Concrete and steel are stuffs normally used in edifice building. Concrete is formed by mixture of sums which are sand and rock, and bonded together by H2O and cement with the proper ratio of 1:2:4 or 1:3:6 which is normally used. Steel is a stuff that is manufactured under carefully controlled status by which its belongingss are determined in a research lab. Combining concrete and steel gives increased strength to defy heavy tonss to increase the life-time of the construction. Even though concrete and steel give many advantages on edifice, they can besides do failure to the construction thru the impropriate process work, and deficiencies of efficient control and monitoring mechanism ( A.M. Neville, 2002 ) , which happen to the concrete column at the edifice of University of Technology Mara ( Ismail M, 2005 ) .

The list of old thesis subjects by constructing appraising pupils shows that there has ne’er been a survey or research done on concrete failure in the Industrial Zone. Due to the importance of consciousness and apprehension of concrete failure, the thesis subject on “ The Causes & A ; Effectss of Concrete Failure on Residential Building Surrounding Industrial Zone ” is chosen for research and instance survey. The thought on this subject besides came when carry oning status study on the Shah Alam Commercial edifice where it is of import to understand the effects of the emanations produced from industrial country to the concrete constructions in order to forestall concrete failure. The purpose of thesis is to give an penetration on the causes of the defects, portion what measures are taken by the edifice authorization to forestall it and to happen the consequence on the bulk causes of the failure and its consequence in existent instance survey.

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The aims of thesiss are:

To analyze the causes and effects of concrete failure to the edifice construction

To look into and analyze the causes and effects of concrete failure of the existent life instances i.e edifices in the industrial countries

To come up with recommendations to forestall or understate the concrete failure

The Scopess of the thesis are:

Literature reappraisal on concrete, type of cement and causes of the concrete failure.

Case survey on the affected residential edifices environing industrial zone at subdivision 25 Shah Alam, Klang Valley, and Petaling Jaya.

Produce questionnaire and behavior interviews with the contractors, clients, adviser or edifice care forces.

Analysis of the consequences based on site observations, studies and interviews

To give recommendation based on the consequence to forestall or understate the concrete failure on construction.

The tabular array 1.1 below shows the processs to make the end for my thesis.





RESULT ( Goal )


Table 1.1 Organization program

The thesis consists of 6 chapters. The thesis starts with the debut of the undertaking which includes Scopess, nonsubjective, and the purposes of the undertaking which are stated as chapter 1.

Chapter 2 is a literature reappraisal on concrete. This includes description on the history of concrete and cement, different types of cement, beginnings and causes of concrete failure and the chief theories of the concrete failure.

Chapter 3 discusses the analysis and consequences of the interviews and questionnaires on concrete failure. The experiences of the relevant people interviewed will be shared in this chapter.

Chapter 4 gives the elaborate study of the instance survey including the site status appraising consequences which consists of the survey of constructing status. The probe and site observation on the causes and beginnings of defects and the redresss will be discussed.

The analysis of the findings and the consequences of the instance survey will be captured in chapter 5 which include graphs and treatments. Based on the consequences, the effectivity of the redresss will be evaluated in this chapter. The last chapter will reason the instance survey and gives recommendations which includes the processs on readying and planing a edifice.

Chapter 2:

Litrerature Reappraisals


There are several impact which carried to the failure of the edifice. Basicly, failure to the construction such as pile, foundation, land dirt and etc which end up to the catastrophe or collapsion to the edifice where blamed appointed to the applied scientist in-charge and inquiry that unable to explicate. In the terminal, treatment for work outing the job is issue which has proven to the collapsion of Pulbic Work Department at Petaling Jaya ( Star Biz, 2009 ) . Therefore, the jobs to the concrete which causes by human mistake during development process can be classified as four ( 4 ) classs as follow ( Zarina Isnin, 2010 ) : –

Design lacks

Construction mistake

Material defect

Care lacks

However, the purposed of the survey is merely concerned on the causes and effects to the concrete failures without any refering particular on the construction ability. Literature reappraisal on this chapter which started with the description on the history of concrete and cement and follow by the categorization of cement. The aims of this chapter is to explicate the behavior of the concrete such as beginnings of failures and its effects based on the facts of old survey and research.

