Arecanut is an of import commercial harvest in India which plays a outstanding function in the spiritual. societal and cultural maps and economic life of people in India. The present production of arecanut in the universe is about 0. 854 million dozenss from an country of 0. 702 million hectares. India ranks foremost in both country and production of arecanut Arecanut industry forms the economic anchor of about six million people in India and for many of them it is the exclusive agencies of support. Both country and production of arecanut in India have increased enormously during the last three decennaries. The country under arecanut in India has increased from 0. 167 million hectares during 1971 to 0. 4 million hectares by the twelvemonth 2010-11 with an overall growing rate of 2. 2 % . During the same period the production has increased more than 3 times from 0. 141 million dozenss to 0. 478 million tones with a growing rate of 3. 2 % .
As of now. chocolate is one of the of import commercial plantation harvests in India and it is chiefly cultivated in four major southern States viz. . Kerala. Karnataka. Tamil Nadu and Andhra Pradesh. India produces 12954 metric tons of chocolate from an country of 46318 hour angle ( DCCD. 2010 ) . The chocolate industry in the state had expanded to a considerable extent in recent old ages. At present. more than 15 industrial enterprisers and houses bing in the field demand about 30. 000 metric tons of chocolate beans. of which the present domestic handiness is merely approximately 40 per centum. Sing the market growing in the cocoa section in India. which is about 20 per centum per annum. chocolate. has a great potency to develop in future old ages. Recent country enlargement in Andhra Pradesh ( 16969 hour angle ) can be taken as a positive response to the demand-supply crevice. We can farther. beef up the Transfer of Technology ( ToT ) activities to promote the chocolate cultivation as an intercrop in arecanut and coconut to run into the challenges sing supply of chocolate in the hereafter.
Economic impact analysis of arecanut based cropping system An impact analysis of arecanut based cropping systems in South Karnataka has been carried out. It was observed that. husbandmans are preponderantly following three cropping systems which were. 1 ) arecanut + banana 2 ) arecanut + chocolate and 3 ) arecanut + banana + Piper nigrum. To gauge the economic impact of different cropping systems. we have calculated the mean cost per hectare. mean output and the net returns of each system. The quantification of economic impact of each system has been worked out by uniting the difference in net returns of each system from the arecanut monocrop. and per centum of acceptance of each cropping system. The entire economic impact due to acceptance of cropping systems in the part was found to be Rs 680 million.
Economic impact analysis of improved arecanut varieties The analysis was based on a field study of 120 arecanut husbandmans in South Karnataka. To gauge the economic impact of improved assortments we have calculated the weighed norm cost per hectare. weighed output and net returns of the released assortments. The weights are assigned harmonizing to the estimated per centum country of each assortment in South Karnataka.
The entire country of arecanut in the territory was multiplied with the per centum acceptance of improved assortments in the part to get at the entire country under improved assortments. The difference in net returns will give the extra benefit we would hold obtained. had the country been under released assortments. It was observed that 13. 6 % of entire country in southern Karnataka is under released arecanut assortments. The economic impact of released arecanut assortments in monitory footings was found to be rupees 141 million per twelvemonth. The presence of improved assortments was more outstanding in the immature plantations. The keeping wise observations revealed that the presence of released assortments was more in little keeping groups.
Cost of production of arecanut and chocolate Harmonizing to the survey conducted by the Institute. the cost of production of one kg of arecanut in a well-maintained garden was found to be Rs 104. 20 Here we have considered the economic life span of the thenar as 35 old ages and mean one-year production as 2700 kg/ha The mean care cost ( from 8th twelvemonth to 35th twelvemonth ) was calculated at Rs. 168765/ha. The cost of production of chocolate grown in arecanut garden was found to be Rs74. 42/kg of dry beans and mean one-year care cost recorded at Rs 55268/ha.
Marketing The chali and the ruddy are the two chief assortments of arecanut consumed by the people largely as a wont. Chali or the white supari is used chiefly in the pan or beedas and the ruddy assortment is used both in the readying of pan and value added merchandises like pan masala. ghutka. sweet supari etc. From production to ingestion degree both private bargainers and the co-operatives play an of import function in India. Here. the portion of the co-op is about 15 per cent and staying is under the control of the private bargainers. Among the co-ops The CAMPCO. a nodal bureau has its ain buying and gross revenues Centres throughout the state
Disposal form: A survey in Dakshina Karnataka showed that 80 per centum of the husbandmans. who dispose the green goods instantly after crop. were little agriculturists. Staying 20 per cent who disposed the green goods when the monetary values in the market are favourable. were big husbandmans. It was observed that liability and deficiency of proper substructure installations for storage compel the little husbandman to dispose the green goods at the earliest. The bulk of the husbandmans ( 63 % ) sold chali supari to bargainers. who reportedly paid two rupees extra of the market rate per kilogram of chali sold.
Stagnating market monetary values and increasing cost of production. particularly the skilled labor charges in the recent times have generated livelihood concerns of arecanut husbandmans in India. Billowing imports. which is around 12 per centum of the domestic production. surely has a important function in monetary value stickiness. Market surveies reveal that around 75 per centum of the arecanut trade is in the custodies of private trades. which has provided ample range for stashing and resulted in market imperfectnesss and low monetary value realisation.
In the instance of chocolate the current supply is merely about 50 per centum of the existent domestic demand and hence. there exist a immense range for country enlargement with the supply of elect seedlings/grafts. Effective airing of engineerings through preparations. on-farm tests. presentations and seminars are being carried out by the Institute. Nevertheless. the monetary value stagnancy of the harvest for a long period has caused disinterest among arecanut husbandmans. Therefore. in the instance of arecanut a barbarous rhythm was formed in the form of ‘depressed monetary values + deficit of labour–crop negligence–diseases /pest attack–low yield/production’ and this in bend particularly has adversely affected the little and fringy arecanut husbandmans who are entirely dependent on the harvest.