This paper will concentrate on the commercial aircraft industry. The study will analyse how Embraer has structured itself and gained competitory advantage in lower terminal section of the aircraft industry and so the analysis of cost of capital of Embraer will be projected.

The commercial aircraft industry has faced a tough times in recent yesteryear which resulted in failures, amalgamations and joint ventures. The aircraft industry has faced a batch of competition from two of the giants Boeing and Airbus which have dominated the whole aircraft market and has maximum market portion. These two giants have immense pool of investing, better substructure and authorities support and because of that they are ruling the aircraft market. All these companies see the current concern environment possessing the challenges of a weak planetary economic system and demand due to the economic convulsion, high and unstable fuel costs, and deficiency of foreign investings.

Brazil PEST Model:


Federal Republic model which is similar to that of United States of America. The federal democracy has three independent subdivisions independent subdivisions: executive legislative and judicial. The President heads the executive subdivision.

The increasing divergency between US and Brazilian foreign policy creates high geopolitical hazard. This will take to increasing confrontations between the US and Brazil and the continued diminution of foreign direct investing.

The chief beginning of force in Brazil is condemnable instead than political. Personal security is hapless as there is an highly high rate of condemnable activity in major metropoliss. Police fails to guarantee safety for citizens every bit good for concern.

Brazilian legal system is non really effectual and has several mistakes in them.

Honest authorities is besides a large job in Brazil for ex. the impeachment of a former Brazilian president Mello in 1992 who have been involved in an extortion strategy, and the current corruptness dirt of the governing party of Lula.

Inefficient authorities policies towards economic development of a state for ex. uninterrupted budget shortage, negative net income, high external debt, etc.

Poor and inefficient public wellness and safety conditions infant mortality and mal-nutrition are the prima grounds.

Inefficient instruction system both deficiency of quality and measure are the chief issues and authorities is non paying much attending towards this issue.

Government ordinances favour the minority stockholders.

Government policies towards globalization and openness to market had favoured exports.


Brazil is considered to be as the universe ‘s 10th largest economic system and one of the largest economic systems of South.Its GDP ( PPP ) per capita is $ 10,200, seting Brazil in the hundred-and-fifth place in the universe. The rising prices rate in Brazil is 4.2 % which has decreased from 5.9 % in 2008. Major export merchandises include aircraft, electrical equipment, cars, ethyl alcohol, fabrics, footwear, Fe ore, steel, java, orange juice, soya beans and corned beef. The state has been spread outing its presence in international fiscal and trade goods markets, and is one of a group of four emerging economic systems called the BRIC states.

Economic environment still considered volatile as compared to more stable economic systems.

Complex revenue enhancement policies and ordinances.

Multiple revenue enhancements impacting concern programs and increasing hazards of eventualities.

Considerable bureaucratic regulations and ordinances for certain concerns and industries.

High demand for investings in the distribution channels and substructure.

Troubles in reorganising companies rapidly, including high costs for employee expirations.

Lack of local funding coupled with high existent involvement rates.

Economic growing hazards are high. Private ingestion will be constrained by high unemployment and continued eroding of existent net incomes.

The hazard of a important diminution in foreign exchange militias is high because of the economic convulsion.

Investing hazard in Brazil is much higher than by and large perceived.

High public debt exposed to domestic interest-rate tendencies and adulthood that is still excessively short

Lack of investing in substructure edifice.


The civilization of Brazil is really much similar to that of Lusitanian civilization. The official linguistic communication of Brazil is Lusitanian which is spoken by about all of the population.

Important cultural imposts, including a different perceptual experience of the due diligence procedure.

Semi-skilled and unskilled labour in certain developing countries.

Unequal distribution of wealth – a important part of the population non take parting in the consumer market.

Socio-political obstructions to necessary structural reforms ( instruction, societal security, occupation market, revenue enhancements, ordinances ) .

Technological: In Latin America, Brazil is a taking state in the field of scientific discipline and engineering. Sectors like bio fuels, agricultural research, remote feeling and aircrafts fabricating Brazil operate as a planetary leader. Government put more accent on the development of research labs and invention and R & A ; D in these peculiar sectors to further growing and development.

