Ap Euro~. ~ 1. How would you describe Northern Christian Humanists? -Major goal was the reform of Christianity –cultivated a knowledge of the classics – focused on the sources of early Christianity, the Holy Scriptures and the writings of such church fathers as Augustine, Ambrose, and Jerome. – most important characteristic was its reform program – they felt that through education in the sources of classical, & especially Christian, antiquity, they could instill a true inner piety that would bring about a reform of the church and society. supported schools by bring new editions of classics, bible etc – belief in the power of education would stay with the society. 2. What author/thinker describes his work as a utopian society? -Thomas More ( 1478- 1535 ), proficient in both Latin and Greek, Lord Chancellor of England, intimate friend of Erasmus, wrote poetry in Latin – Most famous work and one of most controversial, Utopia is an imaginary island, reflects More’s concerns with society, presented a new social system, every1 works 9 hours a day no matter what they do, rewarded according to needs, and fame as the proper motivating agents for society.
Everyone was free to do wholesome and enriching things. – things will never be perfect until human beings are perfect. 3.? Why did Northern European humanists study and learn Greek? -Because of the idea of humanism, it influenced their society to study Greek because they studied the classical texts which were mostly in Greek/Latin. (Humanism was a cultural movement that promoted the study of the humanities—the languages, literature, and history of ancient Greece and Rome. ) 4.
Who was the Reformer that laid the egg that Luther hatched? -Erasmus, the most influential of all the Christian humanists ( 1466-1536 ), born in Holland, educated @ schools of the Brothers of the Common Life. -The handbook of the Christian knight (1503), his conception of religion= “the philosophy of Christ”. – Christianity should be guiding for the direction of philosophy not so stressed. – De-emphasized the external forms of religion- 1516 edited new testament and translated into Greek. “The Praise of the Folly” humorous yet effective criticism of the most corrupt practices of his society, – he did lay the egg for Luther but eventually disapproved of Luther & reformers. – *reform within the church* 5. Popular religion in late middle ages and renaissance was marked by what? – efforts to do away with traditional beliefs and practices of the Catholic Church 6. How would you characterize the early life of Martin Luther? -Unable to achieve personal salvation, in obsession of his own sins and the question of sacraments. 7. What religious organization included both clergy and laymen? Calvinism 8. What religious reformer was burnt at the stake? -John Hus 9. The question how can I be saved was answered through good works by what? -To Luther, faith only, to the Catholic Church, good works and faith 10. What event led to the break with M. L from the church? -The sale of indulgences by other priests and monks. 11. What was the purpose of Babylonian continuity of Church? – it attacked the sacramental system of the church 12. What was the edict of worms? -called Luther to recant the heretical doctrines he had espoused 13.
How were Luther’s Ideas spread? -preachers presented Luther’s teachings to city after city, printing press, woodcuts presenting the pope badly, attacking the papal greed, 14. Peasant’s war -greatest challenge for Luther, they wanted to return to good old days, peasants looked to Luther for guidance. Thomas Munzter, inflamed peasants against rules, erupted in June 1524. – Luther told German princes to kill all the peasants they wanted, he knew their support was most important. 15. How did M. L view the Sacraments of the Catholic Church? he only kept two of the 7 sacraments, baptism and the Lord’s supper, he denied transubstantiation, ( bread= flesh, wine=blood ), he emphasized the importance of scripture. rejected all of them except baptism and communion, or the Lord’s Supper. 16. Describe the reformation in Germany. -the churches in Germany quickly became territorial or state churches in which the state is supervised and disciplined church members/ largely an urban phenomenon. 17. What was the main concern of Charles the 5th? – Francis I of France 18. Charles Empire faced threat from whom? Ottoman Turks 19. What country accepted M. L’s ideas most? -Germany? 20. Describe 16th century Switz. -Promoted by Zwingli, images abolished, paintings/decorations removed, mass replaced by new liturgy, music eliminated, all authority was abolished, attempted to build league of evangelical cities. Alliance of Swiss and German. 21. Describe Zwingli description of supper. -it was only a meal of remembrance, this is my body should be taken symbolically, Zwingli said the ceremony was only symbolic and that no real transformation in the bread and wine occurred. 2. Marburg Colloquy? -to unite both Lutherans and Zwingli’s religion it failed, that lead to creation of different protestant groups. 23. Anabaptists -no1 should be forced to accept bible, tried to return to practices and spirit of early Christianity, followed strict democracy which every1 was equal, women excluded, believed in complete separation of church and state, refused to hold political office, or bear arms, rejuvenated by pacifist Menno Simons. 24. Reformation under henry 8th dismissed Wosley, for denying divorce, created own church so he could do whatever, Thomas Cromwell, and Thomas Cranmer replaced him. – he had like 7 wives, wanted a boy, all chiefly for personal and political, finally had Edward VI. Also Elizabeth and Mary. 25. What passed=official break with church? -Act of Supremacy 26. England Education – expanding public access to primary schooling and improving secondary schooling through gymnasiums and ministerial training. 27. Reign of Queen Mary -Failed catholic restoration, constant war with spain. 8. Queen Elizabeth -England rose to prominence, became leader of nations of Europe, laid foundations for world empire, and experience a cultural renaissance. – moderation and compromise – encouraged seamen to kill Spaniards. 29. John Calvin Reform movements -Predestination, 3 tests that might indicate salvation, he thought he was doing God’s work on earth, real presence of God in Lord Supper, international form of protestanism. 30. Calvinists in Geneba – imposed strict penalties for blasphemy and immoral behavior 31.
Institutes of Christianity religion – The book was written as an introductory textbook on the Protestant faith for those with some previous knowledge of theology and covered a broad range of theological topics from the doctrines of church and sacraments to justification by faith alone and Christian liberty. It vigorously attacked the teachings of those Calvin considered unorthodox, particularly Roman Catholicism to which Calvin says he had been “strongly devoted” before his conversion to Protestantism.
The over-arching theme of the book – and Calvin’s greatest theological legacy – is the idea of God’s total sovereignty, particularly in salvation and election. 32. What did the reformation abolish from people’s lives? -Except the celebration of religious saints’ days, they got rid of taverns, clerical celibacy, monastaries, and nunneries, indulgences. 33. What was the most important religious order of Cath. – Jesuits 34. Who was the missionary that helped develop the importance of education in the reformation? -Johannes sturm 35. What exemplifies the Catholics reformation ultimate refusal to compromise? Council of Trent 36. What was the purpose of the Council of Trent? -to resolve the religious differences created by the protestant revolt. 37. What protestant group was the minority in France? -Huguenots 38. Edict of Nantes? -Acknowledged catholic ultimate faith, guaranteed Huguenots to worship. political decision 39. Who was the greatest advocate of militant Catholicism? – Philip II of Spain 40. The importation of silver was important why? -money 41. What are Huguenots? -members of protestant church of france, Calvinists 42. Who created the Jesuit order? -Ignatius of loyala