History of Concrete and Cement.

In about 2,500 BC, Pyramids was the first recorded construction to used cement. The ancient Egyptian constructed Pyramid by blending clay with straw to adhere dried bricks and by adding gypsum cement and lime.Then, the Greek and the Roman found that by adding calcium hydroxide and H2O, sand and crushed rock or brick and broken tiles, its produce compressional strength and created the first structural stuff known as concrete. The Pantheon in Rome, was recorded the first construction used concrete mixture and proven of the success of Roman innovation which still standing until today. In 1756, concrete was modernise by the British applied scientist, John Smeaton by blending powered brick into the cement and adding pebbles as a harsh sum. In 1824, Portland Cement was invented by the English discoverer, Joseph Aspdin by firing land limestone and clay together which change the chemical belongingss of the stuffs and produce high quality of cement. It became the first true unreal cement of all time produce and remained its production until today. 20 old ages subsequently, the Parisian discoverer, Joseph Monier invented reinforce concrete, which are the combination of concrete and steel which produce the tensile or pliable strength of metal and the compressional strength of concrete to defy heavy tonss ( C.L. Page And M.M. Page, 2007 ) .

Categorization of Cement.

Cement are categorise as two ( 2 ) classs which are Hydraulic Cement and High Alumina Cement. Hydraulic Cement is the cement that set and hardened under chemical reaction. Its can be classified into Natural Cement, Aluminious Cement and Portland Cement. The most used or good known is the Portland Cement ( Personal computer ) which is high demand in market that are used in the building and edifice industries or usage as solution to jobs for applied scientist. By altering or cut downing or increasing the chemical belongingss of the compenent can bring forth another different types of Personal computer and different purposed in building industry ( V.S. Ramachandran, 1984 ) .

However, theirs several types of Personal computer are used in malaysia building industry. Ordinary Portland Cement ( OPC ) at figure 2.3 ( a ) is the most of import type of cement which normally used in building and edifice industries which can be purchase at the local edifice supply shop. The OPC was classified into three classs, viz. 33 class, 43 class and53 class depending upon the strength of the cement at 28 yearss when tested as per IS 4031-1988. But the existent strength obtained by these cements at the mill are much higher than the specifications. In the other manus, the production of Rapid Hardening Portland Cement ( RHPC ) at figure 2.3 ( B ) is similar to Ordinary Portland Cement ( ORC ) . This cement develops its strength quickly which give advantages in building industry where its development at the age of three ( 3 ) yearss, which give the same strength of seven ( 7 ) yearss development to ORC. Although, the RHPC set its development in short period, it is non known as Quick-Setting Portland Cement ( QSPC ) , but it is good known every bit High Early Strength Cement because of its development merchandise. The RHPC are widely used in building industry as Industrial Building System compenent such as prefabricated concrete building where the formwork is required to be removed in early phase for other usage. In other intent of RHPC are used for route fix works, and in cold conditions concrete where the rapid rate of development of strength reduces the exposure of concrete to the hoar harm ( Dr. Hanizah A.H, 1997 ) .

Fact demoing that OPC is low opposition of the onslaught of sulfates which produces in land dirt and other peculiar action. Sulphate Resisting Portland Cement ( SRPC ) at figure 2.3 ( degree Celsius ) give protection to the concrete from chemical onslaught. Therefore, it is high demand cement which barely found at the local shop instead so OPC. Their usually used at the high concentration of sulfate such as at marine status country, in foundation and cellar, fiction of pipes which probably buried in sulfate bearing dirts, and in sewerage intervention or fixs plants. Sulphate onslaught occur during the frame work of hard-boiled cement paste which consequences the enlargement on the paste and bring forth defect such clefts and subsequent break. Attack of the Sulphate is greatly accelerate by surrogate wetting and drying which usually takes topographic point before and after the edifice development which consequence in the hereafter ( Dr. Hanizah A.H, 1997 ) .