Overall Risk Assessment of Brazil:


Brazil has abundant natural resources.

Fiscal and pecuniary policy has been prudent and realistic.

Domestic market potency and low labor costs have continued to pull foreign investors.

The current degree of growing Foster Brazilian companies to be competitory.

Strong international fiscal support.

Policy of keeping cardinal macroeconomic equilibrium.

Size and potency of the domestic market.

Broad industrial base and a diversified economic system.

Government policies favoured globalization.


External funding demands are excessively great in comparing to currency net incomes due to the debt amortization load.

Socio-political obstructions to necessary structural reforms ( instruction, societal security, occupation market, revenue enhancements, ordinances )

Lack of investing in energy, rail, route, port, and airdrome substructure

Exposure to fluctuations in universe monetary values for certain staple trade goods.

Economic environment still considered volatile as compared to more stable economic systems.

Complex revenue enhancement policies and ordinances.

Improper funding ordinances.

Commercial Aircraft Industry Analysis:

Embraer is now the universe ‘s 3rd largest aircraft maker they had gained competitory advantage by making cost- efficient and advanced aircrafts in the lower terminal section.

Competitive competition among bing participants:

The fight in the aircraft industry is really high but the competition is non really ferocious because most of the market is shared between Boeing and Airbus and remainder is with Embraer and Bombardier.

The aircraft industry is genuinely a planetary industry so each of the makers has to believe globally.

Barrier to issue is really high because of immense investing and high specialized equipments.

Boeing and Airbus had addition market portion from each other utilizing monetary values, merchandise design, advertisement, and direct merchandising attempts. Due to the strength of the competition among Boeing and Airbus, the net incomes are shared.

The industry is technically really sound i.e. there is non much distinction between the participants and their merchandises therefore, there is much monetary value competition.

Menace of new Entrants:

Enter into aircraft fabrication market is really tough because it requires immense capital investing and cognition of proficient know-how.

Cost advantages of large participants like Boeing and Airbus because they have tremendous experience and cognition about the industry.

These two giants have dominated the full aircraft industry and they besides have strong trade name trueness of their merchandises because they are the best in the concern.

They have a proper web of loyal provider and distributer for their merchandises and long term after gross revenues service contracts.

Menace of replacements:

No immediate replacements are present for aircraft makers.

The participants and their merchandises in the industry are replacements of one another.

Dickering power of Customers:

The bargaining power of clients is comparatively low in aircraft industries because most of the purchasers in the aircraft industries are authorities of different states and some private air hoses.

Aircrafts are really expensive trade goods and show high in cost when exchanging aircrafts because of that the bargaining power is low in aircraft industry.

But because of intense competition between Boeing and Airbus the bargaining power of purchasers is reasonably higher between these two companies otherwise it ‘s comparatively low in footings of industry.

Dickering power of Supplier:

The aircraft industries is dominated by two large giants Boeing and Airbus and they are such large companies that they have more bargaining power than their providers so because of this ground the bargaining power will be low in the aircraft industry.

The aircraft industry needs immense investings and high category engineering the forward integrating is really low or impossible for the providers.

Harmonizing to this analysis the chief constituents which are needed to vie in aircraft industry are planetary scheme, cost effectivity, advanced and high category engineering and immense capital.

Core Competencies of Embraer which helps them to vie in Aircraft Industry:

Country Factor: The Brazilian authorities has had a strong affect on Embraer. As mentioned, the company was founded by the authorities in 1969. Before its denationalization in 1994, Embraer had established several partnerships abroad and was really focussed on exporting its aircraft to new markets. The authorities does hold strategic power and has ability to decline certain determinations.

Global Scheme: Embraer has proven itself a genuinely planetary company in many ways. Embraer has more than 90 % of its gross revenues outside Brazil. It has a worldwide operation web. It has appeased planetary investors because it deals largely in US dollars. Embraer focuses on concern growing, solid corporate civilization, and strategic partnership to run globally and market analysis before come ining a new market.

