip, merely 200,000 foreign workers will stay in the building industry. Therefore through this authorities policy, Malaysia ‘s building industry will hold a large job on this labour deficit.

Year

Peninsula ( % )

Sabah ( % )

Sarawak ( % )

Malaya

1993

1994

1995

1996

1997

1998

1999

2000

2001

2002

2003

2004

2005

77.78

80.37

79.33

78.74

79.60

84.24

42.84

77.19

75.16

77.13

78.13

78.35

n.a.

18.78

15.58

16.62

16.26

1.61

10.01

15.19

11.62

13.37

13.81

13.13

13.06

n.a.

3.26

4.07

4.07

5.01

3.66

5.76

8.44

11.20

11.49

9.07

8.75

8.61

n.a.

532,723

642,057

726,689

745,239

1,495,637

937,508

891,398

819,684

769,566

1,057,156

1,239,862

1,359,500

1,600,000

Table 2.1 Issue of Work Permits ( PLKS ) to Foreign Workers in Malaysia ( 1993 – 2005 )

Beginnings: Ministry of Home Affairs Malaysia, personal correspondence. Department of Immigration, Pusat Bandar Damansara, Kota Kinabalu & A ; Kuching & A ; the Deaprtment of Labour Sarawak ( missive from the section to writer dated 14 Mac 2005 )

3.2.4 Economic of Malaysia

The economic that Malaysia has seen for last decennary is one of the prima causes of the worker deficit. The economic ever play an of import function in the demand for labor. There are many building activities will be carried out during the peak period of economic system, therefore the demand for the labor is comparatively become higher.

On the contrary, the job of labour deficit will happen when the economic downswing because the building works will be delayed and suspended where the client is non capable to finish the advancement payments. The labor can non acquire the day-to-day income which fixed by the client. Therefore many of them will migrate to the other states where necessary the building labor work at their building industry.

Furthermore, while the economic is recovered, we may besides confront the job in enrolling the work force in building industry since bulk of them are already adapted their new working environment in other states.

3.2.5 Insufficient of preparation system

In Malaysia, the professional basic preparation is being lack. Harmonizing to the 2005 Labour Shortage Action Plan, it became apparent that the labour deficit job is many-sided and has effect from a broad scope of complecting factors. In add-on, the acquisition and the preparation system that introduced by building industry are non flexible to run into the alterations of the advancement of building plants at one time. There is no chance for the unskilked labor being trained so that merely the skilled labors are capable to transport out the more complicated plants during building plants.

Harmonizing to the research information, it reveals that merely 45 % of building companies involve larning and development preparation after all the major determinations have been made or during the concluding phases of the undertaking. A farther 9 % do non affect in larning and development preparation at all. Other 27 % of companies involve larning and developments developing at the origin planning phases and in a farther 19 % of are introduced it at the initial execution phase.

3.2.6 Young Generations unwilling to take portion in building industry

The hapless image of building industry can be defined into “ 3D ” syndrome attached to the industry. There are soiled, unsafe and hard. In regard on this 3D syndrome, local young person would instead be unemployed despite working in the building industry.

The building industry was considered dirty and it is unsatisfactory because most of the building site is located at the undeveloped country and usually deficiency of basic comfortss or public services. Most of the installations which located at the building site do non hold good patterns and besides non follow under the demands of regulating building activities. In Malaysia, there are minor issues those accidents on building site. It is non merely affect labor, but besides cause severely injured and even decease to the general populace. All of this accident has consequences on hapless engagement of labor in building industry.

In certain fortunes, the building activities can be really complicated due to the distinction in type of the undertaking every bit good as the environing undertaking environment. Majority of young persons are hard to execute good during building plants. Furthermore, it has the troubles in keeping the co-op between the staff and the undertaking squad members. The childs with high degree of instructions are prefer to work under a good working status such as office work instead than to work at site that ever exposed to the Sun.