Quick Setting Portland Cement ( QSPC ) at figure 2.3 ( vitamin D ) indicates sets really early where scene of belongings is brought out by cut downing the gypsum content at the clip of cinder grinding. It is required to be assorted, placed and compacted at early phase and largely used under H2O building and fix work where pumping is involved which has been use during the building of smart tunnel in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia figure 2.3 ( degree Fahrenheit ) . Use of QSPC in such conditions reduces the pumping clip and makes it economical. QSPC may besides happen its usage in some typical grouting operations. For fabricating assorted Colored Portland Cements ( CPC ) at figure 2.3 ( vitamin E ) , either white cement or Grey Portland cement is used as a base because of white cement is dearly-won. Basicly, the CPC is by and large use as cosmetic work and its production is from blending several per centums of pigment with Portland cement which signifier to gray or red or brown ( Dr. Hanizah A.H, 1997 ) .

Theories about concrete failure.

Knowledge and understanding the behavior of the concrete or in other words “ Durability of Concrete ” are most of import to the applied scientist or developer to forestall the concrete fail to function its intent as lasting stuff. Lastingness of concrete is defined as “ its opposition to deteriorating influences which may through oversight or ignorance reside in the concrete itself, or which are built-in in the environment to which it is exposed. “ ( Wood H, 1968 ) . Previous survey, proved that their are several theories doing the concrete to cut down its strength and its capableness which can be either external or internal factor. The behavior can be either physical, chemical, or mechanical which can damaged the concrete indirect or direct procedures ( A.M Neville, 2002 ) .

Therefore, the physical theory which causes the concrete loss its performanance which either by the consequence of the high temperature or differences in thermic enlargement of sums. Infact, the jumping freeze and melt of concrete and the associated action of de-icing salt are the combination of physical and chemical procedures which probably as contraction and enlargement procedure where usually takes long periods of clip to give its consequence. However, the chemical procedure usually take topographic points at external country where the chemical onslaught chiefly from the aggressive ions probably as chlorides, sulfates, or C dioxide, which chiefly produces by the natural or industrial. Other theory was the mechanical procedure which either made by the scratch, eroding, cavitation or tonss impact ( A.M. Neville, 1995 ) . But nevertheless, beginnings of the concrete failure can be considers into two ( 2 ) factors ( C.L. Page And M.M. Page, 2007 ) : –

The environment factors

The production factors.

The Environmental factors

The environment is one of the beginnings which something that can non be controlled by homo or in other words known as ‘the act of God ‘ . Therefore, these factors can be categorise as ( Edward A. Noy, 2005 ) : –

Abrasion and Erosion,

Climatic Condition,

Atmospheric Pollution,

Biological Attack, and

Chemical Attack.

Abrasion and Erosion

Abrasion is the running surface or viz. as landslide that cause by rain which are either direct or indirect autumn to the unprotected surfaces which happen on high land country. However, the definition for the eroding is normally similar with scratch but different in procedure where it occur on force gesture. Therefore, these two factors can happen either by human action or forces of nature ( Edward A. Noy, 2005 ) .

Climatic Condition

Normally, the most accomplished surface on concrete are at the exterior country on edifice. Therefore, the design of the concrete at exterior country must be able to defy the conditions that produced such as the conditions or temperature alterations, both day-to-day and seasonal. The procedures usually end up with snap and spalling that may do by enlargement and contraction where the procedure takes long period of clip to bring forth its consequence ( Edward A. Noy, 2005 ) .

Atmospheric Pollution

Atmospheric Pollution is one of the environment beginning which is non a new job where the bar was made since King Edward II of England in 12 century until today. Therefore, universe new epoch of engineering for economical purposed which made rapid growing of industrialised edifices for case, mills where developed without recognizing the impact to the environment such as emanation of acidic and alkalic agents into ambiance that is pollutant. These two compenent can do failures to concrete where the aggressive reaction of both agents can catch the compenent of the concrete which consequence in cut downing the value of the concrete and doing corrosion job in strengthened concrete saloon. These job non merely effected the failures to concrete, but its besides effected the human wellness which can do unwellness, athsma, running nose, ruddy eyes, and besides can do decease ( Harris, Samuel Y, 2005 ) .