Economies of graduated table: Embraer is proved to be a really efficient company in the aircraft industries because Embraer recognises that China has skilled inexpensive labor and engineering intensive fabrication Centres so they have opened their research hubs and fabricating units in China. Embraer has been able to plan common platforms for its aircrafts with superior public presentation capablenesss which helped them to vie in the aircraft industry and now they have become the universe ‘s 3rd makers and they have overtook Bombardiers in several facets.

Invention: Embraer has focused its R & A ; D on the development, systems technology and integrating of the more than 28,000 parts and constituents that make up an aircraft. Embraer ‘s scheme has been to concentrate its R & A ; D financess on cardinal engineerings that it can efficaciously bring forth in house. It has outsourced the production of constituents that other companies can fabricate more expeditiously. Embraer trains its applied scientists, non merely in astronauticss, but besides in market research and finance, leting a broader apprehension of the industry.

Determined Approach: Embraer has really determined company they are really much determined of what they are making and that ‘s why they have succeeded to derive market portion from their rivals like Boeing and Airbus.

Embraer ‘s ability to continually and successfully forecast hereafter planetary demand and its ability to run into that demand in alone and advanced ways will be the keys to its hereafter success.

Cost of Capital Analysis of Embraer:

“ Cost of capital is the minimal needed rate of gaining or the cut off rate for capital outgo. ”

– Soloman Ezra.

To cipher cost of capital we have to cipher cost of equity and cost of debt.

Cost of Equity:

The minimal rate of return that a house offers to its stockholders is called cost of equity.


Cost of equity = Risk free Rate + Beta ( Mature Market Premium ) + Country Risk Premium

First to cipher Beta for Embraer:

Average Beta = 1.19

Market D/E Ratio = 22.94 %

Tax Rate = 20.05 %

Unlevered Beta = 1.00

Cash/ Firm Value = 7.90 %

Unlevered Beta corrected for hard currency = 1.09

To cipher Levered Beta the expression is:

Levered Beta = Unlevered Beta ( 1 + ( 1- revenue enhancement rate ) ( D/E ratio )

= 1 ( 1+ ( 1-.2005 ) ( .2294 ) )

= 1.18.

Risk free Rate = Market Interest Rate – Default Spread ( Brazil )

= 8.75 – 2.60

= 6.15 %

Equity Risk Premium Brazil = 4.79 % * 25.83 % / 15.27

= 8.10 %

Country Risk Premium Brazil = 8.10 % – 4.79 %

= 3.31 %

Cost of equity = Risk free Rate + Beta ( Mature Market Premium ) + Country Risk Premium

= 6.15 + 1.18 ( 8.10 ) + 3.31

= 19.01 %

Cost of Debt:

( Rf + recognition hazard rate ) ( 1-T ) , where T is the corporate revenue enhancement rate and Rf is the hazard free rate.

Cost of debt Emerging Market company After Tax= Riskless Rate + Country Default Spread + Company Default Spread ( 1-T )

= ( 6.15 + 2.25 +2.60 ) ( 1- .2005 )

= 8.79 %

Sovereign Bonds of Brazil = 2.25

Corporate Chemical bonds of Brazil = 2.60

State Rating of Brazil is Baa3.

WACC Calculation:

The WACC equationA is the cost of each capital componentA multiplied by its relative weight and so summing:

WACC = E/V * Re + D/V * Rd * ( 1- T )


Re = cost of equity

Rd = cost of debt

E = market value of the house ‘s equity

D =A market value of the house ‘s debt

V = E + D

E/V = per centum of funding that is equity

D/V = per centum of funding that is debt

T =A corporate revenue enhancement rate = 20.05 %

Market Value of Embraer ‘s Equity = 5970531 Brazilian Real for twelvemonth 2008.

Market Value of Embraer ‘s Debt = 6990127 Brazilian Real for twelvemonth 2008.

V= 12960658 Brazilian Real number

WACC = 5970531/12960658 * 19.01 + 6990127/12960658 * 8.79 * ( 1- .2005 )

= 10.71 %