Biological Attack

By and large, every edifice will bring forth this type of job which consequence in the growing of algae, Fungis and bacteriums to the concrete. These cause by the temperature different between internal and external of edifice where the temperature meet at dew-point and bring forth wet to the concrete which to the growing that be solve by care or temperture controlled ( Edward A. Noy, 2005 ) .

Chemical Attack

Chemical onslaught is the beginning that made the failures to concrete where the procedure involve the changing of the concrete compenent either by adding or increasing or cut downing its compenent. The chemical onslaught which produce by rain and land dirt are carried acids and sulphate compenent. Chemical onslaught usually respond during development where reaction of acids and soft H2O with the hard-boiled cement, reaction of sulfates with aluminates in concrete, and reaction of base with reactive sums in concrete ( Ransom W.H, 1981 ) .

The Production Factors.

The production factor is involvement of human to command the concrete quality. To bring forth quality concrete, it can be classs as followed ( Edward A. Noy, 2005 ) : –

Type of cement

Type of sums

Degree of compression

Water / Cement ratio.

Type Of Cement

At chapter 2.3 are the several types of cement and its charactistic which are usage in Malaysia. The proper pick of cement usage is of import to bring forth concrete to protect its compenent from overtake by other lacks. However, by accurate measuring or computation, can assist the concrete to function its ability without refering its care. Table 2.1 below show the measuring or computation of cement which has been done by old survey ( Edward A. Noy, 2005 ) .

Table 2.1 The Measurement or computation of cement.

Type Of Sums

Researcher proven that lasting concrete can produced by good quality sums that are clean and free from drosss. Sums is used to decribe the crushed rock, crushed rocks and the other stuffs which are assorted with cement H2O to do concrete. These can be classify as High – Density sums, Normal sums and Light Weight sums. High-Density sum are classified as high particular gravitation which are likely required in exceeding fortunes. However, Normal Density Aggregate specificed gravitation between about 2.5 and 3.0 such as crushed stone, sand and crushed rock and broken bricks which happened in natural ( Concrete Society, 1989 ) .

For the Light Weight Aggregate are the partical denseness or dry loose bulk denseness of less than 2000 kg/m3. Therefore, stuffs which can be considers as light weight sum are pumice, foamed lava, volcanic tufa and porous limestone which happened of course. However, stuffs required processing which occurs of course such as expanded clay, shale and slate are besides consider as visible radiation weight sum. Other stuff which still consider as ligth sums such as sintered pulverised fuel ash ( fly ash ) aintered slate and pit waste, foamed or expanded blast furnace scoria that produce from industrial ( Edward A. Noy, 2005 ) .

Degree of compression

Compaction or Vibration to the blending concrete before drying procedure in advancement are really of import to forestall the failure non merely to the concrete which besides to the construction. The purposed of these method are to cut down the air which trapped during puting the concrete and to bar of honeycomb on the concrete surfaces. Air contained inside concrete is about 5 % every 75mm slumped and concrete with a 25mm slack may incorporate every bit much as 20 % . If to the full compression or proper quiver process is made, concrete can ensue in strong, impermeable and lasting otherwise, lastingness will be drastically reduced due to air nothingnesss in the concrete. As computation was made, every 1 % air contain in the concrete can cut down more than 5 % loss of strength to the concrete and besides cut downing the bonding between concrete and support ( A.M Neville, 2002 ) .

Water / Cement ratio.

As the technology done the pattern on the workability which are normally conducted before using it to the edifice as it compenent. One of the workability factor was H2O – cement ratio which proven the most improtant portion in bring forthing quality concrete. Mixing of concrete should be applyed with lowest w/c ratio as possible and tested with compression methods as reference antecedently inorder to bring forth lasting and ability concrete. In technology researches in German labratory, the practicles of the ratio give different infinites. The higher w/c ratio give more workability to the concrete compared to the lowest w/c ratio. Although, the high w/c ratio gives advantage on workability but it can cut down the concrete ability and set uping the hardening procedure at the early phase which can bring forth lacks to the concrete in the hereafter. Therefore, figure 2.5 shows the differences spacing between cement practicles in different w/c ratio.

Figure 2.5 ( a ) Water – Cement ratio on 0.3

Figure 2.5 ( B ) Water – Cement ratio on 0.5

Figure 2.5 ( degree Celsius ) Water – Cement ratio on 0.8.

Defect on Concrete

As reference before, the beginnings of the concrete failure are from the environment factor and the production factor that been described at 2.4 and 2.5. The effects of these factor gives defect to concrete which are bulk ensuing in clefts. Some of the defects can be identified instantly and some can non be recognised. As edifice surveyor, recognizing defect and determination devising on the jobs are hard portion largely to unidentify defect or unaccountable jobs. Some of the work outing method can be dearly-won such as defect occured on foundation which set uping the construction compared to the defect occur to the concrete which can be easy done by proprietor himself. Figure 2.6 shows the designation of typical types of checking to concrete surfaces which cause by this factors which has been study before.

( B )

( a )

( degree Celsius )

( vitamin D )

Figure 2.6 ( a ) Reinforcement corrosion, ( B ) aggregates, ( degree Celsius ) Sulphate onslaught, ( vitamin D ) Plastic Shrinkage.

Distortion of the Surface

Three defects cause distortion of the concrete surface, but may non exhibit any other symptoms. The first is curving or falsifying. This is the distortion of the borders and corners of a slab-on-ground in the absence of any tonss. When caused by wet, this distortion is called warping ; when caused by temperature, it is called curling. The 2nd defect is the delamination of surface howitzer from underlying concrete. It is hard to visually detect a delamination before it becomes dislodged from the surface. However, in little distinct locations, the surface may exhibit convex lifting called vesiculation. Blisters are by and large isolated, but may be closely separated and can unite to organize a big blister or delamination. A 3rd defect occurs when stray low musca volitanss on the surface cod H2O and have no agencies of drainage. These surface H2O pools are known as “ birdbaths. ”

Crack of the Surface

Cracks appear in concrete for many grounds. Some clefts can look as secondary symptoms of other defects, such as a long rounded cleft following the structural failure of a warped slab. Discussed here are clefts that are primary symptoms of hurt, caused by volume alterations and structural failure.

Shrinking clefts have many different expressions and can be e hard to separate from clefts caused by other mechanisms. Discreet, parallel clefts that look like lacrimation of the surface are caused by shrinking while the concrete is still fresh, called plastic shrinking. All right random clefts or crevices that may merely be seen when the concrete is drying after being moistened are called crazing. This defect may besides go apparent when a translucent coating is applied to the concrete surface. Cracking that occurs in a three-point form is by and large caused by drying shrinking. Large form snap, called map-cracking, can be caused by alkali-silica reaction within the concrete. Structural failure snap may look like many other types of snap ; nevertheless, in slabs they are frequently associated with subsequent lift alterations, where one side of the cleft is be lower than the other.

Decomposition of the Surface

Decomposition of the surface is by and large caused by three types of hurt. When laitance signifiers on the surface, it is called dusting. This can be caused by a figure of grounds, which include carbonation of the surface by unventilated warmers or by using H2O during completing. Raveling or spalling at articulations occurs when sums or pieces of concrete from the joint borders are dislodged. The last signifier of decomposition is the breakage of pieces from the surface of the concrete by and large caused by delaminations and vesicating. Popouts are conelike fragments that come off the surface, typically go forthing a broken sum at the underside of the hole. Popoffs, or howitzer flaking, is similar to popouts, except that the sum is non broken and the broken piece is by and large smaller. Flaking of the concrete surface over a widespread country is called grading.

Types of clefts

. Popoffs, or howitzer flaking, is similar to popouts, except that the sum is non broken and the broken piece is by and large smaller. Flaking of the concrete surface over a widespread country is called grading.